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Page 224, 2d colunui — In the fourth from the last line o( "Bight-Hout Day 
Victory For Raihoad Men" the word "nnconstitatioiial" should be 
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Page 273 — Alabama passed Labor Day law in 1892 and California in 189S. 

Page 49S — "Employers" in the thirteenth line of "What Is a Lockout" should 
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american 
feiSeration of 

LABOR 



HISTORY, ENCYCLOPEDIA 
REFERENCE BOOK 




FRANK MORRISON SAMUEL GMfPERS 



A, F. OF L. BUILDING. WASHINGTON, D. C. 



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DijlizeObvGoO<^le 



FOREWORD 



THE IDEA of a Year Book authorized by the Baltimore and Buffalo 
conventions has grown to be a formidable work. A Year Book could 
contain only things that have been done in the year preceding with 
probably cursory treatment of importarft subjects passed on by cotwentions 
of past years. 

But such a living, breathing organisation as the American Federation 
of Labor needs more than a Year Book. It was believed the membership 
would welcome a publication that would give in as concise form as possible 
every important proposition acted on by all the cotwentions. To that end 
the many questions considered in the thirty-eight sessions of the Federation 
have been compiled and published in encyclopedia form. This has developed 
a ready reference book that will be of greatest assistance not only to the officers 
and members but to all who seek to know the principles upon which our trade 
union movement is founds and the wonderful successes achieved. Those 
who desire information in detail can readily refer to the proceedings, as the 
work is also a bibliography. 

While each subject is briefly treated the intention has been not to omit 
anything that would prevent a thorough understanding of every principle. 
When it is known there are 8,000,000 words in the thirty-eight proceedings 
that had to be reduced to about 400,000 it will be seen the work has been dif- 
ficult. The ruU followed was to use the official language of the conventions. 
The belief was that it should be an American Federation of Labor book, not 
the work of any individual or group of individuals. The real authors are 
the delegates to cortventions, extracts from whose resolutions and speeches 
are printed literaUy but in condensed form. It is the American Federation 
of Labor officially talking to you as you read, not an individual author. 
Every delegate who presented a proposition, discussed any issue or in any 
way left the impress of his thoughts on the trade union movement will recognite 
the result of his work in the book. Only the names are omitted, making alt 
the delegates equally responsible for the magnificent growth and victories 
gfiined by the labor movement. 

Many brilliant orations have been made in the cortventions and official 
reports of marvelous literary merit and economic value have been presented. 



y^Cooq^LQ 



4 AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 

In the Introduction it has been the effort to use as many of the statements 
in these reports as possible. There was no attempt to interject ideas or 
principles foreign to those of the Federation. Everything in the book was 
read or uttered at some time in the thirty-eight conventions. This is to 
carry out the plan of making it the official reflex of the American Federation 
of Labor, the most human organization that ever existed. It is not amere 
claim but a just tribute to say the trade unions are the only organizations 
on earth that have for their true mission the betterment of the economic condition 
of all the people and for human advancement and happiness. 

Those who wUl read the book carefully on any question will not wonder 
at the soundness of the trade union movemeiU. Those who would divert 
it into channels leading to the nameless grave in which so many other labor 
movements lie will find thoughts to show them their folly. 

It must not be forgotten that the material furnished by the labor move- 
ment of the country in the more than a third of a century is sufficient to make 
a hundred thousand volumes like ike present. The trade unions owe a duty 
to the burden-bearers of the coming years to leave more than an incomplete 
encyclopedia of what has been done. Their histories should be written, 
for no one ever has come forward with even a suggestion of a plan for human 
advancement that can lake the place of trade union activity. 

Interesting information' for everybody also is published. Tables of 
weights and measures, perpetual calendars, statutes of different states and 
a thousand and one other subjects that all together go to make up the most 
complete labor history in existence. And the great idea is that it is the 
American Federation of Labor speaking in its own language to the reader. 
WILLIAM C. ROBERTS. 

Compiler. 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORICAL 



THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR represents the first labor 
movement of an^f country to organise on fundamental principles whose 
power for obtaining results has proved effective and enduring. Although 
a voluntary association of wage earners of many callings and of many minds, it 
has united them into a solidarity of purpose that has astounded the people of 
t)ie civilized world. Its more than 3,000,000 members are a force to be considered 
in a.11 affairs for the weal of the nation. Its propaganda has been for all that is 
best in life. Its accomplishments have benefitted all the people, for the trade union 
movement is as wide and deep as human life. 

Organized thirty-eight years ago by an insignificant number of eager, enthusi- 
astic and hopeful men, it has grown to be a mosti powerful medium to bring forth 
all that is good in life. It abhors, detests, loathes all shams and pretenders. It un- 
ceasingly encourages with all its power and influence individuals and organizations 
that seek greater opportunity for a higher standard of life. The object for which 
it is aggressively and courageously striving is the continued economic advancement 
of Labor, to insure to each individual the right of self-developount, independence 
and freedom of initiative. It is a human vehicle for the advancement of humanity. 

Its greatest enemies are those who would take away the liberties of the 
people, the right to a voice in the affairs of men and the right to battle for a 
higher standard of manhood and womanhood. It hates with a bitter hatred slavery 
and serfdom. It glories in freedom, not only political but economic. It has 
maintained, and to preserve that right will fight, that the "laborer is worthy of 
his hire," that be has a right to economic progress in life, to support his family 
in comfort, to educate his children, to live his life in his own lawful way. In fact 
that he is a man and has a man's right to all that his energy, talent and union can 
secure for him. 

Only one of the few anxious and hopeful men who attended the first con- 
vention has lived as an official to see the tender twig grow into a g^antic red- 
wood tree. This did not come by leaps and bounds. It grew like a dty or living 
language into an active, beneficial and permanent movement that can withstand any 
force that may seek its destruction. Its enemies are fast disappearing. In fact 
today there is no other organization in the United States aside from the army 
and navy that has proved to be as loyal to the core. Its members hold country 
above all, and they are not only willing to offer, and did offer, the supreme sacri- 
fice, for political democracy, but are just as earnest in their demand for industrial 
democracy. And this they will have no matter what the cost. 

The present wonderful condition of the or^nization was broUKht about by 
trade union activity, not through a partisan political labor party. The promoters 
of the Federation knew what had occurred to many other labor organizations. 
They knew that each and every national organization n( labor had been injured or 
wrecked on the treacherous reefs of partisan politics. The National Labor Union had 
a few years before, in 1ST2, nominated a candidate for President and then never 
met again. The Sovereigns of Industry, Junior Sons of '76, Industrial Brother- 
hood of the United States and many others had all partaken of the poison of 
(Kirtisan politics and ended by calling for the undertaker. A few years later the 
Knights of Labor wanted the A. F, of L. to join with it in supporting the populist 
candidate for President. The Federation refused to be inoculated with the deadly 
partisan political virus. The Knights of Labor gradually and silently disappeared, 
leaving no trace of its brief history, and now lies in an unmarked grave in the 
political no man's land, while the American Federation of Labor is moving on to 



oyGoo»:^Ic 



FEDERATION OF lABOB 



"We believe tbe gaining of higher wages and a shorter workday'' to be 
the preliminary steps toward great and accompanying improvements In the 
condition of the working people." 

That is the foundation stone of the American Federation of Labor. There 
have been people who jeered at this declaration. But they knew not what they 
did. For after more than a third of a century it still stands on that princiiJe 
and proves its efficacy by pointing to the marvelous changes and advancement in 
the condition of the workers. Its influence has encouraged the organiration of 
nearly 1,000,000 more, including the unaffiliated railroad hrotherboods and farm 
laborers. More than 4,000,000 organized workers are now battling for the uplift 
of humanity and they represent SO,000,000 men, women and children in our country. 
This is 20 per cent of the entire papulation. 

It was this great band of patriotic men and women that stood behind the 
government in the Great War. It was the compelling force that stifled pacifism at 
the moment it was becoming most dangerous. It had been an organization for 
international peace. Time and a^n it had condemned wars and its whole influence 
was thrown m favor of adjusting all international disputes by arbitration. But 
the war came. It was a struggle to make the world safe for democracy, and when 
tbe President of the United States wanted to know what organized labor would 
do in the event of war, the official of every organization was called to meet in 
Washington and tmanimously, in conjtmction with the Executive Council, declared: 
."But despite alt our endeavors and hopes, should our countrv be drawn 
into the maelstrom of the European conflict we, with these ideals of liberty 
and justice herein declared as the indispensable basis for national policies, 
offer our services to our country in every field of activi^ to defend, safe- 
guard and preserve the republic of the United States of America against its 
enemies whomsoever they may be, and we call upon our fellow woncers and 
fellow citizens in the holy name of Labor, Justice, Freedom and Humanity 
to devotedly and patriotically give like service." 



That pledge was kept. President Wilson and other executive^ officers of the 
govenmient dMiaring that organized labor's aid made victory certain. 

The American Federation of Labor has not only left the impress of its crusade 
for humanity on the people of the United States, hut it has become a world force 
that has appealed to the best in all nations. Its missions to Europe during the war 
were regarded as most influential in driving into the hearts of the war-ridden 
people of France, Italy and Great Britain that there were no "quitters" in America. 
The slogan of these representatives of American Labor was that there could be 
"no peace without victory." A peace by agreement would be considered a defeat 
of the world war for freedom. 

When the armistice was signed and the representatives of the various allied 
nations and the United States met in Paris to draw up peace terms, the French 
premier selected the president of the American Federation of Labor as a member 
of the International Labor Legislation Commission. And the commission selected 
him for its chairman. The present standing of the Federation as a world factor 
demonstrates the wisdom of its fundamental principles. 

The A. F. of L. is the medium through which industrial democracy will be 
gained. For the men who offered the supreme sacrifice on the battlefield and those 
who fought in the trenches behind the lines for political liberty never will consent 
to be governed by industrial autocracy of any degree, form or nature. The 
I^bor movement recognizes the value of freedom and it knows that freedom and 
rights can be maintained only by those willing to assert their claims and to defend 
their rights. 

Article I of the first constitution was constructed to keep out of the Federa- 
tion political labor bodies that might try to force themselves into future conven- 
tions. It was not until 1890 that a political organization, the Socialist Labor 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



UI3TORV, BKCYCLOPBDIA. RBFESBHTCB BOOK 7 

Party, sou^t to "jimmy" itidf into the A. F. of J* It was overwhdmingly 
defeated, the convention declaring: 

'^e affirm the trade union movement to be the legitimate channel through 

which wa^e-^arners of America are seeking nresent amelioration and future 

emancipation. Its methods are well defined, its functions specialiied, its 

work clearly mapped out We further hold the trade unions of America 

comprising the A. F. of L. are committed against the introduction of 

matters pertaining to partisan politics, to the religion of men or their 

birthplace. While declining to admit representatives of the Socialist Labor 

Party as a political par^, this convention declares itself tolerant of all 

phases of the reform movement and would bar no delegate as an individual 

because of his belief, whether radical or conservative." 

The trade onion movement, through the A. F. of X., from the first followed 

the principle that the economic, legislative and political activities of Labor should 

be controlled by it and the affiliated organizations. It is built on principles that 

have withstood all of the many changes in industry. It has justified the faith of 

those who founded it and devoted their lives to building it up. It has been the 

great power that has placed humanity above all else— it has forced humanity upon 

mdustry, into legislation, into social concepts and ideals. It has ever made protest 

against wrong, injustice, waste of human, energy and life. It has been the greatest 

force for the uplift of the workers and all those that are weary and heavy laden. 

It has permeated their lives and made them freer, better, happier, more worth 

The trade union movement has become the greatest factor in the lives of the 
masses of the American people because of its practical idealism. Those who have 
made the organization what it is have recognized that th^ were confronted with 
conditions rather than theories. They have recognized that in counseling those 
in need of more and better food, clothing, and the necessaries of life, they were 
dealing with the raw stuff of life, with human beings who live in the present and 
whose destinies depend upon present aid. Any organization that has in its keewig 
the welfare of human beings has assumed a tremendous responsibility. The 
welfare of the hosts of toilers is entrusted to the American trade union movement 
Industrial managements sometimes are cruel and heartless in their self-iritcrestg ; 
between the American working people and such cruelty and heartlestness there 
stands but one unfailing defense — the labor movement. This labor movement 
has laid hold of the hearts of men and women; it is to them a symbol of those 
things which are the best of life. It is a real living thing which the toilers love 
and cherish. And the soul of the movement is the hearts and lives of those who 
have built themselves into it, by sacrifice and toil. In IBIO it was declared : 

"Organized labor contends for the improvement of the standard of life, 
to uproot ignorance and foster education, to instill character and manhood 
and an independent spirit among our people, to bring about a recognition 
of the interdependence of the modem life of man and his fellow-man. It 
aims to establish a normal workday, take the children from the factory and 
the workshop and place thcnt in the school, the home and the playground. 
In a word the unions of labor, recognizing the duty of toil, strive to educate 
their members, to make their homes more cheerful in every way, to con- 
tribute an earnest effort toward making life the better worth living, to 
avail their members of their rights as atizens and to bear the duties and 
responsibilities and perform the obligations they owe to our country and 
our fellow-men. Labor contends that in every effort to achieve its praise- 
worthv ends all honorable and lawful means are not only commendable but 
should receive the sympathetic support of every right-thinking progressive 

In its lesislative work the American labor movement has been more successful 
than that of any other country. In the early days, however, its demands for 
remedial testation were coolly received by both federal and state legislators. 
In 1SS6 the convention contended Labor was in a slave-like condition. It declared 
the "capitalist and speculator held the master hand over Labor, which seemed to 
have no economic ri^ts employers were bound to respect." Uany sacrifices were 



■„Goo»^lc 



S AUBRICAK FBDBRATION OF LABOR 

made in those days of the pioneer trade unioD. The officials of national and 
international unions received meager pittances for their work and the officers of 
the A. F. of L. served without any compensation. But they were trade unionists 
through and through whose very souls were given freely to the cause of Labor. 

While the growing force of Labor was gradually changing thij situation 
Congress continued slow in acting on bills whose purpose was to benefit humanity. 
Every year the A. F. of L. sought remedial legislation. The rebuffs were 
many. Only the persistence of the officers and their determination to succeed 
made it possible to secute any beneficial laws. This everlasting hammering away 
at Congress without satisfactory results became so aggravating that in IBOe the 
Executive Council called a meeting in Washington of 137 officers of national 
and international unions and reported the condition of things at the Capitol. The 
gathering was in a fighting' mood and after careful consideration decided to launch 
a movement that would compel Congress to heed the voice of the oppressed and 
enact legislation for which they had appealed in the past but in the future would 
demand. A "Bill of Grievances" was drawn and presented to the President of 
the United States, president pro tern of the Senate and Speaker of the House; 
Back of the demand for the laws desired were the votes of the members of the 
A. F. of L and its affiliated organizations, who stood on this platform: 

"The American Labor Movement is not partisan to a political party; it 
is partisan to a principle, the principle of equal rights and freedom." 
The incident created a furor in political circles, for the labor officials warned 
the President and legislators that Labor had knocked too long at their doors 
without an answer and thereafter they intended to fight for recognition in legis- 
lation. A strenuous battle was started against the legislative enemies of Labor 
and just as vigorous a campaign in favor of those who had proved its friends. 
The labor offidals and members went into both parties to accomplish their purpose. 
This aroused the politicians, who feared this new way of organized voting. Many 
unsuccessful attempts to drift the labor movement away from its independent 
voting crusade were made by those who always had sought to keep Labor in 
subjection. They then aimed to make Labor impotent in politics by surreptitiously 
cnconra^ns independent labor parties. But in this they failed. The campaign to 
elect friends and defeat enemies on the lespslative field became so successful that 
within ten years every grievance except one was remedied by the enactment of 
laws. The one exception was forbidding the transportation of convict labor 
products in interstate commerce. Labor secured trial by jury in contempt cases 
and a new Magna Charta, a declaration in law that "labor is not a commodity or 
article of commerce," No other country on earth has such a principle in its 
laws, and in history it will be referred to as the turning point in the successful 
progress of labor toward complete economic liberty. 

The A. F. of L. is the most democratic institution on earth. Its reputation for 
accomplishments is world wide. Being a voluntary organization, there must have 
been some powerful influence that has brought it to its present status of solidarity 
and discipline. In ISM President Gompers pointed out the antagonism of certain 
men who sought to lead the labor movement into other channels, saying: 

"During the year our movement has been assailed with more bitterness 
from theoreticians than during any preceding year of the existence of the 
A. F. of L. Upon entering on my present term of office I issued an appeal 
to the different schools of thought connected with our movement, asking 
them in the name of all that appeals to our sense of justice to co-operate 
I with us in our efforts to unite and bring relief and success to the mass of 

labor. I confess no disappointment that this proffer of peace and good will 
was spurned. In fact so intense was the malevolence toward the interests of 
labor displayed that a few of those whose whole connection with the move- 
ment has been that of destruction sought to inaugurate another movement to 
undermine and destroy the trade unions of the country and of the American 
Federation of Labor itself. In a number of instances local unions attached 
to nationals affiliated with us have been rent asunder and brother workmen 
have been organized into hostile camps to the destruction of their own 
interests and to the delight of the enemies of Labor. It seems to me the 



■„Goo»^Ic 



HISTORY. SNCYCLOPBDIA. RSPERENCE BOOK 9 

time hat come when men who will prostitute the noble purposes of our 
cause and in the garb of friendship seek to destroy the trade union move- 
' ment or pervert it into channels by which its power becomes ineffective and 
its influence for good impotent should be pilloried as the enemies of Labor 
and held now and forever in the contempt they deserve." 
While striving to inii>rove the lot of the workers of this countiy, the A. F. 
of L. has held out a helping hand to those of other lands, for the mission of the 
trade unions is world wide and seeks to establish the brotherhood of man regard- 
less of creed, color or nationality. The history of the trade vnion movement in 
al! countries is the history of civilization and proKress. . It is not a passing fancy 
but is built on a foundation of principles impossible to wreck. It may be retarded, 
but it will come back again with renewed force. Wherever the trade union has 
existed in any time all the people have become more enlightened. It has at all 
times striven to eradicate wrong wherever found and to establish systems of social, 
industrial and governmental character that would give fair treatment to all mem- 
bers of the human family. Although often defeated in its aims and purposes, its 
members are never conquered ; at ttmes discouraged, thty_ never are disheartened, 
bat stand faithfully at their post of duty willing and anxious to battle for human 
rights. 

No organization ever was formed that had fewer secession movements. These 
always met failure. For secession's greatest enemy is the silent treatment, ostra- 
cism. It has proved the undoing of all who strayed away from their fellow 
workers. In 1807-8 a campaign was launched to divide the labor movement on 
geographical lines.' It failed because the underlying principles of the movement are 
so cnishing b their operations when attacked that they cannot be violated with 
impunity. No individual can stand alone and fight the battles of life. He is voice- 
less. Neither can a tabor organization cut loose from the general body and expect 
to succeed. It is the cohesion, the reciprocity between the trade unions that bring 
effective results. 

Many important moves in the history of the Federation added to its influence 
and power. Its economic program broadened with the increasing obligations to 
its rapidly growing membership, but it would be difficult to sin^e out any one 
particular action that resulted in the most good, the most stupendous gain. But 
a few can be mentioned, not in sequence as to the influence they had, but in the 
nature of a "round robin," as follows : 

Aptation for the eight-hour day and Saturday half-holiday. 

Declaring for partisanship to a principle, but not to any political par^. 

Establishing the American Federationist and Weekly News Letter. 

Placing ^id organizers in the field, and a l^slative committee to secore 
federal lonslation. 

Labor Day, Ivabor Sunday, Labor Memorial Sunday, Mothers' Day. 

Labor press. 

High dues. 

Child labor campaiga 

Defense fund for directly affiliated local and federal labor unions. 

Declaring against reductions in wages during industrial reaction. 

Striking the shackels from the seamen. 

Labor Bill of Grievance*. 

Attitude of Labor in peace and in war. 

Organization of the American Alliance for Labor and Democracy. 

Oi^sii^ compulsory arbitration. 

Demanding and securing jury trials in contempt cases. 

Labor forward movement 

Crusade against the white plague. 

Introduction of the union label. 

Agitation against sweatshops. 

Abolition of tenement hotise labor. 

Compulsory education campaign. 

Pan-American labor movement. 

Establishment of Department of Labor, the Secretary a member of the 
Catnnet 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



10 AMERICAK FEDSRAHOK OF LABOR , 

Taken as a whole these agitations have had a tremendous influence on the 
organization. Cheered by every victory and forgetting the defeats, the A. F. of L.. 
always optimistic and ready to grasp every opportunity for advancement, moved 
steadily forward over every obstacle. And there have been obstacles, some of 
which were great enough to dishearten any group of men other than those steeled 
in the school of Labor. 

The agitation for the shorter workday is believed to have been one of the 
most important fundamentals in the many that have made the A. F. of L. so 
powerful. The preliminary steps for a universal demand for eight hours were 
taken in the 1884 convention, and May 1, 1886, was selected as the date for its 
inauguration. Each local union was a^ed to vote on the question, those favoring 
it to be bound by the strike order, and those voting in opposition to pledge them- 
selves to sustain the other pioneers in the movement. Arrangements were made 
for conferences with employers who were willing to talk over the change in hours. 
Among the trades that voted to make the campaign were the Cigarmakers, Furni- 
ture Workers, German Printers and Carpenters. The Cigarmakers and German 
Printers succeeded and the Furniture Workers compromised on nine hours. The 
Carpenters established eight hours in seven cities and compromised on nine in 
eighty-four. The agitation was veiy popular in New Yorl^ Boston, Cindnnati, 
Chicago, St. Louis, Washington and Baltimore. 

The Anarchists, members of the International Workingmen's Par^, who had 
hitherto violently opposed the eight-hour movement and condemned it on every 
occasion, seized upon it as an instrument, it is believed, to further their propaganda, 
and the mildest of their a^tators became prominent in their attendance at eight- 
hour meetings. The throwmg of the bombs at the Haymarket meeting in Chicago 
on May S, 1B86, however, had a very depressing effect on the eight-hour movement. 

Nevertheless, the eight-hour agitation reduced the working time of 200,000 
employes in industries and the advantages gained were plainly apparent Much 
hostility had been met from employers, although the reduction in hours was accom- 
panied with a corresponding reduction in wagei. Renewed efCorts for a shorter 
workday were recommended. The rapidly increasing use of machinery caused much 
unemployment, and in 1B87 it was declared "that so long as there is one man who 
seeks employment and cannot obtain it the hours of labor are too lon^." 

May 1, 1890, was selected for another general strike for the eight-hour day. 
A most remarkable campaign followed which spread to Europe. In the entire 
history of Labor there never had been a question on which the thoughts of the 
people of the dvilired world had been so thoroughly centered. In 1888 the com- 
bined forces and influences of the employing and speculative classes had so thor- 
oughly awed the unorganized working people into submission, that every meeting 
night of labor organizations the question of a reduction in wages had to be met 
Employers, without consulting their employes, simply posted notices reductions 
would take place and if they did not strike that was the end of it. Obnoxious rules 
were forced on the workers and they were compelled to sign ironclad contracts 
giving up their right to organize for self -protection. Labor was humiliated, brow- 
beaten and scourged. But the spirit of Labor was not broken. 

It was in these dark days that the proclamation was sent over the world that 
the eight-hour day would be enforced Maj^ 1, 1890. From that moment a change 
took place. Hope was instilled into the minds and hearts of the workers to sup- 
plant despair. To the rallying cry of eight hours the working people again stood 
erect and staunch in their manhood. The tide had changed. This appeal was 
answered wid enthusiasm: 

"To all who love liberty and are It^al to the principles of free govern- 
ment; to all who look forward to an mcreased wealth more widely distrib- 
uted; to all lovers of the human race everywhere; to unjon men and those 
not now under the banner of organized labor, we appeal in the name of 
justice and humanity, of increased wealth and diminisned poverty, to con- 
centrate their energies upon the single issue of reduction m the hours of 
labor." 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



HtSTORV. BNCyCLOPEDIA. RBFERBNCB BOOE II 

The International Labor Congress in seision in Paris in 18S9, in sympathy with 
the hhor movement of the United States, voted to hold simultaneous meetings in 
every dty in Europe, May 1, 1890. This was followed by the selection of May 1 
as the European Labor Dajr. Liebknecht and Bebel, the German delegates, voted 
against the proposition, saying they could not approve it as long as the Hoben- 
zollems ruled Gennany. The Carpenters were selected to make the struggle. It 
was successful in 137 cities, benefitins 47,187 workmen. It was at this time the 
declaration was made that the establishment of the eight-hour day would not 
end the efforts of the working people for economic and social improvements and 
reforms. 

By 1892 the eight-hour agitation had revolutioniied Labor. From a defensive 
stand it had assumed the aggressive. It was found that no other demand could 
so thoroughly unite and concentrate the toilers with such unanimity of thought 
and action. During 1893 and 1894 Labor passed through the greatest industrial 
depression ever known in this country. It was the crucial test of organization. At 
least 6,000,000 were idle. This lamentable industrial condition was attributed to 
many causes. From the time industry began to emerge from the panic of 1872-79 
there began the introduction of vastly improved machinerj;, tools and methods of 
production. The inventions in electricity, the general application of this force as 
well as steam to industry was displacing labor faster than new industries could be 
founded. As a result the great storehouses were slutted with the very articles 
required by the people who had not the means to buy them. Labor onered the 
only reasonable, practical and tangible solution to meet the changed conditions of 
industry — the shorter workday. Had less antagonism been met from employers 
and those who should have been friends of Labisr, the panic of 1893 would have 
been less intense, if not averted. 

In 1900 the agitation for the eight-hour day was still going on. It was then 
<lecided to secure the shorter workday for at least one trade each year. The 
philosophy, as well as the stern necessity for a reduction in the hours of labor, was 
'declared to be underestimated and too little understood. 

"There are some who believe, or pretend to believe," the convention main- 
tained, "that a reduction in the hours of labor carries with it a curtailment of 
production. As a matter of fact every reduction in the hours of labor that has 
(iccurred has been followed by a vast increase in production. Increased leisure 
and opi»ortunity for the workers have made them larger consumers and users of 
productive labor, giving to industry and commerce an impetus obtainable by no 
other means." 

"It is untrue," said the convention in 190S, "that wealth production is dimin- 
ished with the enforcement of an eight-hour day. In no instance where a fair 
-test has been made do employers vary in their favorable attestation of its wisdom 
and economy. In the construction of the battleship Connecticut under the eight- 
liour plan and the battleship Louisiana on the ten-hour basis, the advantage was 
to the former. The establishment of the eisht-hour day is not alone a substantial 
good in itself, but contains potential possibilities in future advances. Leisure is 
opportunity, opportunity is the gateway to a new world of thought and action. 
The new world is whither our union pilgrimage marches. 

In 1905 the International Typographical Union began a general strike for eight 
hours, and it was successful. The watchword adopted was : "We propose to sell 
to the employers eight hours out of twenty-four and we will do as we please with 
the remaining sixteen." After the victory the slogan was changed to: "We are 
selling to the employers eight hours out of twenty-four and are doing as we please . 
with the remaining sixteen." This principle was adopted by the A. F. of L. : 

"The history of the labor movement has demonstrated that reductions of 
the hours of labor can be secured with less difficulty than can increases in 
wages, while it also is true that increases in wages can be more readily 
obtained after the workday has been shortened." 

Up to this time twenty-six trades were enjoying the eight-hour day in whole 
or part In 1907 the convention declared: 

"We regard the reduction of the hours of labor as paramount to all other 
considerations, even to an increase in wages, except in such occupations 



II AMERICAN FEDBRA-nON OF l^BOR 

where the earnings are so meager as to make it difficult to maintain a fair 

standard of living. But in those trades where machinery is making such 

wonderful strides it is absolutely necessary that the hours of woric should 

be sbonened in order that the opportunity for employment be shared by all 

members." 

Several attempts were made to change the eight-hour day policy of the A. F. 

of L. A small minority wanted to gain the shorter workday in private employment 

by legislation instead of by the economic power of labor. But the convention 

stood on this principle : 

"The American Federation of Labor declares the question of the refla- 
tion of wages and hours of labor should be through trade union activity 
and not be made subject to laws through legislative enactment, excepting in 
so far as such regulations affect or govern the employment of women and 
minors, health' and morals and employment by federal, state or municipal 
governments. The economic strength of the organiiation determines its 
bargaining power. It cannot be overestimated that the wage-earners must 
depend on their economic organizations for securing the shorter workday. 
One of Labor's greatest victories was the wlmiing of industrial freedom 
through the repeafof those laws through which the workers' terms of employ- 
ment nad been largely determined by legislative and judicial authorities and 
the establishment of the privilege to organize on the industrial field and 
through their collective strength enforce their right to have a determining 
voice in their terms of employment." 
While maintaining that the eight-hour day for workers in private employment 
should be secured through trade union activity, the A. F. of L. persistently demanded 
the shorter workday for government employes. Such a law was enacted in 1886, 
but never enforced. After the A. F. of L. was organized, it began an agitation for 
enforcement of the act. This met with more or less success, but was wholly 
dependent on the viewpoint of the federal official having the power to order it 

In 1892 Congress enacted an eight-hour law which went further than the 1B68 
act The new measure extended the shorter workday to employes of contractors 
for government work. But the same opposition was met to its being enforced. 
It also was soon found that this law did not cover all the workers for which it 
was intended, as federal officials decided it did not am)]y to subcontractors. Then 
another campaign was begun to extend the law. Finally, in 1B12 an act was 
secured that covered contractors and subcontractors. It was only by persistent 
demands this law was finally enforced. 

When war came in ISIT the principle of the maximum workday had been 
indorsed by society and the United States Government Owing to the emergencies 
created by the war. it was found that it would be impossible for the United States 
10 supply our soldiers with munitions by working only eight hours. Congress then 
empowered the President to suspend the law when necessary, but provided that 
all overtime should be paid for at the rate of time and a half. This maintained the 
eight-hour principle while meeting an emergeniry. The penalizing of overtime 
prevented such work except where absolutely necessary. 

While submitting without protest to the necessity for conditionally suspending 
the eight-hour law during the war, the convention in 1918 issued this warning i 

"Organized labor must stand firmly and unalterably for a continuance of 
the shorter workday. It will not tolerate any attempt to increase the basic 
hours of labor." 

It thus will he seen that the introduction of the eight-hour day had become a 
blessing to employers as well as employes. When first considered it was believed 
the shorter day would give more employment, that the displacing of workmen by 
machinery could be met only by dividing up the work so all would obtain sufficient 
upon which to live. But it was gradually learned that the eight-hour day was 
revolutionizing humanity itself; that with the increased hours for rest and educa- 
tion the productivity of the worker was increasing. This remarkable change became 
so pronounced that it did not appear to be a radical statement when President 



:h,Goo<^lc 



HISTORY. ENCYCLOPEDIA; REFERENCE BOOK 13 

Wilson declared the eight-bour day is sanctioned by society and is necessary to 
the well-being of the people. 

Another remarkable fact has developed during the many years the dght-hour 
agitation has been in progress. Where laws have been enacted making eight hours a 
day^s work they have not been enforced until the economic power of l^bor has 
compelled their enforcement. In Colorado, for instance, tbe constitution provided 
for the eight-hour day in mines, but the great strike in that state of coal miners was 
to force its observance by the great corporations. Many lives were lost and women 
and children suffered starvation because the employers refused absolutely to recog- 
nize the law. It is this contempt for law by certain employers that propogates the 
I. W. W.. Socialists and Bolsheviks. And were it not for the trade unions, whose 
whole existence have proved they are the beat prepared to gain necessary reme- 
dial laws, our country would be like that of old Russia, driven into chaos by an 
autocracy in government and industry. 

The growth of Labor has not been without its internal strife. The nynd 
changes in industry has made new trades and eliminated old. These have been 
the cause of bitter dispute over which should control the job. This led the 1900 
convention to say: 

"In our constantly changing industrial system, where we find a different 

stage of development in each industrial center, any definite line lud down 

would either act as a straight jacket or would be disregarded." 

No one had the knowledge or power to say where one trade ended and another 

began. So time was necessary for the problems to adjust themselves. Because 

of these jurisdictional disputes the Scranton convention in 1901 adopted its famous 

trade automony principle: 

"We hold that the interests of the trade union movement will be promoted 
by closely allied and subdivided crafts giving consideration to amalgamation 
and to the organization of District and National Trade Councils to which 
should be referred questions in dispute and which should be adjusted within, 
allied craft lines." 
in 1911 it added: 

"Whatever argument or excuse there might have been in the past for the- 
existence of two organizations of the one craft we now believe that such argu- 
ment or excuse is absent. The time has arrived for the A. F. of L. to 
openly and emphatically declare itself to the effect that large as this country is 
it is not large enough to hold two organizations of one craft." 
Efforts to provide a board of mediation and conciliation to give its entire 
time to adjusting questions of jurisdiction were defeated, the convention in 1914 
deciding: , 

"The plan is not in harmony with the spirit which has characterized all of 
the work of the A. F. of I,, and assured its success and continued usefulness. 
That spirit upon which so much depends is the absolute absence of any 
element of compulsion. The plans, polides and decisions, as adopted and 
followed, are voluntarily indorsed by those whom it may affect. There is 
a spontaneity ^d a flexibility about the trade union movement that enables 
it to adapt itself to every changing condition, every new development, and 
to serve the best interests pf the wage earners. It is so flexible and ad- 
justable that it is a part of their lives and changes as their daily needs 

Notwithstanding the many great battles fought on the economic field by the 
A. F. of L., it grows stronger and more forceful as the years sweep by. The 
weak and poorly financed tra^e unions have grown into powerful organiza- 
tions both financially and economically. They grew "not by leaps and bounds in the 
dark, but by steps in the light to reach the march of liberty, fraternity and equality." 
The 1882 convention said that "no well defined, systematic and scientific basis 
of organization prevails. Each trade is groping blindly after results, with more 
or less defective machinery and imperfect perception of methods and issues. With 



DigtizeabyGoOgle 



14 AUBRICAN FBDBRATION OF I^BOR 

a few notable exceptions our unioni have yet to witlutand a period of storm and 
stress. Low dues, partial organization and n^Iect of businesi principles have 
proved insurmountable obstacles Co full success." 

Agitation for high dues was unceasing. These came gradually until today 
there are few unions that have not learned the lesson of preparedness. During 
the incense industrial depression of 18S3 the unions having a system of high dues 
and beneficial features maintained their ranks unbroken. They also were prepared 
to take advantaga of the first sign of an industrial revival. And the greatest suc- 
cess attends high dues when inaugurated in "dull times." Nearly all the secession 
•novements have originated in national and international unions with a cheap per 
capita tax. Hi^ dues, weekly strike benefits, out-of-work benefits, sick benefits 
-and old age pensions will hold members in good standing no matter how distress- 
ing may be their conditions. 

While conscious of the fact the strike is industrial war, whose precipitation 
is to be avoided if possible and whose consequences are often lamentable, the A. F. 
of L. in 1884 declared it was not convinced it was not a. necessity as affording the 
only alternative against outrageous injustice and intolerable oppression. It con- 
tended the strike, when based on justice, conducted with discretion and used as a 
last resort, is a perfectly legitimate weapon whose force is moral as well as physical, 
and whose results are often more beneficial than its apparent ending would 
indicate. Strikes are bad no doubt, but only are they so when failures, but not 
so bad when successful. Therefore to know when to strike, and more especially 
when not to, are the questions of greatest import. 

As the trade unions grew in strength by the establishment of high dues strikes 
became less numerous than in the years when organization was in progress. Having 
the means of self-defense there were fewer strikes in proportion as the means of 
resistance increased. This advancement was substantial. There was no going 
backward, the convention saying in ISOl : 

"From the inception of our Federation in IBSl, through these years of work, 
pain, travail and anguish, fluctuations of dullness and activity, we have steadily 
marched onward and forward along the path of evolutionary progress. We 
have witnessed the ebbing away of the great nineteenth, and the ushering in 
of the marvellous twentieth century. And in the first year of that great era 
we present to the world of workers and thinkers the broadest, most compre- 
liensive federalization of the workers the world has ever seen, where unity, 
liberty, solidarity, and independence are strangely and successfully entwined 
in our Federation are coined and expressed the griefs, the wails, the hopes. 
the yearnings of the masses, as well as are evolved the methods and the 
efforts to assuage the former and to accomplish the latter." 
The labor movement of Canada is part of the A. F. of L. Th^ latter for 
many years has conducted an organizing campaign in that country, and although 
attempts have been made by employers to divide the workers they have faiied. In 
190S die Canadian Trade and Labor Congress inserted a dean-cut declaration in 
its constitution in favor of unity and fraternity with the A. F. of L, It declared 
unequivocally for international trade unionism. The Congress was conceded the 
right to speak and act tor organized labor in all political and legislative matters in 
the Dominion of Canada. Funds were appropriated to aid in securing remedial 
legislation from the Dominion Parliament and remarkable progress was made in 
shortening the workday and increasing wages. Complete harmony exists be- 
tween ti^e trade unions of that country and the A. F. of L. and it is believed the 
"separatists" have been made permanently impotent. 

Compulsory arbitration is relentlessly opposed by the A. F. of L. In IBM it 
declared : 

"Disputes between workers and employers" may be generally adjusted bf 
arbitration, but if they are, it will come only when the workers are better 
organized, when their power and their rights have received greater recogni- - 
tion. The first step must be organization, the second conciliation, the next 
possible, arbitration, but compulsory arbitration — oever." 



(ibyGoOt^Ic 



HISTORY, SNCYCI^PBCU. RHFSKBNCB BOOK IS 

This position b vigorously maintained by the Federation and every WU 
in Congress or the State Legislatures that contains a bint of compulBion in ad- 
justing labor disputes is vigorously fought. During the agitation of the railroad 
brotherhoods for an cight-hour-day it was sought to tie thein up from future 
campaigns for better conditions in a law similar to the Lemeux Act of Canada. 
But it wu defeated through the e£Forts of the executive officers of the Brother- 
hoods and the A. F. of L. The position of Labor is : 

"Any board of arbitration nith power to enforce its award upon indi- 
viduals ceases to be a board of arbitration and assumes all the function! of 
an industrial court; as such it is a revival of the Knglish quarter sessions, 
a reintroduction of serfdom and fundamentally opposed to the Thirteenth 
Amendment of the Constitution of the United States." 
The organization of women is considered of the utmost importance. In 
18S8 the convention pledged its support, saying: 

"This Federation extends to all women's labor organisations representation 
in the future annual conventions on an equal footing with trade orgamza- 
tions of men." 
In 1894 the convention maintained : 

"Women should be organiud into ttadc tmions to the end that they mar 

scientifically and permanently abolish the terrible evils accompanying their 

weakened, nnorganized state; and we demand they receive equal compenMr 

tion with men for equal lervice performed." 

In 1890 the A. F. of L. urged an amendment to the Constitution of the United 

States granting enfranchisement to all citizens r^iardlcss of sex. It stood on this 

princtple: 

"The best interest of Labor require the admission of women to fall citiien- 
sbip as a matter of justice and as a necessary step toward insuring and 
raising the scale of wages for all." 
Id IBIT the A. P. of L. said: 

"The splendid services of the women of all the warring nations since thff 
outbreak of the world war has fully demonstrated woman's capacity to take 
a full share in the responsibilitiea and duties of citizenship. We therefore 
reiterate our demand that Congress submit an equal suflfr^e amendineat 
to the States." 
Through its efforts a joint resolution passed the House. 
One of the most powerful weapons of the A. F. of L. is the American 
Federationist Publicity always has been regarded a necessity, but it was not until 
1894 that the publication was launched with the president as editor. Its purpose 
is to further the interests of the woricers, to advocate and defend the trade 
union movement, to instill hope and courage into the woridng people that they may 
have it in their power to bring about changes in our economic, social and 
political life whenever they are determined to register their will Since its first 
issue it has contained no statement that has been successfully refuted. It is re- 
garded by students of the labor movement and of economic and social progress 
as a safe advisor, and practical exponent of the cause of Labor. It is a fearless 
critic of shams and pretenders, the champion of all that is true, right and jnst, 
and a chronicle of all facts in the struggle for right. In IBIS the conventioa con- 
tended it had been a "tribune that has stood for human rights and freedom," and 
has instated that every other consideration must be subordinated to liiese. The 
influence of Hie magazine on the labor press, as well as the general press of 
the connti^, has been true and helpful in all things true to trade unionism. 

A^tation for a weekly official publication b^an in 1908. The Executive 
Council was directed to consider the question and in 1911 the first issue of the 
Weddy News Letter was printed. This also has proved a powerful feature of 
Labor's publicity campaign. It was sent to all labor papers and the republications 
from the first issue were approximately 400 columns distributed among labor. 



(ibyGoOt^Ic 



IS AMERICAN 

reform and other publications receiving the service. The News Letter developed 
into a valuable method of disaeminating news. Labor papers are hampered be- 
cause they serve a cause that has little money, and consequently they lack funds 
lor gathering news. In IBIS the convention voted the "American newspaper is 
becoming almost indispensable to our institutions. What is true of the general 
newspapers is equally tr^ie of the Weekly News Letter. The American Feder- 
ationist is an aid to the editorial departments of the labor press and the News 
Letter is an invaluable source of information for the news columns." 

Ei^icriences gained in previous panics found the A. F. of L. prepared when it 
held its session in IMS to meet the depression that was bearing down on the 
■rountiy. It was charged by Labor in 1BB3 that if the eight-hour day had been 
granted, thus making more consumers of the rapidly increasing production caused 
1^ ^e introduction of machinery, which was displacing labor, there would have 
"been no panic. It was this belief of the labor movement that any reduction in 
wages would hasten a panic that brought forth this defiant edict in 1903 : 

"We are better orgamied and better prepared to resist encroachments on 
our conditions than ever before; and if perchance some of our efforts 
may be lost it is better to resist and lose than not to resist at alt; for to 
complacently accept a reduction in wages is simply to invite its repetition 
while it enfeebles our ability to resist further efforts in the same direction. 
We urge as a way out that wages be maintained, even if necessary to resist 
reductions; that as a substitute for discharges of workmen the work to be 
performed be divided, thus not only helping to bear each others' burdens 
but to more quickly restore activity in industry, trade and commerce." 

Immediately after the great war ended the Executive Council, in its session at 
Laredo, Texas, in 19IS, sent forth a similar warning to the employers of the 
United States. Vigorous words were used in declaring there should be no re- 
-duction in wages. 

The international labor relations of the A. F. of L. have been exceedingly 
cordial. During the first convention a cablegram of friendly greeting was sent the 
Parliamentary Committee of the British Trade Union Congress. In 18B4 fourteen 
French workmen, sent to America by the city of Paris, opened a correspondence 
after they returned home which has continued unbroken. In 1886 the secretary of 
the Parliamentary Committee congratulated the A. F. of L. on its determination to 
"keep trade unionism on its old foundation instead of "mixing it up with other 
movements." This he considered solid, sober and practical. In 1B94 J(^n Bums 
and David Holmes came to the United States as the first Fraternal Delegates from 
the British Trade Union Congress to the A. F. of L. The next year Samuel 
Gompers and P. J. McGuire were sent to England. Until the opening of the Great 
War the yearly exchange of two fraternal delegates continued unbroken. 

Through its friendly labor relations the A. F. of L. persistently advocated 
peace between all nations; that where differences arose they should be adjusted 
liy international arbitration. The A. F. of L. insisted, however, it would not 
recognize any movement not based on trade unionism and in 1B05 it refused to 
■send delegates to an international association of socialists, as it would be as 
■consistent to recognize that party as it would be the Republican or Democratic. 
A delegate was sent to the International Secretariat in 1909. The A. F. of L. 
delegate was instructed to urge the formation of an International Federation of 
Labor with the autonomy of the trade imion movement of each country guaranteed. 
An attempt was made at the Secretariat to discredit the A. F. of L., the I. W. W. 
Tiaving sent an emissary to Budapest to "represent the Workers of America." 
The effort failed and the International Secretariat notified the A. F. of L. the 
subject would be considered in 1911. At that convention the I. W. W. was re- 
pudiated. The proposal to change the name was submitted to the various centers. 
In 1S13 the title was changed from "International Secretariat" to the "Inter- 
national Federation of Trade Unions." 

As a result of the war the organization failed to meet again although an 
attempt was made to call a session in Switzerland and later in Amsterdam. Then 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORY. ENCYCLOPEDIA, REPERBNCB BOCK 17 

the American Federation of Labor sought to take the headquarters of the organ- 
ization out of Germany and locate it in some neutral country. As the war had 
cut asunder many of the ties that hound nation to nation, it made impossible the 
fraternal relations existing between the national labor movements of the belligerent 
countries. The president of the International Federation announced that hecaute 
of the conditions the regular work of the organization would be discontinued an<l 
the funds used only for the purpose of its maintenance and not for the purpose of 
propaganda. In 1615 the A. F. of L. declared : 

"Because the maintenance of the trade union movement of our country 
or all ciTilized countries and of the International Federation of Trade Unions 
is of paramount importance so far as the economic conditions of the 
workers is concerned, at all times under all conditions, the stability of our 
movement here or elsewhere should not be subject to the disturbing influences 
and possible destruction by any cataclysm, be it a lire, flood, war or pestilence. 
In limes of great stress there Is more and greater need of woricahle 
machinery and unhampered officers to safeguard and protect our movement 
and the best interests of the members thereof." 
The A. F. of L. delegate lo the International Federation of Trade Unions in 
1911 was instructed to advance these principles : 

'^e do not favor anti-patriotism or anti-militarism, or the general strike 
as proposed by the Confederation Generale du Travail of France. We favor 
the prevention of the exportation of strike breakers from one country to 
another; legislation in the several countries more uniform in character gov- 
erning the hours of labor of women and men in dangerous trades and for 
at>oIition of the labor of children under 14 in any gainful occupation." 
A world labor congress to be held in this ccvntry was arranged for in the 
V>li convention, but tho war prevented its being carried out In IBIB it again was 
voted to encourage an international trade union movement. 

By the use of injunctions and court decisions the opposition to trade unions 
expected to defeat their activities. The decision of a Pennsylvania judge in 1801 
that "inasmuch as the wage workers do not own the product ijiey make they cannot 
bave a label certifying the character of labor emplc^red in its production," catued 
a furor in union circles. This was considered a terrific blow to (he union label. 
Another judge, the convention declared in 189S, called unions "tyrannies," while 
lie contended the acts of the Carnegie corporation in making ^war on the State 
^ras justifiable. This probably influenced a labor official in welcoming the con- 
vention to refer to (he Homestead massacre by making this prophet?: 

"It is said Qie 'blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church.' It is 

possible that throu^ the blood of the men who died on the Uonoi^ahela 

may come a realization of the true condition of affairs, and that the l^s- 

lation of the future will be in favor of the masses rather than for the 

aggrandizement of the few." 

The true status of labor conditions in Pennsylvania was the comparative lack 

of organization, and wage earners had been owing allegiance to political parties 

first and to themselves as a class last. 

"If the organized workmen were to hold in check the political powers of the 
" state and make their rule 'workers first, party last,' " said President Gompers in 
reply, "then the legislature would make laws and judges construe them in the 
interest of the workingmen." In those days Labor believed the policy of the 
courts and govemmnit officials was to make all strikes, and especially those on 
railroads, an offense against the laws. One judge convicted and sent to prison 
an engineer who had quit work after being ordered by an injunction not to strike. 
Another judge went even further in denying the right to strike for fairer condi- 
tions. The convention said : 

These decisions, though based upon the common carrier, indicates a 
reckless disregard for the sinrit and intent of the American Constitution, 
and are undoubtedly an invasion of the laborer's right to effectually prote&t 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



against 



FEDERATION OF LABOR 

inst irksome conditions, while they in no wise protect liim against dis- 
^arge for any whimsical reason advanced by the corporation," 
The Federation demanded: 

"That the common law practice shall apply to wage earners as well as to 
all others; that no injunction shall be issued where there i> another remedy 
provided by law. If through the use of the equity power vested in courts 
our rights as woricers to quit at will and to induce others to quit with us 
can be taken away, then the peaceable evolution toward industrial democ- 
racy is cut off and the workers will be compelled to look to more revolu- 
tionary measures for redress of grievances." 
From that time on efforts were made to secure laws to prevent the inter* 
ference of courts in strikes where no destruction of property or loss of life had 
been caused by strikers. Demands were made that the Constitution be amended 
depriving judges of the power to set aside laws enacted by Congress, "as we 
believe the prt^wr function of the courts is to expound and administer the law, 
not to make it." In 1897 the convention called attention to the extraordinary use 
made of the writ of injunction. When used to prevent free speech, said the con- 
vention, or public assembU^ to discuss grievances, be they political or industrial, 
and to compel men to continue to work for private employers against their will 
they amount to judicial usurpation. They are a flagrant infringement of the r^ti 
of the citixen, wholly un-American and destructive of popular government. The 
fear often expressed in conventions that the Sherman Anti-Trust law would be 
used against Labor soon materialized. While originally believed to he a law to 
curb combinations of capital, and Labor had been assured it did not affect the 
workers or farmers, it was being used to strike a cunningly devised blow at the 
trade unions. After that every bill ostensibly to control the corporations was 
scanned carefully to see what "joker" had been included that would interfere with 
the orderly progress of the labor movement. 

In 1900 the A. F. of 1* contended that no act in furtherance of any trade 
dispute not punishable when committed by one person should be conudered a crime 
where two or more committed the same act In IMO the convention wanted the 
membership to be fearful of all attempts to enact laws which might affect Labor, 
saying: 

"In judicial injunctions there are a great warning and a lesson to the 
woikxrs of the country. Some years ago a Federal Congress enacted a law 
for the incorporation of trade unions. Beyond question the advocates of the 
bill really believed they were doing the organized workers a real service ; but 
at the time and since we have repeatedly warned our fellow unionists to 
refrain from seeking the so-called protection of that law which justified the 
suspicion the courts would, in time, declare our unions liable to be mulcted 
in damages and their funds confiscated — a repetition of the robbery of the 
guilds a few centuries ago. It is the same species of legislation as the en- 
actment of a law to regulate interstate commerce and the alleged Anti- 
Trust law." 
Or^nized labor seeks no immunity from the law for violations committed fay 
any of its members. But it insists that that which is lawful when done by one 
member shall not be regarded as unlawful when done by wage earners either 
OS individuals or in association. Nevertheless, the issuance of the injunction in 
labor disputes became more and more general. Its value to the employer and 
danger to the workmen had become better understood. It was the effort to retain 
through judicial decisions and orders the power over the working people which 
had been legislatively surrendered. It appeared to have with it as its governing 
cause the concept that the ownership of a min^ factory or means of transportation 
carried with it the ownership of so much of the labor power of the wage-earners as 
would make them profitable to their owner. 

In injunction cases the burden of proof is shifted from the prosecution to the 
defense. It is not necessary to prove the defendant's guilt He must prove bit 
innocence. And yet the acts he is charged with committing may not be a violation 



(ibyGoOt^Ic 



HISTORV, ENCVCU)PBDIA, RBFERBNCB BOOK 19 

of th« law but enjoined by a court's injunction. In 1908 the cOBventioo contended: 
"Whenever the courts issue an injunction which undertakes to regulate our 
personal relations either with oar employer or those from whom we may or 
ma^ not purchase commodities, such courts are trespassing upon relations 
which are personal relations with which equity power has no concern; that 
these injunctions are destructive of our rights as citizens as well as of 
popular government, and we, therefore declare we will exercise all the rights 
and privileges guaranteed us by the Constitution and laws of our country, 
and insist it is our duty to defend ourselves at all hazards, and we recom- 
mend that such be our action, taking whatever results may come. We 
further declare that when cited to show cause why such injunctions should 
not be issued we should make no defense that would entail any considerable 
cost; and when cited for contempt the proper policy is as above. We further 
warn our fellow unionists that testimony extorted under ei^uity process 
tn^ be partially used in a damage iiiit under the Sherman Anti-Tnut law." 
In 1916 the convention renewed this advice, adding: "Any injunction based 
upon the dictum that labor is property* should be wholly and absolutely treated 
aa an usurpation and disregarded, let the consequences be what they may." In 
1907 Judge Dayton, of West Virginia, issued an injunction restraining the union 
miners from even asking employees of the Hitchman Coal and Coke Company to 
organise. An appeal was taken to the Circuit Court of Appeals and the decision 
was reversed. The Supreme Court refused to sustain the Court of Appeals and 
the defendants were cited to show cause why they should not be punished for 
■-ontempt. Later the case was withdrawn. 

The greatest legislative victory secured by Labor during the year 1914 was 
the enactment of the labor sections of the Clayton Anti-Trust Act. It secured to 
the workers of America those fundamental principles of industrial liberty included 
in the chief features of the "Bill of Grievances" and the objectives of the political 
policy the American Lederation of Labor inaugurated in 19D0. It grants the right 
to strike, to picket and to urge others to refuse to work for pr patronize or to 
employ any party to such dispute. Any one cited for violating an injunction in 
a contempt case can demand a jury trial. President Wilson said of the act a few 
days after he had signed it: 

"Incidentally, justice has been done the laborer. His labor is no longer 
to be treated as if it were merely an inanimate object of commerce discon- 
nected from the fortunes and happiness of a living human being to be dealt 
with as an object of sale and barter. But that, great as it is, is hardly more 
than the natural and inevitable corroltary of a law whose object is individual 
freedom and initiative as against any kind of private domination." 
The Federation always has declared children should be educated and has 
demanded compulsory education laws and the teaching of the science of government 
in the public schools. The policy of taking children out of orphan asylums and 
transporting them to other states to work in mines and workshops was condemned 
as detrimental to their moral and physical well being. In 1B03 the convention 
declared : 

"We can be engaged in no more praiseworthy work itian to save the 
children, to protect their lives from the exploitation of avaricious employers, 
to gain for them not only the right to live, but the right and opportuni^ of 
education, of light and sunshine, and of play that they may grow physically 
and mentally and expand morally." 
Compulsory education was advocated at the first convention. This principle 
was advanced: 

"We recognize education of the people is the fundamental principle on 
which the success of every proposed plan of social reform depends. There- 
fore we favor legislatures enacting laws compelling parents to send their 
children to school." 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



30 AMERICAN FliDERATION OF LABOR 

U^ to tfa«( present time the Federation has carefu% inspected every move 
made in the progress of education. It soon observed the danger from political 
influence to which the teachers were subjected and demanded its abolition. It 
demanded proper compensation for teachers and the right to organize in the trade 
unions. Much attention has been given to industrial education. It was maintained 
it was necessary and inevitable for the prioress of an industrial people, and 
that technical schools should be established to give supplemental education to those 
who have entered trades as apprentices. A model law was indorsed by the Feder- 
ation in 1918 for compulsory part-time schooling for children who in the school 
age are thinking of entering some employment Model laws for state and local 
boards of education were also adopted. 

Demands for child labor laws were persistently made. In 1B81 the Federation 
favored enactment of laws in the various states forbidding the employment of 
children under fourteen years of age. It was argued that there was "no greater 
crime under the heavens than the employment of children in factories ; that children 
are driven to work by brutal fathers, and that boys were training for criminals 
and girls for the streets. Little children six and seven years old were reported 
having been seen in the middle of a room in a squalid tenement house in New York 
City stripping tobacco and toiling from dawn until late into the night. The 
influence of the A. F. of L. destroyed this pernicious tenement system, the tenement 
house law of New York being the result. This was obtained alter many delays 
and intrigues. At one time a bill having passed the Senate at Albany was stolen 
somewhere on its journey to the House. 

Through the continuous and persistent agitation of the A, F. of L- a federal 
child labor law was enacted in 1916 which prohibited the transportation of articles 
made hy children under fourteen years of age "along the highways of interstate 
commerce." Children between the ages of fourteen and sixteen were not permitted 
to work more than eight hours a day, six days a week, or between 7 p.m. and 
6 a.m. It was understood to include shipments by water. In June, 191B, the law 
was declared unconstitutional by the U. S. Supreme Court. 

The tiext question to decide uuon was a method to eliminate child labor that 
would meet the objections of the Supreme Court. The Executive Council decided 
there were two ways to bring about the desired result, either an amendment to the 
U. S. Constitution, which might take years, or by an internal revenue tax to be 
secured as soon as possible. The Legislative Committee immediately proceeded 
to gain the end desired by having! similar provisions to those of the act which had 
been declared unconstitutional made a part of the war revenue bill, which became 
a law. It goes further, however. It provides a tax of 10 per cent on the net 
profits of all establishments employing child labor no matter where the products 
are sold. It is believed the tax wilt tend to abolish the evil, as an employer cannot 
pay the tax and prosper in business. The revenue law, however, expires in two 
years. In the meantime it is hoped an amendment to the Constitution can be 

Despicable plots to destroy the reputations of the oflicers of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, the object being to discredit the organization, have been frequent 
though unsuccessfuL The great wave of trade union organization inl the early 
years of the twentieth century alarmed the employers and they also united in an 
attempt to hamper the journey of Labor toward independence. These employers' 
organizations were formed on the same plan as the Federation. They had their 
local organizations, which were affiliated with national associations. A bitter war 
of denunciation was opened on the working people who had had the temerity to 
unite in their efforts to secure a proper standard of living for themselves and 
families. The employers, who were guided by professional attorneys and labor 
baiters, whose salaries depended on the troubles they could originate and keep 
alive, endeavored through intrigues and the courts to undermine the trade union 
movement with a view to its eventual destruction. The struggle was fast and 
furious for a few years, culminating in 1907 in a plot to discredit the president 
and through him the entire labor movement. The trap set for President Gompers 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORY. BNCYCLOPEDIA, 

was cunningly laid but failed. The employers had overlooked the most essential 
feature. While they had been obsessed with the idea that every man has his price, 
they had neglected to gain that knowledge of Labor necessary for the carrying out 
of such a claim. They thought that because some public men were willing to sell 
their own souls for gold, thai woHdngmen, and especially their leaders, were made 
of the same kind of clay. With this belief they concocted a scheme to induce 
President Gompers to withdraw from the labor movement He was not pliable 
enough for the employers or the politicians. They wanted a man at the head oE 
the American Federation of Labor who would answer to thetn, who would gradually 
change the organization into an employers' auxiliary and relieve the latter of any 
further anxiety as to the welfare of their employees. It was to be made a "good 
union." A "good union" is one that is contented with present conditions and feels 
so kindly toward the employer it refutes to hurt his feelings by asking for more 
concessions. To bring this abont they hired a man to try to bribe President 
Gompers. Tliey wanted him to sign a "confession" supposed to have been made years 
before when he, in imagination, was lying on what he thought was his death bed. 
The "confession" had been prepared by the emissary of the National Manufacturers' 
Association. Here are a few lines of iti 

"For I have struggled with the humblest on a plane ofl equality and I 
have walked and talked with the mighty ones of earth and have lent them 
my power. The poor dgarmaker's apprentice has lived to become the 
master of a million minds and lived a little longer to be what he is today, 
not even a master of himself. There is nothing of the whine in this. 
Emptied, broken as I am, I have nothing to ask. Nothing I might achieve 
would matter, in a little while, and this what I write is little more than my 
retrospective thoughts expressed through the medium of my pen. Wisdom 
is cumulative, and out of my abundance I might endow posteri^. Vengeance 
by the law of compensation overreaches the grave, and I might undo more 
men a score of times than will regret ;ny passing. Justice is exquisitely 
elusive and I might with a truth told here and there palliate many a grave 
miscarriage. But why? Why should I, having driven on to my own aims, 
leave my now disabled chariot to retrace the hippodrome? • • • Stripped 
of the sophistry that served as a mental lubricant when in activity 1 stand 
at halt contemplating my own ego. I see lust of power that has triumphed 
again and again." 
There the proposed "confession" ended with a snap. The conspiracy to cast 
odium on the American Federation of Labor through its chief officer burst like 
a toy balloon. The hot glare of publicity melted it instantly. The conspirators, un- 
covered, exposed, disgraced even in the eyes of their contemporaries, were driven 
into obscurity and have not been heard from since. The entire conspiracy was 
recounted to the IBOT convention and the delegates unanimously indorsed the 
honesty, integrity and unfaltering courage of President Gompers and everything 
he had done to combat the mercenary aims of the manufacturers. To the National 
Manufacturers' Association this defy was sent : 

"We accept any challenge the association may send. We will continue to 

organize and educate the American wage earners, fully protecting their rights 

and securing for them economic conditions long denied by the type of 

manufacturers and employers represented by the National Manufacturers' 

Association." 

The same influences behind the attempt to bribe President Gompers into a 

melodramatic "confession" conducted a great court battle against the A. F. of L. 

A boycott had been declared against the Buck's Stove and Range Company of 

SL Louis. This company had had trouble with its employees since 1S90. It had 

denied them the right to organiie, to ask for fairer conditions of employment. A 

suit vras filed gainst the ofiieers of the Federation on the charge they had refused 

to abide by an injunction restraining them from boycotting the products of the 

company. President Samuel Gompers, Secretary Frank Morrison and Vice President 



i,Coo»^Ic 



AMERICAN PBDEKATION OP I^BOR 



til 1M4 the sentences were wiped out by the Supreme Court and the case ended. 
At the same time the trial judge, Daniel Thew Wright, was forced to resign. The 
convention made this c 



"The' case served well a purpose which was hardly in the mind of the 
prosecuting judge at the time he began his ferocious and unmitigated on- 
slaught a^inst Messrs. Gomperi Mitchell and Morrison. He served to call 
the attention of the public to certain abuses in a way more emphatic and 
more convincing than ever had been attained, and the result of this discus- 
sion certainly has been advantageous to the labor organizations of America 
and of the world ; and now, we find neither of our officers were called upon 
to serve one day in jail as the result of the desire for vengeance on the 
part of this judicial tyrant, but on the contrary tbey stand before their 
fellow men vindicated in their course, while the judge himself stands 
before hit fcUow men disgraced and on the way to that oblivion from 
which his only possible escape will be that he may be remembered as the 
man who tried, but failed, to put three labor leaders in jail" 
And what of the participants in this famous court proceedings in the year 1010. 
Samuel Gompers is a world character, respected and honored for his probity and 
unselfish devotion to the cause of Labor. John Mitchell is an honored official of 
the great state of New York, where he has been persistent in the continuance of 
his activities in the'mterest of human protection and advancement Frank Morrison 
is secretary of the greatest labor movement in the world, whose views are re- 
elected by members of Congress as well as the executive officials of the government. 
Bat what of Daniel Thew Wright? His last appearance in public was in a 
Washington police court as the attorney for a "bookmaker" on horse races who 
had been arrested on a charge of keeping a gambling house, otherwise conductii^ 
a "confidence game." From a seat on the Federal bench to the defender of the 
lowest grade of gambler is a long step. But it is not surprising when it is said 
there is no distinction between his persecution of the labor officials and the defense 
of a "bookmaker." It is simply a case of an ollender of justice finding his natural 
level. 

The 18S1 convention declared prison contract labor was a species of slavery 
in its worst form, as "it pauperizes free labor, demoralizes the honest manu- 
facturer and degrades the very criminal whom it employs." An agitation for its 
abolishment was launched and has made important progress. Convict contract 
labor competition has been eliminated from many state penal institutions. The 
most successful change has been where the convicts manufacture exclusively for 
state institutions. The principle adopted by the A. F. of L. was to place the in- 
mates of prisons at work that would not interfere with free labor. In 1891 it was 
proposed to prevent the importation of prison made goods from one state to 
another and legislation was urged to that end. Prison labor in some states was 
being used to supplant coal miners. Broommakers were great sufferers, but with 
the aid of the A. F. of. L. they have succeeded in abolishing the latter occupation 
in many institutions. In 1906 the convention declared: 

"We recognize the economic wisdom and the humane purpose in finding 
employment for those confined in our penal institutions, but we protest 
against the labor of soctet^s derelicts and unfortunates being made a source 
of profit for the state or its contractors to the detriment of the citizens of 
the state and people generally. We particularly protest against that policy 
being pursued by one or more states for their own profit or tiie profit of 
contractors by dumping the products of prison labor on the markets of 
other states in which the people have either partially or wholly solved that 
problem for themselves." 
Leasing of convicts was emphatically condemned. Congress was accused of 
cowardice in its treatment of the evil. In 1009 the convention said: 

"The average congressman either does not know or he does not care, or 

DigtizeabyGoOgle 



HISTORY. ENCYCLOPEDIA, REPERBNCB BOOK 23 

he does not dare. Give us men who know, who do care and who will dare, 
and labor legi^tion will then come as a natural sequence." 
In IBIO the contract system of prison labor was declared to be "inhuman, 
dishonest and stupid." The claim made that the work of the convicts was to 
procure revenue to reimburse the state for the expense of caring for them and 
to permit them to earn something for themselves was condemned as ridiculous. 
The convention maintained : 

"The largest part of the profit from the labor of convicts under the con- 
tract system does not go to the state. The convict receives none of it. It 
goes to the contractor, who has no interest whatever in tne welfare of the 
convict or tbe interests of the state other than to add to his own swollen 
profits from the misfortune of the criminal. Consequently no reformation 
results. The prisoners are not deceived, they know they are robbed. Tb^f 
become hardened and learn to hate society for the crime society permits to 
be practiced on them in the name of — law." 
In 1911 a proposed federal bill requiring convict-made goods to conform to 
the laws of the state into which they are shipped was indorsed. An investigation 
of cruelty in an Iowa prison by a state commission corroborated charges made 
by the A. F. of L, for it reported : 

^be system of private exploitation by contractors of the convicts is 
tbe main cause of the cruelty reported and of the absolute failure of the 
institution as a reformatory." 
Tbe commission found tbe contractors had controlled the Iowa prison for 
their own profit. In the 1918 convention this solution was advanced unanimously: 
"Convict labor should be employed only by the state and for state use 
only. Departure from this principle would be dangerous to the public wel- 
fare as well as to the convicts, whose confinement is primarily for reforma- 
tory purposes. We are of the opinion, bowever, that such labor should be 
performed under conditions tending to assist in the convicts' reformation." 
The Federation also insists the prisoners should not be employed more than 
eight hours a day, and that all machinery be eliminated and the work done by hand. 
As early as 1905 the ofGcers of the Federation began a systematic investigation 
of conditions with a view of uniting the woridngmen of the various countries in 
tbe Western Hemisphere. In 1915 the necessity for such an oiganization became 
more pronounced. It was realized that closer political, industrial and commercial 
relations should exist Congress had authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to 
call a Pan-American Conference to consider better relations and the development 
of the natural resources of all the countries. Chiefs of industrr. commerce and 
finance were present but Labor was not represented. In fact some representatives 
of what are recognized now as world powers said they knew nothing of industrial 
relations with employes and furthermore considered them irrelevant. 

The convention directed the Executive Council to call a conference in Wash- 
ington of representatives of labor from Mexico, Central and South America to 
consider the economic problems confronting the various labor people because of 
the conference of bankers, financiers and manufacturers from the same countries. 
Tbe first Pan-American Labor Conference was held in 1917. A permanent organ- 
ization was fonned and named the Pan-American Federation of Labor Committee. 
A manifesto in Spanish was immediately sent to the various countries. Labor rep- 
resentatives from Mexico, Chili and Yucatan visited the United States, and in 
Norembcr, IBIB, another conference was held at Laredo, Texas. The result has 
been for a better understanding of our common economic, political and social 
interest that will make for closer unity of action. The oi^anization will be tbe 
means of creating a higher sentiment for fraternity and good will and will be 
the forerunner of closer community of feeling in labor and business relations be- 
tween those countries and tbe United States. 

Evidence of the value of this friendly intercourse with the labor movements 
of Spanish speaking neighboring countries was demonstrated during the agitation 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



M AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 

to bring war between this country and Mexico. In 1912 the Federation declared 
with emphasia: 

'"We are utterly opposed to intervention in Mexico and believe in a de- 
teratined policy of hands oS." 
The struggle in Mexico was against peonage and land tenure. The Federation 
extended the best wishes of the American labor movement to the men of Mexico 
in their efforts to abolish these age-long wrongs by striking the shackles from the 
limbs and minds of men and women. In iei6, when war between the United States 
and Mexico appeared certain, the labor movements of the two countries were 
again instrumental in throwing light upon the influences and the agencies that were 
trying to create war sentiment 

While war propaganda was at its height representatives of Mexican labor were 
invited to meet the ^ecutive Council of the Federation in Washington. Relations 
between the two governments had become acute. Our government had demanded 
the immediate release of American soldiers. No response had been received. 
At this critical stage President Gompers tel^raphed President Carranza; 

"In the name of common justice and humanity.'in the intereft of a better 
understanding between the peoples of the governments of the United States 
and Mexico, for the purpose of giving opportunity to maintain peace and 
avoid the horrors of war, upon the grounds of highest patriotism and love, 
I appeal to you to release the American soldiers held by your officers in 
Chihuahua." 
Next day President Gompers received this reply from President Carranza: 
"In replying to your message dated yesterday I would state that the 
government in my charge has ordered the liberty of the American soldiers 
whom the Mexican forces toold as prisoners in Carriza." 
The Mexican Constitution adopted in ISIT contains a provision recognizing 
the l^ality of the right to strike. The influence of the Federation has brongbt 
about a more friendly understanding between the peoples of the two countries and 
this will frustrate the activities of powerful vested interests to incite war. 

The Sherman Anti-Trust law was designed, and so accepted by the people, 
to prevent monopoly. Every member of Congress claimed it did not apply in any 
manner to labor organizations, but all efforts to amend the bill to eliminate them 
from its provisions were unsuccessful. It was not long until it was being used 
against working people who sought better conditions through their trade unions. 
These organizations were attacked as trusts and the enforcement of law was 
confined exclusively to prosecutions of Labor. The trade union is not a trust and 
from its very nature cannot be. Trusts consist of organizations for the control 
of the products of labor. Workmen possess their labor power — that is, their 
power to produce. Workmen do not have products for sale. The trade union is a 
voluntary association of many for the benefit of all. In 1911 the Sherman Act 
was interpreted by the Supreme Court of the United States to apply to woricmen, 
who, in their exercise of the right of free men, withhold their labor power from 
employers or their patronage from business men. These acts were declared illegal, 
and when workingmen were found guilty they could be mulcted in threefold 
damages, fined $5,000 and sent to prison for one year. This was demonstrated 
in the Hatters' case. 

While the great trusts continued to grow in power and danger no apparent 
effort was made to punish them. The struggle for a law exempting trade unions 
and farmers' organizations from the operations of the anti-trust law continued 
until the Clayton law was enacted. The courts had previously maintained that 
under the anti-trust law labor was property. The Clayton Act declares that "labor 
is not a commodity or article of commerce." 

One of the sophistries of life is the fetich of supply and demand. It is the 
weapon held up to workingmen when they seek better rewards for their labor. It 
is rolled about the tongues of the professional economists like a sweet morsel. 
It is repeated parrot-like by their spokesmen and apologists as a cause for kU 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORY, ENCYCLOPEDIA. REPBRENCS BOOK U 

the evib resulting from tbe misroanagemetit of industry. In 190? the bugbear 
was exposed in tms language; 

"That the law of supply and demand has its place in nature and in primi- 
tive natural conditions no thinking man will dispute. But when we realize 
wW science has done and what progress has been made to overcome the 
primitive conditions of nature; what has been accomplished in machinery and 
toob of labor ; in the means of transportation of products and of man, the 
means of transmission of information and intelhgence, the fact becomes 
immediately patent that man has made nature conform to his wants and 
that tbe ori{pnal conception of the law of supply and demand has been 
Largely overcome and can be still further overcome by comprehensive and 
determined action of the wage earners, who, by associated efforts, shall 
refuse to have their brain and brawn, their hearts and the hearts of those 
beloved tiy them weighed in the same scale with the side of a, hog or a 
bushel of coal. The law of supply and demand applies to supplies for and 
demands of men, but does not apply to supplies of and demands for men 
who are living, intelligent organisms capable of regulating the supply of, 
if not tbe demand for, the use of their own labor power." 
Labor Day has proved of wonderful encouragement and benefit to the trade 
union movement Its parades, nuss meetings and speechmaking have awakened 
the worlcing men and women to their grievances and pointed the way to relief. 
It has taught the great public of tbe high ideals of the American Federation of 
Labor, as vrell as of the enormous strength and solidarity that has brought so 
many changes for the better for the masses of tbe people. P. J. McGuire, a 
former secretary and vice-president, proposed in 1683 that a national holiday be 
chosen to represent the spirit of Labor. The first Monday in September was 
suggested and adopted. The idea was accepted immediately by the organized 
wage earners and demonstrations followed unequaled in this or any other country. 
State after state made it a legal hoUday, and in 18B4 Congress took similar action. 
Wliile all the states do not have a law legalizing the day, the Federal act has been 
accepted without exception. Unusual demonstrations marked Labor Day in 
1918 in every city in the country. The slogan of the patriotic marchers was: 
"Win the war for freedom." 

Economic and political freedom for civil service employes of the government 
has been a principle maintained by the American Federation of Labor since the 
attempt was first made to take it away. No law ever was enacted forbidding 
the exercise of this constitutional right. The rules in effect were made by tbe 
CJvil Service Commission, which from its inception has been composed of "in- 
tellectuals" who do not understand the Constitution of the United States or that 
this is a democracy. They have been governed by the idea that men who work are 
a class apart from those who rule and should be controlled in all things. The 
Federation in 19U declared : 

"We most emphatically protest against any dvil service rules and regu- 
lations which aim to muule the workers employed by our Government and 
totally prevent them from any partiaipation in the political activities of wage 

One of the greatest victories won by the Federation was the Chinese exclusion 
act. In the 1881 convention it declared thirty yeai;s' experience on the Pacific coast 
with Chinese had proved their ctHnpctition with white labor was the greatest evil 
with which a country could be afflicted. Monster meetings were held everywhere, 
while on the sand lots of San Francisco the voice of Labor was raised so effectively 
it was heard clearly in Washington. The first law was nod satisfactory, as it was 
made inoperative by decisions of government officers and judges of California. The 
1889 convention refused to indorse the use of force in settling 'the question, but 
demanded a rigid enforcement of the law. In 1894 the convention declared : 

"There is no antipathy on the part of American workmen to Chinese be- 
cause of their nationality, but a people that has allowed civilization to pass 
by them untouched and uninfluenced, a people who permit themselves to be 



■„Goo»^lc 



M AMEKICAM FEDERATION OP LABOR 

barbarously tyrannized over in their own country and who menace the 

progress, the economic and social standing of the workers of other countries, 

cannot be frateniized with. We are opposed to the servile of all nations, our 

own included." 

In 1902 danger arose to the island possessions of the United States, as efforts 

were made so to construe the law that Chinese could be imported there under the 

"most favored nation" clause in treaties. Objection by the Federation caused a 

change in the law in lOM and the Chinese were forbidden to ro to these islands or 

from them to the United States. In IBOS the sugar planters of Hawaii screened 

an attack on the exclusion law by asking for its modification to permit Chinese 

immigration to that island. The convention insisted : 

"We make no pretense that the exclusion of Chinese can be defended upon 
a high ideal or ethical ground; but we insist that it is our essential duty to 
maintain and preserve our physical condition and standard of life and 
civilization and thus assure us the opportunity for the development of our 
intellectual and moral character. Self-preservation always has been con- 
sidered the first law of nature. It is a principle of necessity from which we 
ought not and must not depart." 

A demand was made also for the exclusion of Japanese and Coreans and 
protests were made against the emplojrment of Chinese sailors. It was charged 
that all Orientals would have to be excluded or the American people must surrender 
Ibeir ri^bt to the soit in many important sections of the country. In 1912 the 
Federation, in co-operation with the unions on the Pacific Coast, secured an 
amendment to a bill before Congress which completely excluded the objectionable 

Co-operative societies were considered favorably in 1883 and in 1901 it was 
proposed that the Federation "promulgate a system of co-operation, simple and 
comprehensive, which will cover general principles, analyze and safeguard* the 
interests of the unions and members both in and out of co-operative enterprise." 
This was considered too comprehensive and failed of adoption. In 191S a committee 
was appointed to consider the question and a year later reported in favor of the 
Rochdale system, which is thus explained: Members nay the market rate for 
what they buy from the co-operative society, but each diree months they recdve 
back the difference in the amotmt paid for the articles purchased and the cost to 
the society. The principle of profits is eliminated. 

Freedom of speech and petition for Kovernment employes was demanded in 
IDll. Two Presidents of the United States had issued executive "gag law" orders 
forbidding them to petition Congress or any of its committees to redress wrongs 
without first obtaining the consent of the heads of departments. The penalty was 
summary discharge. This proved a boomerang to the government. Instead of 
forcing silence on the lireat body of employes, it awoke them to their economic 
weakness. This they began to retrieve by organizing into trade unions and joinii^ 
the American Federation of Labor. Men and women who took a prominent part 
in organiring the workers were discharged from the Postoffice Department, which 
had undertaken to destroy the unions. ' But th? Federation succeeded in securing 
an amendment to a postoffice appropriation bill which restored the right of petition, 
a right guaranteed by the Constitution to all people. 

Free speech and assemblage were attacked grievously in 1S86-7. Public officers 
prohibited public meetings and in many instances persecuted the representative of 
labor organizations. In the latter year the convention denounced this tyranny by 
declaring : 

"We deeply deplore that the democratic spirit of the people of this country, 
especially Uiat noble spirit of resistance a^nst granny and wrong exercised 
by the founders, of the republic, is rapidly being replaced by a spirit of 
anarchy on the part of those who should be the servants of the people." 

This situation arose from the public excitement and hysteria following the 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



HISTORY, ENCYCLOPEDIA, REFBRENCB BOOK 27 

explosion of a bomb In Haymarket Square, ChicaKo- President Gompera had 
asked cxecutiTe dement for tlie coDTicted men and gave this explanation : 

"I deem it almost unnecessair to say to you that I am not an anarchist 
nor hav« I any sympathy with or lore for anarchy, its methods or its teach- 
ings, the calumioona statements of a few journals to the contrary notwith- 
standing. But I found a strong feeling prevailing among thousands that the 
condemned men were about to be executed in the defense of the right of 
free speech and free assemblage, and that if they were executed they 
would die martyrs to the cause of labor. As a representative of a great 
labor oragnization, I was called on and entreated to say a word, first to 
save them from death, and, second, to deprive their movement of the food 
on which all spasmodic movements exist — martyrdom. Believing no harm 
could come to our organization, I wrote a letter to the governor and appealed 
to htm, in the interest of humanity and to prevent an impetus being given 
to violent revolutionary movements, to extend clemency to these misguided 
men. I am opposed to capital punishment under all drcumstances, and in 
this case I appealed from a dual motive of which the latter is not the 
least' 
In IBSI it was pelted out there had appeared for years a tacit understanding 
among. the authorities of several states and municipalities to take away the 
right of free Speech and assemblage, which had been won at the sacrifice of 
thousands of lives and untold fortunes. 

"^et they are as much a question today as centuries ago," the convention de- 
cided. "We may hare little, if any, sympathy with the expressions of those who 
are opposed to our system of government, or we may be their outspoken antag- 
onists, but we should at all times maintain the constitutional rights of the people 
to free speech and assemblage^" 

The Chicago police were denounced for breaking ui> a meeting of union 
men November 11, 1891, without warrant of law and in violation of every 
principle of right and justice. It was considered dangerous, not alone to the 
laboring people, but to all classes, as it tended to the usurpation of the people's 
authority and the substitution of another entirely foreign to the spirit of American 
institutions. This protest was beard in Chicago and the City Council restored the 
banners taken in the raid and paid the damage done. But two years later complaint 
again was made that an order enforced by the chief of police of that dty was to 
club and brutally maltreat all unemployed who Rathered on the lake front Police- 
men in citizen's clothes "planted" in the crowd car links, brickbats and stones to 
be used as missies in alleged contemplated riots, and then a body in uniform would 
attack them with revolvers and clubs. After the crowd had been driven away the 
articles "planted" on the ground would be "discovered" and used by the news- 
papers to prove it was i murderous crowd. At the same time they only were 
unemployed, hungry, sleepy men who had no place to lay their head and sought 
the public park in the day time to rest after walking the streets all night. 

Repeated attempts were made in Congress to curtail free speech, a free press 
and free assemblage, and they were vigorously and successfully opposed by the 
Federation. In 190B it was said the suppression of freedom of the press was a 
most dangerous undertaking, whether in autocratic Russia or in the republic of 
the United States. For ages it has been an established principle that an editor 
should be imcensored in what he publishes, though he may be held responsible and 
' criminally liable for what he utters. This had been taken away by the injtinction 
and contempt proceedings and it was considered' the duty of the Federation to 
make solemn protest. "These rights — free speech and free press," the convention 
maintained, "must not, can not and will not be complacently surrendered. They 
must not be forbidden by a court's injunction." In 1918 the convention said : 

"Invasions of the rights of a free people arouse just resentment However 
generous the temper of the penple they can not meekly tolerate practices 
and decisions at variance with the ftmdamental principles upon which liberty 
is founded. There have been in the recent past tendencies to invade the 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



FEDERATION OF LABOR 

domain of free speech that have stirred those who have concern for the 
public welfare. Only when each person is accorded the right to speak freely 
and tm^ that which he knows and feels and sees, when mind has free 
intercourSf! with mind, can difficulties, problems, wrongs, be thrashed out 
and the best solutiona reached. All may not think clearly and correctly, 
but how can they find out their errors it ideas must be bottled up? Mentality 
that is not given free scope will either shrivel from inactivity or else will 
become poisoned and unwholesome and finally find vent in violence or ex- 
plosion. The exercise of a right never should be penalized, only the abuse 
of that right. The safety of free life and free government lies in main- 
taining freedom of speech and press. No tyranny, no wrong can withstand 
absolutely frank, fearless advocacy of right and justice. The burden bearers 
of all ages have been the oppressed. The toilers of America have been 
aroused to this invasion of freedom because they, better that! all others, 
have been aware of the entering wedge to freedom's undoing. They demand 
liberty for themselves and liberty for all. The urgency of the need inakes 
necessary the emphasis of the statement — we demand liberty for one and 
all. We demand human rights and human welfare be placed above all else." 
A model constitutional amendment to be uq[ed by the unions in every state 
was adopted by this convention. 

Plank 4 in the first constitution of the Federation demanded tne prohibition of 

the importation of foreign laborers under contract. After four years' battering 

at the doors' of Congress, a law was enacted, but was not satisfactory to the 

Federation officials. During consideration of this measure one of the senators said: 

"The conflict between capital and labor is irrepressible, capital seeking to 

obtain the largest production and the consequent greater profit on the least 

outlay on the one hand, and labor as against capital seeking to obtain the 

largest amount of wages for the least expenditure of time and! force on 

the other." 

This tardily admitted among other things that the labor problem was no 

longer confined in its bearings to employer and employe, but was regarded as » 

qnestion of political economy. In 1889 Congress prohibited the importation of 

foreign labor under contract and the landing anywhere in the United States of 

Chinese. The next year a plan to restrict immigration by imposing a head tax 

was not approved. 

It was continually necessary to enter protest against the violations of the 
alien contract labor law. It was interpreted according to the whim of those having 
the power and there were many violations. Musicians had been classified as 
"professionals" although they came here under contract as skilled workmen. The 
practice of bringing large number of poor, persecuted and deceived Jewish people 
to America and placing them in the sweat shops and trade schools to be taught 
the rudiments of the tailoring trade was condemned, as they afterward were 
thrown on an overstocked labor market. 

In 1900 immigration had reached 900,000 annually and the alien labor law fell 
short of accomplishing the end originally intended. Since 1891 persistent demands 
had been made of Congress to protect American workmen from artificial, stimulated 
immigration. In that- year the immigration question had become so serious the 
convention said : 

"Time was when the American people could declare the United States 
should be a haven for the oppressed of all nations and invite all who 
desired to seek a new home to come to our shores. At that time the 
industries of our country were entirely in their infancy, our lands were 
undeveloped, our resources greater than we ever knew. The people who 
came did so of their own volition ; they cast their fortunes with those 
already here, harmonized and blended with them. Today, however, there is 
not an industry which is not overcrowded with working people who vainly 
plead for an opportunity to work. This is not only confined to the factories. 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



REFERENCE BOOK 29 

workshops, mills, mines and stores, but the same complaint comes from the 
farmlands, and all join in a mighty cry that relief must come. On the 
other hand, we aee artificial famines in some of the older countries caused 
by the vast holdings of the titled wealthy class. While the masses starve 
the tyrannical effete monarchs bolster up their miserable dynasties by forc- 
ing onigration." 
Year after year the Federation kept up a vigorous clamor for remedial legis- 
lation that would permit only the number of immigrants that could be absorbed 
by the country without danger to the people. - In 1896 the convention favored a 
"reasonable measure of restriction on the lines of the educational test." From 
1898 to 1907, both inclusive, 7,208,746 immigrants came to the United States. The 
conventioti, in alarm, contended: 

"Surely, such portentious figures of a conglomerate people brought to 
our country by various devices must cause us to pause and reflect whether 
this infiiuc can long continue with its apparent enormous increase without in 
a large measure tending to tear down, or to make it additionally difBcult 
to maintain, the American standard of life." 
The Executive Council more urgently called on Congress because of these 
Egures to take action that would remove the evil. The appointment of a committee 
by Congress, to include three citizens, to investigate the entire subject followed, 
but Labor was not represented. Ways and means were considered of organizing 
immigrants who had left their homes because of political and religious persecu- 
tions. In 1908 the literacy test was insisted on. In 1910 the commission appointed 
in 1907 by Cot^ress to investigate the question of immigration reported several 
ways of remedying the evil. One of them was that favored by the Federation : 
"A majority of the committee favor the reading and writing test as the most 
feasible single method of restricting undesirable immigration." A bill containing 
this provision was passed by Congress in 19ia-l3, but was vetoed by the President. 
The growth of illiteracy in the United States was laid to immigration in 
191S, and in IBIT Congress again passed a literacy test bill and it was signed by 
the President. A further amendment was recommended by the 1918 convention, 
which provided : "All persons who locate on our lands shall become citizens." 

The community of interest between the farmer and trade unionists soon 
attracted them to each other and the most friendly feeling has existed since. The 
wrongs suffered by the, farmer forced him to organize just as the oppression by 
employers compelled the workers in industry to unite. In 1890 the A. F. of L. sent 
a communication of sympathy and good will to the Farmers' Alliance, then in 
session. In 1893 the executive officers were instructed to use every effort to perfect 
an alliance between unions and farmers "to the end the best interests of both will 
be served." The Farmers' Union of Texas in 1904 appropriated money to aid 
I'nton men on strike and indorsed their union labels. The harmonious relations 
continued to increase and the organiEers of the A. F. of L. and all affiliated state 
federations were instructed to aid the organiza,tions of the farmers. More than 
twenty farmers attended the Minneapolis convention in 1906 and it was decided 
fraternal delegates should be sent all farmers' conventions to explain the practical 
workii^ of the tr^de unions. 

The value of the union label was appreciated by the farmers and some of 
their organizations began to adopt them to be placed on farm products K.rown by 
union farmers. In 1907 a working agreement between the unions and farmers 
was considered. This included reciprocity in demanding union labeled products. 
The Farmers' Educational and Co-operative Union of America in its S>. Louis 
convention in 1910 instructed its officers to confer with the bona fide trade union 
movement for the purpose of carrying into effect the objects of both organizations, 
which were defined as "the protection and uplift of America's workers engaged in 
-II fields of productive activity." In 1912 the A. F. of L. pledged itself to "do 
all in its power to build up and strengthen the Farmers' Union and continue to 
send fraternal delegates to its convention.<i." 

It was reported in 1B13 that in some states progress had been made toward 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



30 AMERICAN 

solving the h^h cost of livii^ throngb cOHSperative associations between the farmers 
and unionists. 

Stricter laws makii^ employers liable for all accidents resulting from their 
negligence or the incompetency of employes were demanded by the first convention. 
The plan approved in those days was an employers' liability law. But this was 
found inimical to Labor because of the unjust bars to recovery based on the doc- 
trine of "assumption of risk, contributory negligence, fellow-servant and waiver 
of rights." Every effort was put forth to amend these laws so as to eliminate the 
defenses of the employer, the Federation maintaining this should be done, although 
the ultimate policy should be workmen's compensation laws. The convention said; 
"The modem use of steam power, electricity, compressed air and explo- 
sives, often under control of men who fail to understand their nature and 
whose routine duties make them so accustomed to danger they fail to realize 
it, has made it utterly impossible to protect society against the weakest of all 
human agencies, the failure or fa i^et fulness of the human factor." 
Legislation for the safety, comfort and health of employes was urged for 
many years before the principle was accepted by legislators. In 1913 the United 
States Supreme Court gave its unanimous approval to the Employers' Liability 
Act of 190a, secured by the Federation. The court rejected Ute pleas of the 
defense, virtually reversing a former opinion on the relation of master and servant. 
It held that Congress had the power to regulate duties of common carriers, both 
in respect to the safety of their employes and the liability of the carrier as an 
employer for injuries sustained by employes while on duty. 

In 1B14 the convention decided to insist on workmen's compuisation laws 
because of their great advance over employers' liability measures. The latter had 
proved very profitable for the lawyers who were willing to enter the list of 
"ambulance cmisers" to secure the lion's share of whatever verdict was rendered. 
The law was declared antiquated, cruel and unjust. Despite the opposition of 
lawyers to the principle of workmen's compensation, which deflted them as 
exorbitant fee, that method of protecting injured employes deeply impressed the 
legislators and many states have incorporated it in its laws. 

In 1919 the convention reaffirmed its stand on workmen's compensation vrith 
this addition: "Compensation to be paid for death or illness in occupational 
diseases." 

Safety legislation was considered absolutely essential, and in 1893 a campaign 
for an automatic car coupler law was launched. This was successful, but tiie 
Interstate Commerce Commission postponed its enforcement for two years over 
the appeals of employes and the tears of women who had suffered through the 
injuries to their husbands or sons. Factory inspectors were demanded in all states. 
One of the greatest violators of safety laws has been the United States govern- 
ment. Its officials refuse to recognize municipal laws for the preservation of life 
and limb. The legislatures also were slow in answering the appeal of the sick and 
injured for redress. In 1911 this was so pronounced the convention declared: 

"In view of the cruel and blind selfishness of a class of employers in 
regard to the health and safety of workers, it is urgently recommended that 
our state federations and central bodies in industrial centers demand not 
only the enforcement of existing laws in factories, workshops, mills and 
mines, but also the promotion of an inquiry as to needed laws for better — 
aj^ humanly considered, absolutely neceasary^ — sanitary home and workshop 
conditions, including safety from dangerous machinery and from fire and 
panic^ The creation of the Bureau of Mines was accomplished only after 
most intense activity by the labor movement. American industry and com- 
merce are notoriously characterized by a cynical disregard of human life. 
There is needless danger and risk in every line of industry and commerce. 
These are due to carelessness and ignorance as well as to greed of 
employers." 
The only protection ever extended to the workers from the greed of employers 
has been where their ability has compelled better conditions through thdr organ- 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



HISTORY. ENCYCLOPEDIA, REFERENCE BOOK. 31 

ixed power, assisted by a public opinion created by the infonnatioa which the 
workup themselves forced on public attention. A Uuseum of Safe^ was advo- 
cated Id this mnaeuni were to be ever;^ device known or invented in the 
future to safeguard machinery and lessen its ability to maim and Idll. Safe^ 
appliances for railroad men were advocated and secured. "Automatic stops 
were urged. In fact every means of absolutely safeguarding the lives and limbs 
of the workers has been urged by the A, F. of L. and in many instances it has 
been successfuj. 

In 1910 necessary legislation was demanded for the protection of workers 
from the economic loss occasioned by poisons and diseases peculiar to the occu- 
pation. In ISll Illinois enacted a law granting the right of employes to recover 
damages resulting from occupational diseases. A Massachusetts court decided 
"stonecutter's consumption" was an occupational disease, as it was traceable to the 
breathing of dust in a granite quarry. A most persistent and successful warfare 
on the use of phosphorous in matches, which caused a loathsome disease known 
as "phouy jaw," was made in 1911. Such matches were taxed out of existence. 
The United States was then the only coimtry permitting the use of poisonous phos- 
phorous. The Federation urged the Department of Labor to make annual in- 
vestigations and report on the best methods of preventing occupational diseases. 
Several Senators treated the term "occupational diseases" with derision, but for 
answer they were referred to reports of the Department of Labor dealing with 
lead poisoning in the pottery industry and the causes of death among women and 
children employed in cotton mills. This completely silenced the objectors, if it 
did not shame them. In IBIB the Federation took 3 decided stand on responsibility 
for trade and occupational diseases. It approved this principle: 

"We believe that trade and occupational diseases should be considered in 
law as well as in fact an obligation on industry." 
Probably the longest and most bitter struggle brought to a successful issue 
was the gaining of freedom for seamen. They were the only workers who were 
denied individual and personal freedom. They were subject to imprisonment for 
leaving an American ship in an American port. This was involuntary servitude, 
a situation absolutely opposed to the Constitution of the United States. Among 
their many other giievancet were: Overloading and Boorly manniiw of vessels; 
insufficient food, some worse than prison fare, making scurvy prevalent; rotten 
vessels sent to sea; forcing use of insanitary forcastles; the "crimping" system; 
extreme cruelty and brutality of officers; using Chinamen for sailors; clothing 
could be attached for no nful Ailment of any contract to work on a vessel of the 
United States. In 1903 the convention denounced the failure of Congress to enact 
a law setting the seaman free, saying: 

"We demand the same individual and personal freedom for seamen that 
is enjoyed by other workers. We protest against a continuation of a system 
of contracts to work that are enforceable by imprisonment as degrading 
to the sailors and dangerous to other workers." 
A petition presented to both Houses of Congress in IBIO awakened the sleepy 
legislators to die fact that there were still slaves in the United States notwith- 
standing the supposed abolition of slavery by the Civil War, The petition teemed 
with the outpoivings of the seamen's centuries-old pent up misery. It was an 
appeal that should hav4 tonched the hardett heart, as it brought out into the 
light the cruelties suffered, the slavery conditions and the reason why seamen 
should be placed on an equal basis among God's free men. It was a heartrending 
outcry "to those who govern nations, to those who make the laws, to humanitarians, 
democrats. Christians, and friends of human freedom everywhere," and it said in 
part: < 

"We, the seamen, the yet remaining bondmen, humbly yet earnestly submit 
this our petition that we may be made free men and that the blighting dis- 
grace of bondage be removed from our labor, which is yet needed in the world 
of commerce, and which has been held to be of great importance to nations 
with sea coasts to defend. The master acting for the vessel may release 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



31 AMBRICAK FEDERATION OF LABOR 

himself and the vessel by paying a few dollars, with no alternative. He that 
ovnis another man's labor power owns his body, since the two cannot be 
separated. We stand in the same relation to the vessel as the serf did to 
the estate, as the slave to- his master. When serfdom was abolished in 
Western Europe we were forgotten by the liberators. When the slaves of 
the United States and Brazil were emancipated our status continued. When 
serfdom was abolished in Russia no change come to us. 

"We now raise otir masaded banda in humble supplication to restore us 

to our rights as brother men, to our labor that honor which belonged to it 

until your power, expressiAg itself through your law, set upon it the brand 

of bondage in the interest of cheap transportation by water. We further 

humbly submit that, as the consciousness of the seamen's status penetrates 

through the population, it will be impossible to get free men to send their 

sons into bondage or to induce free men's -sons to accept it, and we, in all 

candor, remind you that when you travel by water you expect us, the 

serfs, to exhibit in danger the highest qualities of free men by giving our lives 

for your safety." 

It was not until 1912-13 a satisfactory seamen's bill was passed by Congress 

but the world was shocked by the announcement it had met with a "vest pocket" 

veto by the President of the United States. Nevertheless the straggle went on 

and in 191S the Seamen's Law was enacted. A President responsive to the appeal 

of bomanity was there to sign if- The convention said of it : 

"It marks a great forward step in the march of human freedom and 

progress. It removes the last vestige of involuntary servitude from the 

laws of the United States. It is one of the first measures the A. F. of L. 

asked Congress to make a law. It will improve the working condition of 

the seamen. Opportunities will be extended, seamen in other countries 

will enjoy its beneficent influence, the general public while traveling on the 

high seas will be afforded a larger measure of safety." 

Union men were warned to be alert to the dangers before the people of the 

United States, because without doubt the vested interests would exert themselves 

to defeat ihe meritorious principles in the Seamen's Act. Bills lending to weaken 

the law were presented in Congress in 1916, but failed. The next year the 

Supreme Court decided the exclusion act does not apply to employment of Chinese 

seamen. This was a declaration that Section 13 of the Act evidently was void. 

Among the covert dagger thrusts to hamper and discredit Labor none was so 
cunningly devised as the executive order of the President of the United States in 
1M3 declaring the Government Printing Office was an "open shop." This title 
was translated by the convention to be the same as "nonunion" or "scab" shop. A 
member of the Bookbinders' Union had been expelled for "unfairness and im- 
morality" and when his discharge was asked the President's order was the answer. 
The incident was seized by the enemies of fairness to Labor as an opportunity to 
form citizen's alliances to propagate policies that would destroy the trade union 
movement Their first efforts were directed to what they called the "open shop" and 
to attack the union shop under the false assertion it was a "closed shop." They 
pretended that entering into an agreement with an employer to employ union men 
exclusively was in violation of law, that it denied the right to employment of 
workmen who are not members of the unions. In the first instance the claim was 
absurd, as the unions always maintain wide open doors with an invitation to all 
to join. They send forth their organizers and missionaries to induce by every 
honorable means the nonunionist to share in the advantages that come from united 
effort. 

Apart from that consideration is this fact, that an employer can contract with 
a dealer for raw material to erect a plant or to supply machines, the contractor 
to have the exclusive right to provide these things. Such a contract provides for 
the exclusion of all other dealers, builders or machinery manufacturers. Is such 
a contract unlawful? A contract between an employer and a union provides the 
latter will furnish him with labor of certain qualifications for a specific period of 



(ibyGoOt^Ic 



HISTOKV, BHCVCLOPBDIA, RBPBRENCE BOOK 33 

time, tbc consideration being the payment of a certain stipulated wage as a mini- 
mum. That others, nonunion men for instance, are excluded from such a contract 
is their own fault and against which they have neither a l^al nor moral right to 
contend. 

The amaiii^ and numberless inventions in tools and machinery, followed by 

the division and specialization of tabor, have made it impossible for an employe 

as an individual to secure a contract with his employer. As an individual his 

employer cannot hear him for he is voiceless. But when associated with his 

fellow workers, which brings the only method of sccuriuR anything like ad' 

vantageous terms for his labor, his voice can be heard and tne employer finds it 

necessary to listen to a concerted demand to make a contract covering the wages 

to be paid and the conditions of employment for all. The Federation contends : 

"Employers have the lawful right to hire any labor they choose, but it 

does not give them the right to impress workmen or to enslave them, to 

drag them into a factoiy on any terms the employer may choose to grant 

as an expression of his Icindliness.' " 

Organized labor insists upon the "union shop," not the "closed shop," as 

charged by the employers. The "closed shop" is where the doors are closed to 

union men. The "open shop" is where the principle of collective bargaining is 

denied, otherwise a "scab shop." Like the employe of an eastern arms conipany, 

who testified before the National War Labor Board, he had worked more than 

half a century without asking for increased wages or being given any, those 

slaving in the "open shops" must take what is doled out to them. They gradually 

sink deeper and deeper into the toils of serfdom, not having the manhood to 

assert their rights. 

This claim that the so-called "closed shop" is illegal reached an amusing 
stage when, during a strike of ladiet' garment workers in New York in 1910, an 
injunction was issued forbidding the walkout for that reasoiL While no one took 
the order seriously it pointed out the necessity of securing legislation restrain- 
ing the abuse of power by judges. This caused the convention that year to 
declare: 

'^f workmen may be denied by injunction, or any other process, the r^ht 
to leave their employment either singly or in association for the reason they 
desire to secure the 'union shop'; if they may be restrained by an injunction 
from striking in sympathy with their fellow workers; if they may be en- 
joined from striking for any given reason whatever, the difference between 
the so-called free workmen and the workmen who must yield obedience to 
their masters — slaves — has disappeared. The only reason for slaveholding is 
to compel men to work in obedience to their masters' will." 
Social insurance of a voluntary nature was indorsed by the Federation in 
1908. Since then it has maintained its opposition to compulsory insurance by the 
state or nation. In 1913 it was recommended that such insurance should be paid 
by the unions. These included strike, unemployment, old age, partial disability, 
side, death and other benefits. The Federation declared absolutely against insur- 
ance for profit. An investigation as to the advisability of the A. F. of L. establish- 
ing an insurance department found it impracticable and in 1916 the convention 
made this decision; 

"We declare against private insurance, or insurance for profit, as it may 

apply to industrial, social or health insurance. Regardless of the form the 

insurance may finally take and declaring against compulsory insurance of 

any kind, we are unalterably opposed to private insurance companies, for 

profit, and they should be eliminated from any kind of industriaC social or 

health insurance." 

In IPOO the Federation indorsed the principle of old age pensions for the 

"poor and needy who, during their active years as wage earners, have contributed 

to the nation's wealth and prosperity and are no longer able to do so." The 

difficulty in setniring old age pension legislation wag realized owing to the enormous 

effort neceasary to have uniform laws enacted in the various States. A Federal 



-abyGoogle 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 



old age or' retirement pension was indorsed in 1911 and reaffirmed annually since. 
The necessity of organizers occupied the attention of the delegates 1 



18BS: convention. Ther were needed to distribute labor pamphlets and to relieve 
distress among the workers. In these early years hundreds of volunteer organizers, 
without, compensation and at tiidr owa expense, gave their time to the spreading 
of trade union doctrine. This spirit of valor and self-sacrifice without hope of 
reward was the force that added stone on stone to the foundation of the trade 
union movement They blazed the way to the present wonderful organization. 
The Federation found men in all localities willing to help in the work of organ- 
isation. In 1393 it had volunteer organizers who not only preached the gospel of 
labor's rights but wherever possible formed unions. 

In 1S96 the Executive Council was instructed to place paid organizers in the 
field. In IBOO there were twenty salaried organizers and 6B0 volunteers. The 
obstacles met and prejudices to overcome were set forth in the 1903 convention by 
. President Gompers, who said ; 

"I can only reiterate and emphasize the deep obligation under which our 
movement must necessarily be to the men who bear the brunt of unwisdom 
and prejudice in going among the unorganized and carrying to them the 
word of welcome, of hope and encouragement Primarily the conscious- 
ness of having performed .the high duty in the interest of the worker as well 
as the entire human family must be their compensation and reward." 
In the early days of the Federation organizers were regarded by the employers 
;is enemies to soaety. This made their work difficult and dangerous. Tales 
of assaults on these missionaries were frequent Men were shot, tarred and 
feathered, struck down from the rear at night and left dying in the dark streets, 
.«ven lynched, because th^ were pointing out the way to a higher standard of life 
lor the workers of our land. In some sections an organizer was in constant danger 
of being murdered. Even in the present time it now and then occurs that some 
enemy of Labor who has not yet accepted the fact that a "laborer is worthy of 
his hire" is brutal enough to hire gunmen to overawe, beat up or even murder 
an organizer seeking the amelioration of his fellows. 

Only in the last year white organizers were deported from Alabama and threat- 
ened with death if they returned. Two colored men were tarred and feathered. 

The history of the world has demonstrated no cause can be suppressed or 
permanently retarded in its progress when its adherents are willing and ready to 
sacrifice their time, their energy, their intelligence and, if need be, their lives in 
its support In that class stands the American labor movement and the multitude 
■of organizers, salaried and volunteer, who are daily making sacrifices for the 
great cause of human advancement. Not a dollar is expended in the organizing 
£eld that does not bring its return a hundred fold in the form of improved con- 
'ditions for the toilers, the protection of their rights and the resultant organization. 
But the outrages of the past are growing less in nmnber. The moral force exerted 
by the trade union movement is crushing down all obstacles to advancement for 
the burden bearers. The struggle must go on and on in its educational and pro- 
tective work with unswerving fidelity to its firmly entrenched principles. And it is 
not an unimportant share that must be done by our loyal band of organizers. 

Those organizers who have served on the Legislative Committee also have 
■done wonderful work. Their duties require diplomacy and common sense of a high 
order. Thdr success has been pboiomena] mbto it is considered they have had as 
-opponents not only the powerful corporations of the land but the interests that 
:govem the finances. 

Government ownership of the telegraphs was urged in 1B83 during a strike of 
telegraphers. It was proposed that the government establish telegraph lines and 
igWe service at actual cost. This stand was reaffirmed at later conventions. In 
1891 the Federation added its voice to that of the International Typographical 
Union when the latter launched a campaign for the nationalization of the 
telegraphs. When the Illinois legislature passed a bill for a fifty-year franchise 
the Ctucago people were commended for their gallant fight for its repeal. De- 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTOKY, BMCVCLOPBDIA, RBFBRBNCB BOOK 35 

tnands were made that employes of municipal-owned stresc railways be permitted 
to oi^anize, but in 1914 the A. F. of L. declared that whether under priv&tc or 
municipal ownership the only real improvement in the conditions of Labor had been 
gained through trade union activity. It insists that where these utilities are owned 
liy the public Labor should be guaranteed the right to organize on trade union 
lines and to a voice in the regulation of the hours of labor and wages. National- 
ization of the telegraphs was indorsed again in 191S and in 19IB a demand wa& 
made that the govertunent take over the telegraphs for the period of the war. 
I'he principle underlying all action on public ownership was governed by thc' 
status of Labor under such conditions. It was insisted that Qie economic and 
political rights of the workers be assured. This principle bas been made a lead- 
ing feature of the Federation's Reconstruction Program. 

Organized labor has consistently opposed the fixing of a minimum wage for 
men. It has given its support to the principle for women and minors. In the 
IS13 convention this stand was taken : 



"If it were proposed in this country to vest authority in any tribunal to 

fix by law wages for men, Labor would protest by every means in its power. 

Through organization the wages of men can and will be maintained at a 

higher minimum than they would be if fixed by Legal enactment But there 

is a far more significant ground for opposing the establishment by law of a 

minimum wage for men. The principle that organization is* the most potent 

means for gaining a shorter workday and a higher standard of wages appliei 

to women workers as well as to men. But the fact- must be recognized that 

the organization of women workers constitutes a separate and more difficult 

problem. Women do not organize as readily or stably as men. They are, 

therefore, more easily exploited. They certainly are in a greater measure 

ibao are men entitled to the concern of society." 

For several years every effort has been put forth to secure a minimum wa^ 

of $3 a day for government employees, who have been notoriously pointed out 

as the lowest paid labor for the duties performed of any in the country. The 

fact that these inadequate wages remained practically unchanged duHi^ the war 

causes regret that our legislators have not learned that only the loyalty of these 

oppressed workers kept them at thdr tasks. It was another exemplification of 

man's inhumanity to man, a shame and disgrace to a democracy. 

The deadly ravages of tuberculosis alarmed the organized workers of the 
country. Its death total was mounting into the hundreds of thousands. Men and 
women who worked long hours in insanitary workshops and lived in insanitary- 
homes were easy victims to its poison touch. Insufficient wages resulted in insuffi- 
cient nourishing food and the dreadful germ found an army of toil peculiarly 
fertile ^or its death dealing iting. It was pointed out that the victims of thfr 
disease are mostly in the prime of life, between the ages of 15 and 44. In cer- 
tain trades the death rate was 500 per cent greater than in occupations free from 
insanitary conditions. 

Cigarmakers were terribly affected. They had impossible workrooms, illy 
ventilated and lacking all sanitary measures. Before 18B6 the average death rate 
in that trade was 31 years. In IB8B the ci^rmakers established the eight-hour-dajr 
and demanded better conditions surrounding their employment Since then the 
average age has increased to 50 years, or 60 per cent, all credited to the shorter 
workday and better and sanitary workrooms. These figures are absolutely cor- 
rect, as death claims are paid by the Cigarmakers International Union and the- 
record cannot be challenged. The average age of the wives of members also 
increased because of their fewer hours of labor in the household. 

It was soon discovered that the only known remedy for tuberculosis is sunlight, 
fresh air, pure, nourishing food and rest. With this as its objective orgaiuzed 
labor opened a scatbitig warfare on employers who accumulated riches by refusing 
l( build clean, healthy workshops. More rigid investigation of housing conditions 
was demanded; more sanitary work rooms and proper places to care for those- 
afflicted with the scourge. The printers have made the fight against tuberculosis 



■abyGoot^Ie 



S6 AUBRICAN 

B Special duty and many other indoor workers have raised the flag of rebellion 
against any employer who will not protect his employes from the deadly white 
plague. 

Introduction of the union label was a happy thought that has proved of in- 
calculable value. The cigannakers were the first to use this far-reaching weapon, 
but trade after trade fell in line and today there are 51 labels and 10 cards being 
used to show the articles upon which they are printed, sewed, stamped or attadied 
have been manufactured by workmen receiving union wages and employed in clean, 
healthy, sanitary workshops, in a higher material and moral atmosphere. The 
union label is not violent, nor does it carry either threat or reproadi. It appeals 
to the higher and better judgment and not only assists honest toil but aids fair 
minded employers who compete with those who are rapacious and conscienceless. 
It assures the purchaser that the labor of children has not entered into its pro* 
duction ; nor that convict, Chinese, sweatshop or other inferior labor had had a 
part. It is an appeal to the sympathy and the cooperation of our fellows to be 
helpful in the desire for material, moral and social improvement of our people. 

Unfair employers were not slow in realizing the danger to their products and 
they resorted to one of the most contemptible of all acts, counterfeiting. It was 
found necessary to secure laws to punish those who, through fraud, sought to 
deceive the public into buying the product of child and sweatshop labor. Many 
were convicted ■before the criminally inclined employer recognized the danger 
and ceased his nefarious efforts to injure honest labor. 

Numerous propositions for a universal label invaribly have been defeated. 
Being a voluntary organization the A. F. of L. cannot force a label on any organ- 
ization against its will. Besides what is everybody's business is nobody's business. 
That would be the outcome of a universal label, as the responsibility for adver- 
tising its virtues would not be obligatory on any union. 

While hungry, shivering, unemployed men slept in the stone corridors of the 
Ci^ Hall in Chicago in the winter of 1B03, the Federation held its convention in 
the Council Chamber above. After carefully picking his way between and over the 
destitute humanity. President Gompers issued this warning: 

"The path of progress of organized labor has been strewn with the un- 
marked graves of heroes and heroines. Through the dark ages of man's de- 
velopment to the present day, organized labor stands for hope, humanity and 
progress. To it credit is due that we today see clearer the wrongs and in- 
justices which prevail. It voices the hopes of the future and calk to account 
those responsible for the present. I,ast night I walked through the corridors 
of the City Hall and saw hundreds of men lying on the stone flooring, on the 
iron steps and some asleep standing up — all men in enforced idleness. Those 
responsible for these conditions should take warning. They are sleeping in 
false security. 

"The men responsible for these things, who send out their protests, in which 
we join, against the bomb in Barcelona, against the bomb in Paris and against 
the assassin's bullet in Chicago, should understand they must concede to the 
solution of the problem organized labor presents or they wiM be confronted 
by the guerrilla warfare to which I have alluded. Organized labor presents 
a solution of these problems. I appeal to those responsible men because the 
responsibility is resting on their shoulders. If they oppose organized labor in 
solution of these questions the people without assembling, unbridled, unan- 
swerable and irresponsible, may — but who can foretell what dangers may 
confront the human family? If, on the Other hand, those responsible for 
these conditions will take die advice of friends of humanity before it is too 
late conditions may be reversed and a prosperous and just hunian condition 
reinstated." 
A similar condition appears to be confronting the burden-bearers of the United 
States in this year of our lA>rd 1919. An attempt to tear the independence out of the 
heart of Labor by bringing on an artificial panic in which the degrading conditions 
of 1893 would be repeated appears to be in contemplation. But the open protests that 



(ibyGoOt^Ic 



HISTORY ENCITCUIPSDIA. REFERENCE BOOE 37 

will be beard and the whirlwind tbat will be reaped by the conspirators is foretold 
iu the wamiii? of President Gompers made while a dty was advertsing its de- 
grading condition by making a lodging house for unemployed of iU City Hall. Labor 
lived through that panic, becoming stronger and stronger. Any group of men that 
brings about a calamitous industnal condition, in order to gain political preferment 
must answer to the people. 

Peace at any price never was hinted by the great American labor movement. 
When propagani&sts were seeking to use its members in furthering the cause of one 
of the belligerents in the European War the Federation declared in I91S : 

"The trade union movement has refused to give its sanction to any political 
movement in furtherance of peace at any price. While it recogniccs that 
peace is absolutely necessary for normal, consecutive development and prep- 
ress, yet it refuses to secure peace at the sacrifice of ideals and standards of 
justice. It maintains that a necessary assurance of peace is power of self- 
protection and readiness to maintain rights. The principles of statesmanship 
that hold true in the industrial world hold true in the political world. People 
have a right to work out their own salvation according to their own ideals." 
When the United States was forced into the war these fundamental principles 
of the Federation became an asset to the government that assured it of victory. 
After the Executive Council and national and international union officials had 
pledged the labor movement to every field of activity if war came the government 
rested easy. The word of the Federation needed no bond. It was an American 
movement, a movement that held country above all else. The relief to those who 
had the management of the war was voiced by President Wilson in bis address to the 
. Buffalo convention in IBIT, when he said: 

"While we are fighting for freedom We must see among other things that 
Labor is free, and that means a number of interesting things. It means not 
only that we must do what we have declared our purpose to do, see that the 
conditions of labor are not rendered more onerous by the war, but also that 
we shall seelo it that the instrumentalities by which the conditions of Labor 
are improved are not blocked or checked. That we roust do. That has been 
the matter about which I have taken pleasure in conferring from time to time 
with your President, Mr. Gompers, and if I may be permitted to do so, I 
want to express my admiration of his patriotic courage, his large vision, and 
his statesmanlike sense of what has to be done. I like to lay my mind along- 
side of a mind that knows how to pull in hamesi. The horses that kick over 
the traces will have to be put in a corral." 
President Wilson's visit to the convention was to express to Labor, on which so 
much depended, his gratiude for its wonderful support in the war. He insisted 
tbat an army of 3,000,000 workers who had so loyally rushed to the support of 
the government should be made acquainted with the dangerous situation that brought 
about the war and to the further pledge that it was not a fight for political democracy 
alone, but for industrial freedom as well. Not only the President of the American 
Federation of Labor but its 3,000,000 members demonstrated they knew how to 
poll in harness. It was a practical illustration of the unanimity of thought, the 
solidarity and intense struggle for freedom of the great American Labor movement. 
Labor's fight is always the people's tight, and this was proved by the war beyond 
cavil. 

Socialist propaganda within the trade movement has been persistent but un- 
availing. Handicapped by the charge of Karl Marx, their patron saint, who de- 
clared in answer to Proudon that the "socialists were the worst enemies of the 
laboring classes," they made no headway. The most damaging charge they have had 
to meet is that they are seeking the disruption of the A. F. of L. The methods 
of the socialists bear out these charges. They led in the organization of the Socialist 
Trade and Labor Alliance, the American Labor Union, Western Labor Union and 
the I. W. W. In nearly every convention of the A. F. of L. they have supported 
some fantastic idea meant to accomplish their purpose to discredit the men who 
sedc to keep the labor movement pri^xessing through its economic power. Their 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



38 AMERICAN PBDBRATIOKI OF LABOR 

aiguments have been vfllification, falsehood and venom. They attack individuals to 
defame the labor movemetit They are always boring from within, doing some- 
thing; to prevent the organized men and women of tne land from gaining better 
conditions. While preaching solidarity they are seeking a strangle hold on trade 
unionism that would bring its death. ' They always point to the labor movements of 
other countries as models to follow. They preach the cooperative commonwealth, 
when all the means of production and distribution would be owned by the people. 
While Karl Marx never mentioned the cooperative commonwealth in all his works, 
they point to him as the Messiah of their movement. The entire agitation of the 
socialists, who as such are not lecogniied, has been to make the American Fed- 
eration of Labor a tail to their political party kite. Attention was called in 
1808 to the diSereoce between the "mask and real face" of the sodaliats who 
had done all they could to disrupt the organization. They had organized a rival to 
the A F. of L. and upon a streamer hanging over the head of the chariman was 
printed : 

"Wreck the Old Trade Union* Pull for the Shore of Socialism." 
The socialist is class conscious, the trade unionist wage conscious. While de- 
manding that union men vote for socialists the socialist never will vote for a trade 
unionist. They belittle every achievement of the trade unionists, even seeking to 
abolish Labor Day and in its place introduce May 1, the labor day of Continental 
Europe. While the A. F. of L. established Labor Day without askmg consent from 
any one the European Labor Day was not introduced until consent was given by 
the governments that had been begged for the right. But even then the European 
labor movements were compelled to have their demonstrations On the Sundays 
prior to May 1. The 1903 convention indorsed this charge of President Gompers 
against the socialists : 

"I declare it to you I am not only at variance with your doctrines but with 
your philosophy. Economically ^ou are unsound; socially you are wrong; 
industrially you are an impossibility." 
Another charge frequently made and never successfully contradicted is that 
the worst enemy of socialism is the socialist. 

One ridiculous claim made by the socialists and always disproved is that Labor 
would gain more by partisan political action than by trad^ nnion activitjr. But 
whenever the socialists desire to gain any 8^eat point they desert their principles 
and try to steal those of the trade union. This has been exemplified many times 
when as a last resort tfaey pleaded for a general strike to gain some important con- 
cession. Trade unionists were designated "pure and simple" because they would 
not grasp the vagaries of the socialists. The Socialist Party is no more eligible to - 
membership in the American I^abor Movement than the Democratic and Republican. 
The members of that party, however, have assumed an attitude of protection over 
Labor that has been found nauseating and repelling. 

The St Paul IBIB convention was not unaware that revolutionary changes had 

come to the people becatise of the war. It was a new world the delegates were 

facing, one in which it would require all the ability of those selected to guide the 

destinies of the labor movement to keep the trade union ship off the rocks toward 

which its enemies were seeking to drift it. With this in mind the delegates declared : 

"We are facing today conditions different from anything ever experienced 

before. If we have faith in ourselves and in our movement we have power 

to resize our aims and ideals. Organization is imperative for our nation 

to be successful in this worid contest and organization is essential if our 

industries are to be saved and the workers are to be guaranteed reasonable 

opportunities of enjoying the fruits of their labor and continue to promote 

the interests and well beiiig of all our people." 

The growth of trade unionism in the United States had been exceedingly slow 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORY, ENCYCLOPEDIA, REPSRENCB BOOK 39 

Early in the year 1866 the trades' assemblies of New York City and Baltimore 
issued a call for a Nationa] I^bor Congress, and, in accordance with that appeal, 
one hundred delegates, representing sixty open and secret labor organizations of all 
kinds, and covering an area of territory extending from Portland, Me., to San Fran- 
cisco, met in Baltimore, Md., on August SO. A number of the labor oi^anitations 
there represented were merely local unions, but a great many were national and 
international bodies, such as ship carpenters, railroad men, miners, painters, carriers, 
window-glasa blowers, stone masons, marble cutters and iron moulders. 

At that convention committees were appointed to look into the expediency of in- 
troducing the eight-hour system, of taking political action and forming a permanent 
national or^nization. The questions of public domain, the national debt, coopera- 
tive associations, strikes, and convict labor were fully discussed, and measures were 
adopted for the organization of sewing women. Among the many resolutions 
passed was one favoring the speedy restoration of agriculture in the South, and the 
upbuilding of that section upon a new basis of industrial advancement 

In the following year the second annual congress of the National X^abor Union 
was held in Chicago, attended by over 200 delegates, representing trades unions in 
all the northern states and in six southern states. President Z. C. Whaley, in his 
report, urged that State organizations be formed, and this idea, together with the 
demand that the public domain should be reserved for actual settlers, was adopted 
bodily by the Knights of Labor. As may be seen, the National Labor Union was 
formed in imitation of the Trades Union Congress of England, in which local 
bodies, not allowed to discuss politics in t^eir meetings, could send delegates to the 
central body, and there deal with questions of a politit^ nature and thus influence 
national legislation in favor of the working people. But the political portion of 
the work was the smaller portion, for matters of a social and industrial character 
were dealt with to a greater extent 

Two conventions of the National Labor Union were held in 1S68, one in M^ 
and the other in September. The first convened in Pittsburgh, and the principal 
act of that session was an alliance to cooperate with the Patrons of Husbandry and 
the Grangers. The September session was held in New York City, to take action 
regarding the general movement which was then going on in favor of the establish- 
ment of the eight-hour rule. In his address the chairman pointed out the need of 
doser coherence than yet had been attained between the different trades and callings, 
and recommended that a central head be established, to which all the trades and 
labor unions should be subordinate. This idea was not strictly carried out, however, 
and the mistake in disrc^rding it was subsequently mad! plain. The annual con- 
vention of 1860 was held in Chicago; that of 1870 in Boston; that of 1871 in Phila- 
delphia, and that of 1872, which was the last, wound up in Columbus, O. There it 
was decided to nominate a ticket for President of the United States, and David 
Davis, of Illinois, was chosen as the standard-bearer. 

This drifting into political action provoked so much dissension that one local 
oreanization after another — believing that the Nationa] Labor Union had entered a 
field of operations for which it 'was not intended — withdrew its support, and inter- 
est was lost in the central body. 

In the next year, 1873, the great panic swept upon the country and demolished 
the trades unions. Most of them were built on a basis of very low dues and had 
no beneficial feature that would hold the members together when trades questions 
failed to interest them, and, consequently, both the local unions and the national or- 
ganization went down in the crash The distress of the winter of 1873-4, and the in- 
ability of organized labor to stem the reduction of wages that were taking place in 
every branch of industry, induced a number of leading trades unionists to call an- 
other "Industrial Congress" in Rochester, N. Y., for April H, 187*, with the inten- 
tion of returning to the old lines of the National Labor Union, avoiding politics, and 
of forming a federation of the trades and labor unions of the entire country. There 
was represented at this convention a secret organization, then known as the "Sov- 
ereigns of Industry," which was making great headway in the eastern and middle 
states, with a purpose of establishing cooperative stores and eliminating the "mid- 
dle man" from commercial transactions. Another organization represented was 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



FBDERATION Of LABOR 

that known as the "Industrial Brotherhood of the United States," abo secret and 
somewhat of the character of the Knights of I,abor. 

In the convention there was a serious clash between the champions of these two 
bodies on the question of a permanent oiganization, some of the delegates desiring 
to form an order similar to the Industrial Brotherhood, and others favoring the 
Sovereigns of Industry plan. A platform was finally adopted, however, which was 
almost identical b every respect with the declaration of principles of the Knights of 
Labor. 

The movement to form a permanent industrial congress, nevertheless, seemed to 
end with that session of the convention, and no further efforts were made in that 
direction until a call for a national convention, to be held at Tyrone, Pa., in Decem- 
ber, 1875, was issued by a secret oisanization, which was at diat time a promising 
rival of the Knights of Labor, entitled the "Junior Sons of '76." The design of 
this gathering was to form a. combination of all the scattered fragments of the 
labor movement. Delegates were in attendance from the "Junior Sons of '76," the 
Kn^his of Labor, the Grangers, open trades unions, and social democratic or- 
nanizations, as they were called at that time. Their worthy designs did not mate- 
rialize, however, but were dissipated in vain talk. The "Junior Sons" themselves 
were very short lived. After "'76" had rolled away, no trace of them could be 
found. In that year they had engaged in politics as an order throughout Pennsyl- 
vania, and had elected several members of the legislature on labor measures. Aftei* 
having done that, their mission seemed to have been fulfilled and they disbanded. 

During the same period the Industrial Brotherhood, which was numerically wealo 
but extended through many sections of the country, was also attempting to outrival 
the Knights of Labor. Another order of a general and secret character had spmng 
up in die early part of 1877, known as the "International Labor Union," having 
brandies in seventeen states. But little or nothing of national consequence was done 
by the trades and labor unions until 1S78, wheh they everywhere began to re-organ- 
ize, and, profiting by their previous failures, laid the foundations of local unions upon 
a basis of high dues, introducing various beneficial features, such as sick, funeral, 
and disability benefits, and other financial provisions calculated to hold the members 
more firmly to the organization. These local bodies in turn combined and formed 
trades assemblies, trades councils, etc In these central bodies Knights of Labor 
and trades unionists were both united. 

Coming up, however, to the preliminary steps that led ultimately to the formation 
of the American Federation of Labor, a call was issued conjointly by the "Knights 
of Industry" and a society known as the "Amalgamated Labor Union"— an offshoot 
of the Knights of Labor, composed of disaffected members of that order— for a con- 
vention to meet in Terre Haute, Ind., on August 2, 1881. The Amalgamated Labor 
Union had been organized in 1B78, and was confined principally to Ohio and Indiana, 
vbH< the Knights of Industry, with which it joined hands, was confined to Missouri 
and Illinois. The Terre Haute convention had for its object the establishment of 
a new secret order to supplant the Knights of Labor, although, on the face of the 
call, its object was stated to be to establish a national labor congress. There was 
a large representation of delegates present from St. Louis, Cleveland, Chicago, and 
other western cities, but the only eastern city represented was Pittsburgh. The 
trade union delegates represented the largest constituency, but were less in number 
themselves than the delegates of the other sodeties. But, by the exercise of tact 
and diplomacy, the trades union men, who were at that time also members of the 
Knights of Labor, successfully opposed the project of adding another new organiza- 
tion to the list of societies already in existence, and, for the time being, the friends 
of the proposed secret organization were defeated 

A call was published, however, for a subsequent convention, to be held in Pitts- 
buigfa on November 15, 18B1, and tiiis gathering proved to be the most important of 
Ki kind that had thus far been held. The call for that convention was remarkable. 
It read in part: 

'"The time has now arrived for a more perfect combination of Labor — 
one that will concentrate our forces so as to more successfully cope with 
concentrated capital. We have ntunberless trades anions, trade assemblies 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORV. ENCYCLOPEDIA, RBFEKS^^CS BOOK 41 

or couodU, Knights of Labor, and various other local, national, and inter- 
national labor union^ all enga^fed in the noble task of elevating and improv- 
ing the condition of the woifcin? classes. But great as has been the work 
done by these bodies, there is vastly more that can be done by a conibination 
of all these organizations in a federation of trades and labor unions. In 
Great Britain and Ireland annual trade union congresses are held. France 
and other countries have similar gatherings. The work done by these 
assemblages of workmen speaks more in their favor than a volume of other 
arguments. A National Trade Union Congress can prepare labor measures 
and agree on laws they desire passed by the Congress of tlic United States; 
and a Congressional Labor Committee, after the manner of the Parliamentary 
Committee of Trades Unions in England, could be elected to urge and 
advance legislation at Washington on all such measures and report to the 
various trades. In addition an annual congress of trade unions could or- 
ganize a systematic agitation to propagate trade imion principles and im- 
press the necessi^ of protective trade and labor organizations, and to 
encourage the formation of such unions and their amalgamations in trade 
assembUes. Thus we could elevate trade unionism and obtain for the work- , 
ing classes the respect for their rights and that reward for their services ' 
to which they are justly entitled. A federation of this character can be 
organized with a few simple rules and no salaried officers. The expenses 
of its management will be trivial and can be provided for by the Trade 
Union Congress." 
The call was signed by J. £. Coghlin, President National Tanners and Currier^ 
Union; Richard E. Powers, President Lake Seamen's Union; Lyman Brant, Interna- 
tional Typographical Union; P. J, McGuire, St Louis Trades and Labor Assembly; 
T. Thompson, Iron Molders* Union, Dayton, O: Geo. W. Osborn, Iron Moldcra' 
Union, Springfield, O.; W. E. Pollner, Clevehmd Trades Assembly; Sam F. Lcffing- 
well, Indianapolis Trades Assembly, and J. R. Backus, Terre Haute Amalgamated 
Labor Union. In the report made by Mark W. Moore, Corresponding Secretary 
and Treasurer of the preliminary meeting held in Terre Haute, the following names 
were also given as endorsing tbe call: 

G«>. Clark, President International Typographical Union; P. F. Fitzpatrick, 
President Iron Holders' Union of America; John Kinnear, President Central Trades 
and Labor Assembly, Boston, Mass., and George Rodgers, President Chicago 
Trades Assembly. 

There were 107 delegates present at the Pittsburg convention, representing 
263,000 workingmen. A permanent organization was formed and named the Fed- 
eration of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada. 
A legislative committee, now known as the Executive Council, was appointed, con- 
sisting of Richard Powers, of the Seamen's Union, of Chicago; William H, Foster, 
of the International Typographical Union, of Cincinnati; Samuel Gompera, of the 
International Cigar Makers' Union, of New York; C F. Burgman, of the Tailors' 
International Union, of San Francisco, and A. C Rankin, of the Knights of Labor 
Iron Holders, of Pittsburgh. Knights of Labor assemblies and trades imions were 
equally represented, and it was thorough^ understood that the trade unionists 
should preserve their form of organization and the Knights of Labor should main- 
tain theirs, and that the two should work hand in hand for the thorough amalgama- 
tion of the working people under one of these two heads, and that they should use 
every legitimate means to offset any movement designed to create any more frag- 
ments or divisions in the labor army. The constitution of the new organization 
provided: 

'^his assodatton shall consist of such trade and labor unions as shall, 

after being duly admitted, conform to its rules and regulations and pay 

all contributions required to carry out the objects of this Federation." 

TIus was made Artide I of the cmstitution, 'liecanse it would keep out of 

tbe Federation political labor bodies which might try to force themselves into 

future delibeiationi.'' 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



42 AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 

The preamble adopted declared 'Ue formation of a Federation embracing 
every trade and labor orgianization in North America, a union founded on a basis 
as broad as the land we live in, is our only hope." The platform favored the com- 
pulsory education of children, the abolition of child labor, the passage of uniform 
apprentice laws, the enforcement of the eight-hour rule, the restriction of contract 
prison labor and the abandonment of the store-order system. It also advocated 
a first lien for labor done, the repeal of the conspiracy laws against organized labor, 
the establishment of a bureau of labor statistics, the continuance of the protective 
tariff for American industry, the enactment of a national law to prevent the impor- 
tration of foreign labor under contract, and urged that organized labor should have 
representation in all law-making bodies, in order to secure beneficial legislation. 
Supplementary resolutions were also passed, setting forth the necessity of legisla- 
tion securing restrictions to Chinese labor, the licensing of stationary engineers, 
governmental inspection of factories and workshops, the sanitary supervision of food 
and wells, and an employers' liability law. The principles adopted were: "A shorter 
workday and better pay," "We recogniie neither creed, color or nationality," and "all 
workingmen, whether mechanics or laborers, are eligible to membership." 

Upon these principles the Federation was formed. Thir^-eight years later it 
can be said the A. F. of L. has religiously clung to those prindples, the chief funda- 
mentals being a shorter workday, higher wages and continually improving standard 
of living. They are demands for bread and butter, the first necessaries of life. 
In every crisis, where covert or open attempts were made to drag the American 
labor movement from its rock-ribbed economic moorings and the future was 
dark with forebodings, those principles successfully withstood all treacherous 
attacks and preserved the organization. The delegates to the first convention 
were well aware of the dangers ahead of Labor. They had passed through the 
experience of seeing other national and local labor organizations going down to 
oblivion after a battle on the partisan political field. They therefore proposed 
CO start the new organization on its journey down the years with a foundation 
so secure neither enemies within nor without could injure its usefulness or destroy 
its character. The organizatipn has moved alone its course of gaining more and 
more benchts for its members. It has followed the path so substantially paved 
by the early trade unionists. It has withstood every attack of those who would lead 
the trade union movement out of its present vride road to success into political by- 
ways at the end of which lie buried the National Labor Union and all other national 
organizations of labor that had been inoculated with the virus of the political labor 
huckster. 

The Knights of Labor was represented in this convention by SO delegates, bnt 
none appeared in the years following, although the constitution permitted their ad- 
mission. The influence of the labor press was a great aid to the organizations of 
Labor and the convention praised "all of them for their especial help as mouth- 
pieces of unionism and the Federation." 

At this same session it was decided to choose a committee of three and invite 
the cooperation of a committee of three from the ParUamentary Committee of the 
Trades Union Congress of Great Britain, and of a committee of three from the Syn- 
dical Chambers of France, these nine to form a labor commission, whose duty it 
should be to proceed to Ireland, hear evidence and acquaint themselves with the 
causes of discontent in that country; thence to proceed to London and Paris, make 
investigations of the condition of the working classes there, and publish their report. 
But, from want of action on the part of the trades unions of England, the project 
fell through. 

In the interim until the next convention the Legislative Committee of the Fed- 
eration set to work and secured several hearings before congressional committees of 
the House and Senate, which resulted in the appointment of a special Senate Com- 
mittee to make a thorough investigation of the labor question. Repeated hearings 
were had before this committee in favor of an enforcement of the eight-hour law 
and the creation of a national bureau of labor statistics, and in opposition to a Ull 
to make the lake seamen, if they should ever strike or use their influence upon otben 
during a strike, guilty in the eyes of the law of mutiny at sea, and liable to punish- 



■ogle 



HISTQRY. EUCYCXOPEDIA. REFBKBNCB BOOK 4J 

mem accordingly. So strong was the opposition to this Wll that it was shortly aft- 
erward buried in the committee. 

On all the various subjects noted abQve, Inlls were introduced by the Federation 
and placed in the hands of prominent Congressmen for enactment. The creation 
of the Department of Labor with the Secretary a member of the President's Cabinet 
is one of the great victories of the Federation. In 1881 the question of a Bureau 
of Labor Statistics was considered and Congress was urged to create such a de- 
partment In 1BS3 the law was enacted, but it was only after vigoroua prodding 
for months that the President of the United States appointed a Commissioner of 
Labor. In 18B8 the Executive Council was directed to prepare a bill for the 
establishment of a Department of Labor. The bill was met mth an opposition 
measure to establish a Department of Commerce and Industries. The convention 
contended : 

"From the foundation of our government up to the present day the rep- 
resentatives of business and commerce have had absolute and exclusive rep- 
resentation in the Cabinet and in every department of our government. 
Since the wage earners of our country are so essential to its well being, and 
they form so large and overwhelming a number of the dtizeoship of the 
United States, it does seem as if the interests and needs of Labor require 
a direct representative in the councils of the President." 
The IBM convention opposed the creation of a Department of Commerce 
and Industries and reaffirmed emphatically its demand for a Department of Labor. 
Congress, however, established the former, which absorbed the Buuau of Labor 
Statistics. The Federation did not rest, but continued its agitation for a Depart- 
ment of Labor. Ten years later Congress enacted a. law for its establishment. 
No provision, however, was made for paying the expenses of the department or 
the salaries of its officers. A year later an emeigency appropriation was passed, 
hut it did not provide sufficient funds. The convention contended that to have it 
thus handicapped in its initial work retarded the progress of the great humanitarian 
purpose for which the department was brought into existence. It said : 

"We cannot too strongly condemn the niggardly, picayunish policy of 
Congress in dealii^ with the only department entrusted with promoting the 
welfare of the wage workers." 
W. B. Wilson, the Secretary of Labor, is a coal miner. He has been a member 
of the Miners' Unions for forty-eight years. Soon after his appointment he was 
accused of being partisan to labor. In an address to the 1S14 convention he an- 
swered this by saying : 

"I never have understood the trade union movement stood for anything 

else than justice to the wage workers. It never has desired to impose an 

injustice on anybody else. If securing justice to those who earn their bread 

in the sweat of their face constitutes partisanship, then count me as a 

partisan of labor." 

Since its establishment, the Department of Labor, despite obstacles, has rapidly 

become a great humanizing force. Its investigations of economic conditions are 

the most complete ever made by any government and the results when published 

have made the whole world marvel at the advanced methods of the United States to 

lighten the burdens of the great masses of the population. The Secretary of Labor 

has permitted no influence to interfere with his determination to let the people 

know the truth. The Monthly Bulletins printed by the Department are not equalled 

in any other country. In fact, the entire work of the Department is a prodigious 

step in the evolution of the country's humanitarian work. 

"The first convention declared for the protection of American workingmen 
through a tariff on imports. This became a political issue and in the 1882 
session the plank was eliminated from the platform. This was objected to by the 
iron and steel workers and they refused to send delegates to the next convention. 
Jn answer the Secretary of the Federation sent this reply : 

"It was the unanimous desire of the convention that the Federation should 
remain unpledged on this vexed question, and protectionists as well as 



44 AMERICAN PEDEKATIOH OP LABOR 

free-traders voted for the motion to place the organiiation upon a neutral 

footing. It was believed the tarifi was a political issue and one on which 

men equally honest in the labor movemeDt might always di£Fer. It was 

thought best, therefore, while, so large a field for harmonious and united 

action remained open for trade unionists that the tarifi plank should not 

be forced upon those who could otherwise subscribe to our platform of 

principles," 

Fearing that some disaster might overtake this organization, as had been the fate 

of its predecessors, a manifesto was issued to the subordinate unions, discountenanc- 

mg political action, on the ground that the Federation bad been organized as a purely 

industrial body. The manifesto set forth further: 

"We favor this Federation because it is the most natural and assimilative 
form of bringing the trades and labor unions toge^er. It preserves the 
industrial autonomy and distinctive character of each trade and labor union, 
and, without doing violence to their faith or traditions, blends them all in 
one harmonious whole — a 'federation of trades and labor unions.' Such a 
body looks to the organization of the working classes as workers, and 
not as 'soldiers' (in the present deprecatory sense) or politicians. It makes 
the qualities of a man as a worker the only test of fitness, and sets up no 
political or religious test of membership. It strives for the unification of 
all labor, not by straining at an enforced union of diverse thought and 
widely separated methods, not by prescribing a uniform plan of organization, 
r^ardless of their experience or interests, not by antagonizing or destroying 
existing organizations, but by preservinc; all that is integral or good in them 
and by widening their scope so that eaui, without destroying their individual 
character, may act together in all that concerns them. The open trades 
unions, national and international, can and ought to work side by side with 
the Knights of Labor, and this would be the case were it not for men 
either over-zealous or ambitious, who busy themselves in attempting the 
destruction of existing unions to serve their own whims and mad icono- 
clasm. This should cease and each should understand its proper place and 
work in that sphere, and if they desire to come under one head or affiliate 
their affairs, then let all trades and labor societies, secret or public, be rep- 
resented in the Federation of Trades and L^bor Unions." 
As will be observed from reading this manifesto, the friction between the Fed- 
eration and the Knights of Labor had already become serious and irritating. The 
next convention, that of 1883, favored arbitration instead of strikes. The ei^t-hour 
rule was insisted upon and laws were demanded to limit the dividends of corpora- 
tions and to introduce governmental telegraph systems. A committee was appointed 
to wait on the national conventions of both the Republican and Democratic parties 
the following year, and secure the insertion of planks in their respective platforms 
favorable to the interests of the labor movement. The Legislative Committee 
was instructed to present a bill to Congress creating a national Department of Indus- 
try or Labor, 'This project also, like many of those foregoing, was strenuously ad- 
vocated later by the Knights of Labor as an idea of their own. Before the conven- 
tion adjourned another committee was appointed to confer with the Knights of La- 
bor and other kindred organizations with a view to securing a thorough unification 
and consolidation. Correspondence was subsequently opened with the Kjiights of 
Labor on the subject, but the proposition was repulsed. 

The 1885 convention in Washington was principally directed to strengthening 
the national organization and preparing for the eight'hour movement. The Knights 
of Labor had been invited to cooperate but had adjourned its General Assembly 
at Hamilton, Ohio, without taking any action or expressing any sympathy for the 
shorter workday campaign. 

The 18B6 convention was originally called to meet in St. Louis in the latter 
part of the year, but the stirring events incident to the eight-hour strikes and the 
difficulties existing with the Knights of Labor led to the memorable conference of 
the officers of the trades unions on May 18, where defensive measures were outlined 



:b,Goot^Ic 



HISTORY. ENCYCLOPEDIA. RBPBRBNCB BOOE 45 

to protect the trades onions and to secure bannony with the Knigfati of Labor. A 
committee attended the special session of the Kni^ta' General AsaemUy, at Qeve- 
land, on May 26, and after several day^ waiting, marked by long and animated dis- 
cussions in the General Assembly on trade-union issues, no definite assurances were 
obtained, and noaction was taken. The trades udioa committee a second time met 
the Knights of Labor Executive Board on September E6, and secured promises 
that definite action would be taken at the Richmond General Assembly, whidi would 
lead to harmony between the two oi^niiations. 

The trade unions objected to the admission to the Knights of Labor of mem- 
bers who had been suspended, expelled, or rejected for cause by their own organiza- 
tion; they_opposed the formation of Kn^hts of I<abor assemblies in trades already 
thoroughly organized into trade unions, and complained of the use of Knights of 
Labor trade-marks or labels, in competition with tneir own labels, notably so in the 
case of the Cigar Makers' International Union. At the Richmond General Assembly, 
the Jrade union chiefs presented a mass of grievances, showing where their local 
unions had been tampered with by Knights of Labor organizers, where movements 
had been made to disrupt them, and where, in cases where such disruption could not 
be effected, antagonistic organizations were formed by the Knights. The General 
Assembly, however, instead of removing these alleged evils or giving satisfactory re- 
dress to the trade union element, administered to the Federation a slap in the face, 
as tiie latter understood it, by passing a resolution compelUng the members of Cigar 
Makers' International Union connected with the Knights of Labor to withdraw from 
the order. 

The call for the St. Louis convention of the Federation was then abrogated, and 
a circular was issued designating Columbus, Ohio, as the place of meeting on De- 
cember 8. At the same time all organizations not already dialed with the Federa- 
tion, were nr^ed to attend a trade union convention to be held in the same place 
on the foTlowmg day. After four days' joint sessions of the bodies, the old Federa- 
tion of trade and labor unions was dissolved, and the American Federation of 
Labors— tlie result of long thought, mature brains, and arduous toil— was bom to the 
world. 

Twenty-five national organizations were blended in it, with an aggregate mem- 
ber-ship of 310,409 workingmen. A plan of permanent organization was adopted, 
very simple in its details, and an executive council of five members and chief officers 
were elected. Resolutions were passed favoring the early adoption of the eight-hour 
rule, demanding of Congress the passage of a compulsory indenture law, and con- 
demnii^ the Pinkerton/ Preventive Patrol, and the Coal and Iron Police. After 
much deliberation, a constitution was agreed upon, in which the main objects of 
the great organization were stated to be "the encouragement of formation of local 
unions, and the closer federation of such 'societies, through central trade and labor 
unions in every city, with the further combination of these bodies into state, terri- 
torial, and provincial organizations, to secure legislatbn in the interests of the work- 
ing masses ; the estabhshment of national and international trade imions, based 
upon a strict recognition of the autonomy of each trade, and the promotion and ad- 
vancement of such bodies; and the aiding and encouragement of the labor press of 
America." 

The new Federation was democratic in principle and its affairs were conducted 
in the most frugal manner, the antithesis of those of the Knights of Labor. The 
latter began, from that year, to disintegrate, while the Federation continued to move 
onward and soon became so strongly entrenched it was impossible for its enemies 
to endanger its future. Since its inception the Federation has not been in any man- 
ner a secret organization. Its conventions are open to all who may wish to attend, 
whether friend or foe. Its proceedings are printed and distributed to all who desire 
them, Occasionally detective agencies will trick a number of manufacturers who 
are not in touch with Labor to pay enormous sums for secret information secured 
tn' operatives at the Federation conventions. It is a confidence game pure and sim- 
ple, as there is nothing done that is not given the freest publicity. Publicity is 
■on^t, not avoided. 

In a retrospect of the history of the American Federation of Labor in 1905 the 



i,Goot^Ic 



16 AMERICAN FEDERATION OP LABOR 

c<»iveDtioii called attention to the revolutionary change in thought of those who had 
>o long opposed the trade unions. It declared that no one could doubt for a moment 
the efficacy of the labor movement and the high and lofty character of its aims, 
adding: 

'^ith pride and satisfactiBn we all observe the advanced stage of public 
opinion ; the more friendly attitude it has assumed toward the work, splendid 
attainments, and the high aims of the organized American labor movement. 
To place the trade unions of the America,n Federation of Labor upon a still 
more exalted plane, to be of still further and greater advantage to our 
fellows, to aid to the fullest in securing better and still better material, ecO' 
nomic, social and moral conditions for the toiling masses and for all our 
people, is the mission of our great movement. We are conscious of omitting 
no word or act calculated to be helpful to the great cause with which we 
have the honor to be associated. With the growing intelligence and per- 
sistency, with energy, faithfulness and earnestness of puriwse of our fellow 
-workers, we have an abiding faith of the absolute triumph of the principles 
and purposes for which our movement stands. We cannot too strongly 
impress upon the minds of all to still greater activity, that we may each 
year pass a milestone from the misery, poverty and degradation of the past, 
and on the rational, natural road of trade union evolution, reach the goal of 
justice, right and humanity. In that cause we are all enlisted, and our 
progress and triumph will be measured by the unity and federation, by the 
intelligence and the faithfulness and devotion to the cause of labor, which in 
its alpha and omega is the cause of humanity." 
The lfll6 convention again referred to the marvelous change in public senti- 
ment, saying: 

"The history of the trade union movement at its inception reveals it was 
regarded as too insignificant for attention and was omitted entirely from 
serious consideration. As the movement gained in strength^ power and 
influence, when the workers of our country had compelled public recognition 
It was treated with contempt and uncompromising hostili^, regarded as a 
-social enemy and an obstacle to our economic and industrial progress. All 
this has changed. Trade unions are now acknowledged essential to the 
interests of the men and women of labor and justified as an invaluable insti- 
tution to human progress and for the advancement of a higher and a greater 
civilization.'' 
One of the landmarks of Washington is the American Federation of Labor 
Building. It cost $189,317.68. The architecture of the structure represents the 
same thought that has animated the construction of the trade union movement. 
Its beautiful lines and stability, the quality of material used, the conveniences 
provided for carrying on the business of the great humanitarian movement, all 
emphasize the wonderful strength and adaptability of the principles of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor. 

In ancient days all social laws failed because they left out the laborer. He was 
neither heaven-boru nor could he worship the same religion as his master. He was 
dented his liberty^ and a soul. It is a long journey from those days of antiquity, 
Init in the centuries that have passed the struggles of Labor for a place in the sun 
bave been unceasing. Its trials and defeats were uneodii^. The endeavor to or- 
ganize during the nmeteenth century were met by the destructive tactics of the em- 
ployers backed by the bludgeons of the law. It was not until the American Federa- 
tion of Labor was formed in 1881 that Labor found a plan of organization that has 
stood the intriguing and blows of the employers, the courts and industrial autocracy. 
But no matter how great the opposition, how effective have been the ever coercive 
methods of destruction aimed at the organization and its members, the trade union 
movement has lived and has grown. It has moved onward and upward. No matter 
tiow great the upheaval or bitterness over politics, it has stood as the rock of 
Gibraltar, impossible of overthrow. Does that not prove that the principles upon 
which the American Federation of Labor is built are enduring, that some great 
powtT of resistance is hidden in the trade union principles that will keep it alive? 



.,Goo*^lc 



BNCVCLOPBDIA, RBFBKSNCB BOOK 



CONSTITimON OF THE A. F. OF L. 1918-1919 



sr»H, A (tmdlB 1> I 

world bvtwean Iha Dpi>N9(on and ths o 
prsMad «t all SDuntriH, ■ ■(mnts t 
tirmD tbt cBpltaliat aod ths Tibon 
wUeb crow« la iDtenillj from T» 
to TMr, Bod will work diuitroni i 
■nltt to tfa« tolliiK mlltiODt II tbey ars n 
CDobititd tot matDB] protictlDo and bBDSl 
II. Ihsritora, behoDTH tha rsprcignUtlT 
of tha Traita and Labor Union! of Amarl< 
is coBTantioQ aiMmbled, to adopt aiuh miM 



uid dUiamiaata neb p 

(be mecluialo and laboran 

— ■"— -.t I, — ., 
, tb«rei 



t ib« fom 



f our BonstTT 
hlcli thar an 
thoi^ 



oub FadantlOD. embracing every Trade 
Labor OrnnUalion is America, orgauiiBii 
ondar tbe Trada Union ajiiam. 

OOHBTinSIOH — ARTICLE I — Name; 
TbU AiMelaUoD (ball be known aa The 
Ameriean Federation of Labor, and iball 
eooiUt of mcb Trade and Labor Unioni a* 
■ball eoofonn to 111 mlea and T«cnlitkina, 

ARTIOLB n— ObJecU: Section 1. Tbe ib- 
jeet of thii Federation (ball be the eBcODr- 
acemant sod tormatloii of local Trade and 
Iiabvr Uoloni, and tbe cloier hderatlon ot 
Bpcb (oefatlei thraub the organiiatlon 0/ 
Central Trada and Labor Unloni in sTar7 
cHt. and the tarthar eomblnitlon of tnah 
bodla* into SUte, Territorial, or ProTinela] 
ornnliationa to aocniv lerfaUtlon in tha in- 
ineat of the working nuuMa. 

Sac. 2. The eatabllibmant of National and 

■ -" ■ Trada Cniona, baaed upon a 
ion of tbe antonomr of eaob 
a promotloQ and adTaneament 

if I>epartm«nLi 
ational Ur'-- 

._ _ FederatioL .. 

Iiabor, of tbe lanra indnatrr, and which De- 
parlneDta ahall be tOTarned In conformity 
with the lawa of the Amerloan Federation 
of Latwi. 

Bee. 4. An Amerlein Federation of all Na- 
tional and iDtemalional Tndu Unloni, to 
aid and aaiiat each other: to aid and an 
eonraca Ihe aale of union label goodi, and 
tn Mcure legiilatlon in (ha intereat of the 
working i»ap1e, and Inflnanee pnbllc opin- 
ion, by paacefal and letal metboda, in fayo' 



Int( 
trade. 

8acrs7'fhe" eatabllihmeni 
compoaed of Ni ' " 
aaibtad with . 

' >r, of tbe lanre indnatry 
■enta ahall be tOTerned 



Bee. S. To 



lid I 



: eighth. Local and E 



tnaltth. Bnilding Tradei 
ivfarred ail niaTaneai 
pertaining exelnalTalT to 
Sec. 4. The Prealden 
chief eiacatlTa oflmra u 



e hailping tn 
■hall dfrac 



1 Mdtional or 
iniarnallonaJ unlani, at lend tan dayi pra- 
TloDi to tha holdini of tbe Annnal Oonyen' 
tion. to appoint one dalagata «ach from 
thrir raipecllTs dalegatione-elacl. who iball 
eompoae an Auditing Oommiitao. TIk oom- 
mletee ihall meat at inch place at tha Freai- 
dent of the American Faderatian of Labor 



yantiOD aa the Prei 
I* neeenary (or the pi 
thair duty: and they >hi 
of tha Federation tor 



if anilt t! 



.nonth!. 
diataly n 






Tha eipanie of laid c 



rBDeding tweWe 
adcntiala imue- 
■ Oonyantion, 
hall ba paid 



of the fnnda of tbe Fol 

Bar. 5. Reiolntlona of any character or 

propoiitioni for chanria in thi> OoDatitn- 

lion Ban not be inlrodncad after th« ■•»«"* 

dajf'^ laaaion, aiprpt b/ nnanimoni 

Sac. S. Tba Conyentlon ahall ha' 

See. T. Nona other than mambe.. -. _ 
boDa Ada Trade Union ihatl ba pannlttad to 
addraaa tha OonTentlon or read pimra there- 



7 timi 



no plica in the OonTentlon 
Federation of Labor, 

Sac. B. The rolei and 
tOTUrning tba preceding 
be in foree from the ope 
»enllon of tha American Fi 
nntil new mlea hiye been 
of the OoDTaDtloD. 



r of boalnaa*' 
yantioB ihalf 
of any Oon- 



fonrtb of the delegatae attending a 

Sec II. No grleTance ihall ha e> 
by my Oonyentlon that hsi baan di 

a prcTloni OonTentlon. aieept npon 
ommandition of tfa« EiecnllTe Oon 

abiU my griaTanea ba eonildered n ._. 

parties tharato hiTe not preTionily bald I 
coaferanoe ip'^ ait^mnraii in mjt* — « ««.- -- — 
fhemsalTai. 



■nd attempted l< 



a ahall meet an- 

. m. on the aeeond Uonday In 
.Tnne, at inch place aa tha dalegites baTi 
■elected at tha pracKdlng OonTentlon. 
Reo. 2. At tba opening 0' 



Sec. S. Tbe fo1lo< 
Ini of fifteen moul 
pointed bi 



nted by the President: First. Rolet and 
ler of Bniineit: aeeond. Report of Eiecn 

Conneil; third, Beaolullans; toarth. 

; fifth, OrganliatloD; ilxth. Labels; 



federal Labor 



Federal Labor Unions bapal 



-obvGoot^Ie 



AMERICAN FBDERATION OP LABOR 



uniWdlj. Only bona Ada wlis mrL... 
%n not mvnbeT* of, or qlisfbls to mambei^ 
(hip in, other Tcada Ualona, ahall b* all- 
clbla ai delanlsi from Fadsnl Labor Union*. 

Bac. 2. Tha dulaiataa ahall be alaetad at 
laaat two vaaka prnion* lo ths Annual Con- 
vsnllon of ths Amarloan fedaratlon of La 
bar, and Iha oamai of aaeb dalwcatsa ihall 
ba torwardad lo ths Baeratarr of this bod)- 
ImmadlalelT after Ihsir alectlon. 

See. S. Qnsationa maj b« dscided b)''dlTl' 
■ioD or a ihov a( banda, bnl It ■ call of tha 
roll la damanded bj ona-tanth ot Ibe dela- 
(ataa praaent, each dalsgata ahall caat ona 

Jar fraction Ihaieof which he raareaanli, 
proTidad that Iha dalaiate'i nnlos bai bean 
aflllatad with thi Fedsration for tha toll 
flacal raar ppecadlng tfaa conTtDtlon. Whan 
afflliatad for a period of leii than one T«>'. 
■aeh dalBEite ihall cast one-lwalflh of ana 
vote far aach oth hundred member* or major 
fraction thereof which he repreianta tor each 
month for which per oaplta t«i baa bean 
paid npon the memben of his nnlon. Mo 
Olty or Slam Federation ahaD be allowed 



1. The Secratarj ahall 



BtarT ahall prepal 
in printed poll lliti 



__ _._j the dalagatei 

fiom National and Intamatlonal Unlotig are 
entitled to. 'baaed npon the afaraie membar- 
ai.lp dorlBj tha year, from repo-" '■- '- 



Sao. S. No orraniiallon or peraan that baa 
■eoadod. or ha* been luapended, or expelled. 
br tbe Amerleao Federation of Labor, or by 
any Ration at or International oritanliatlon 
connected with tha Federation, ahall. while 
nider aurh penalty, ba allowed i 



ARTICLE VT— Datlaa of Praaldent: Sac- 
ion 1. It ahall be tha dut* of the Presldant 
preilde at tha AnDnal OoiTantian; la 
ixarolae snperrlaion ot tha Federation 
tbroaghDDt Iti jorlidletion ; to liin all oil- 



Bac, e. Mo orEsnliatlon ahall be entitled 
to raprwantalion nnlaaa anch oTKanlistlOD 
baa applied for and obtained a certiflcate of 
•nilation at leaat one month prior to the 
■Canyenlian, and no panon aball be racoa:- 
uliad aa a delaiate who la not a raembar In 
Kood standi ng of tha oiganliatlaon In la 
aierled to raproaent. _ 

ARTTOLE V— OBcera: Section 1. The ot 
fleer* of the Federation ahall conalst ot a 
Praildenl, eivht Vice- Pre ildenta, a Sacra- 
tary, and a Traaanrer. to be elected by the 
Oon\ention on the laat day of th» aaaalon. 
and these oMrera aball he tin EieenllTe 
Oonnril. 

Sec, a. TLr Preaident and Becrelarr ahall 
be merabera of the aneceedlnn Convention in 
etae they are not delaEatea, bat wlthont Tota. 

See. 3. .Vlt alaetlTu offlrera ahall ba mera- 
bera at a local arganlsallon connected with 
the American Federation ot Labor. 

Sec. 4. The trnu: et tha oBImn of the 
American Federation of Labor aball elpir* 
on tha lint day of Ancnit aneeeedins tha 

Sao. G. Tha Preaident and Becreltry ahall 
en nee tnltable offlero In tha asm a hnlldlm 
at Waahtntrton, D. O.. for the tranaaci 
of the bnalneaa ot the organliatlon. 

See. e. All book) and financial aecon 
■hall at all time* be open to thw Inaoec' 
of tha Preaident and SiwnllTe Council 



ilred, i 



shall a 






ilQmlied account of all aonaya, IrtTallni, 
and Incidental, eipended hy him la the In- 
leraat at the Federation: and ahall report to 
Ihe Annnal Ooaieitlon of tire Federation. 
thronih the report of Iha Eiacallfa Conucll. 

Bee. B. The Preaident, If not a delesatB, 
shall hare the caalinK TOte in caie of a tie. 
bnt ahall not Tola at olher tlrava. Ha ahall 
ha raqnired to davote all hli time lo tha 
interaat of tha Federation , 

Etae, 4. Tbe Preaident shall call maalinn 
of the Giecntiia ConncII. when neceaaary. 
and ahall preaide OTar their deliberation*. 
and ahall racvlv? for his ten leas snch anm 
a> the Annnal ConTenllon may determine, 
payaole weekly. 

Bflc. S, In cste of a Tsearry In the offlea 
of Praaldent by Jaatb. roignatlon. or ot1<er 
cause, tha Racralsry ahall perform the dntlea 
of the Preaident on til his anceaaor Is eleeted. 
In that QTant It ahall be Iha dnty of tha 
Secretary to laana. within ali daya from tha 
dote of vaeaney, a call for a meeting ot tha 
EieentWe Conncll at headanartara for the 



t chare* of all books, papera. and 
of the general 0*100: to conduct Ihe 
radence pertalninft lo hla offlce; lo 
the elect I re offlcars with the naces- 
(tionery: lo conTma and act as Bet- 
It the Annnal ConTcntloB, and to fnr- 
>B Committee on Credentials at tha 
lion a BtatenNnt of the Snanrlal 
lied body; to forwar:) 



reh lat and Beptember 



See. 3. The Secretary ahall keep all let- 
's, docnnwnta. acconnla. ate., In inch man- 
r aa the Annnal Oonienllon mar direct: 
shall reraWe «i>d collect ail raeneya dna 
! Ferferatlon and par them to the Treae- 
tr, faklnn hla receipt therefor; proTided. 
It he msT retain In hla banda a anm not 
i-aadiit >!,flOO for cnrrant aipenses. whicn 
ine>- ahall he paid ojt only on the ap- 
iTal of the President. 

Bee. B. Thr Secretary ihsll submit to thp 
dltlnR Oommitlea, tor Iheir tnapeetlon. 
ichera for ;ill mon^ya expended; clobe all 
counts Bt tha Fadppitlon on April 30 ot 



- - - — rate daeumi,... 

and forward copy to all pfflliated national 
and Inlernatinnal unlona. riale f'^erattong ot 
labor, city eentrnl bodies and directly ami- 



k The 8ecr»larv a1 

t2.n00 (or llr? falthfnl t 



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FEDERimON 01 LABOR 



• DOTH OR4JIT THU • 



Certificate of Afliliation 













— ~--"l<WWt *J»J^ «toi^taw»H»|igg«ljt-«^; yM rii.ry*ii»iMilliiy^ 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 




m 



AMEHICAN FEDEBATION OF LABOR, ' 



0bvGoO<^lc 



HISTORY. BNCYCLOPBDIA, REFERBNCB BOOE 



Atmuil CoDTention ouy daleTii] 



tiec. e. It iblll b« th» dutj of aaeh Id 
miicoial, Nnlioiial, Looil Timda anil fed 
Labor Union aauialed with Ihr Amtr 
Federation ot Labor lo fnmiah to Ihd 8( 
l*n of Iha Jmariean redsratiou of Labt. _ 
copT of all oflclal reiiorta Uiaed br such 
(ffiliatod orfaniutions. eanlainiag' a alate 
menL of tbeir membartbip in good itandinff, 
and lo tnrniih inch idditlonal alatiatlcDl 
data •• nur b* callad (or b; tba Socntair 
of the AnMiicwi FcAaration of Labor aa n 
b* la tbaniiMiilMi ol ths 



Union liaa baea toTmad, tba Fraaidant ihall 
rotllr all Loonl Unlona of that truh to 
•fflliate witlt iucb National or International 
Union, and onlaaa aaid natltsation ba com- 
pllad wltb, within thieo nontha, thair ohar- 
tari ihall ba raToksd. 

See. t. Tba Enootiva OonncU ahall alao 
prapars and pieaaut to tho Oonvantlan, la 
prlntad form, a oonelaa aUtamsat of tba 
datilla taadinc np t« approTsd and pasdlns 
LoycDlts (and all matteta of Intaraat to tlia 
"" - ■■- ■ 'no iDdanomant tor a boy- 

itldarsd bT Iha OoDTantlon 
D 10 reportad hj tba Eiacn- 



..K 



ba la tba pouaaaion ol tha TaipsctiTs onioni 
AKTIOI^ TIU— Dnilaa of r^aaanror: aa< 
IloB 1. Tba TraaaimT •bftll racaWa and lak 
eharsa ol >11 monaja, propartj, ^nd mSEnri 
Ilea of the Faderatlon deilTsrec 
the Sacretarr or otber oMeora o 
can redaration of Labor. All Innda oi tba 
Auarican E^sdaifttlon ot Labor aicaadlni 
flfteoD Ihonaand doUari iball ba depoaitad 
bv tho Traaanrar in bank, or banki. on 
intareat-baaTinB eerliflealea of depoalt in the 
nrme ot ths Amoriean Faderatlon ot Labor, 
and in ordai to ba caahad ahall reiiiiiiv tha 
aignalnraa of the Traaiiuar, tha Pruldsnt, 
and Beerctarr of (be IMaratlon. Tho Traai- 
orer ahall collect tha Inieraal on all inch 
cattlBcatai or other depoalt at iha eiplra- 



*nd par tba lama 
The TraaanroT ihall 



Traaanrar. A oopr ol t 



I aaetloa ahall b 



Ibv Soenlarr, all varraDta rocnlaii; drawn 
oil him, algnfd bj tba Pranident and eonnta-- 
algned bj the Seeratarr. aa reqoirad bj thia 
CoDitltatlo^ aal none othan. 

Sec. S. Tba Treenrar ihall avbnilt to the 
AoDoal OonTentloD, throu(b the report of 
the Esaegtlia Oonnell, a eomplele atatamant 
of all raceipti and dlahnraemanti dnrini hli 
term of oflea, and at tha expiration ol hli 
term of offlea he ihall dallTar np lo hia aae- 
ceuor all money*, eacarltlaa, booki, and pa- 
per! of the Tederatlon under hi* control ; 
and tor the faithful parformanca ol hia rt'itlai 
he (ball >lTe a bond In anob anm aa tha 
XiBsntlra Oonndl may determlna. The an- 
t.oal aalary ot tb* Treaanrvr ahall ba SSnO 

ARTIOLE TX. — Bxorutlie Oounall; BectlOD 
1. It ahall be tba dulr of the Bieentlia 
Coancil to wateb laclalatlTe meaiuTea dtTeetl<r 
affeetinc the Intaraata of working people, an4 
to iDillale. whonerar nocMiarr. inch SBjla- 



litiTe 



>i tha O 



! Oonnell 



ball I 



I eball I 



Ssc. a. Whua wa reoofnlia tba rlrht ol 
•ach trade to managa Itt own affiTra, It 
ahall ba tba dotr of the BiecntiTa Ooanoll 
to laenn the Qnlfleatlon of all labor oTfani- 
■ationa, ao far aa to aiatit each other In 
•oy trade dlipnte. 

aec. e. WbanBTar the reTonoe of the Vti- 
eiltfOQ ihall warrant inch action, the Eiaca- 
tJTB Oonnell aball anthorlia tha landinc oat 
of Trade Dnlon ipeikets from place to place 
in tha Intareita of the Fadaration. 

aec. 7. Tb« remnDcratlon for or(aalien 
of the American Faderellon of Labor ahall 
ba 17 per day aa lalarr, actual railroad 
fara, and hotel aipanisa ot f* per day when 
tra'Teling away from their home city. The 
roBioneralion for lerileei of mambara of 
tha EiacullTs Connoil. Iralamal dalesataa 
Inlerpraten md ipeaken, or other peneni 
tamporarily employed by tha American Fed- 
orillon ol Labor ihalt ba dalerminod by the 

Sec. a. The Exeeatlre Oonnell ihall haTa 
power to make the mlai to garara maltera 
not in conflict with tbli Oonitltation, or tha 



ordingiy t, 



nnlona 



y ol a 



member of Iha ExaontlTa Oonnell, other than 
that of the Praiident, by reaaon of dualh. 
reilnatlon, or other canae. the Praaldent 
eball make inch Taraney known lo the Ex- 
efotlTc Oonnell. and shall call tor nomina- 
tion!. The namei of all nomlneei ihall be 
■ubmitted to the EiaeatlTe Oonncil and It 
ahall raanire a majority Tote of the Bioon- 
tWe CouDcU to elect. Upon each nnioccen- 
tnl balloting tba name of the candidate re- 
__,_.__ ,(,j ]o,„t nnmber o( Totaa ahall 



eral L,abor Unlona bo! din i charter* dlraet 
from the AnHrican Pederetlon of Labor, de- 
■Irlnic the mililance of the Amerloan Fed- 
eration of Labor In trade diipntei, ahall 
irbmil lo the PreildenI of tbe American 
Federation of Labor for approTal by the 
KiecollTB ConncU the fnll ilatemani of the 
irrieTince, and ahall recelTe wltbla twenty 



B the Local ITnion haa t 



lionil or Tnleraatlonil Trade or Leber 
Unlona. and u> organlie Local Trade and La- 
bor Unioni. and eoninct Ihem with tbe Fvd- 
arallon nntll neb lima al there is a anffl- 
elent number to (am a Maiioral or Inter 
national Union, when It tball ba tba dnty 
ol the Praiident ------ 



L Faderi 



hall b 



granted by the 
OT to any Na- 
or Fedaral La- 



natlonal or Local 1 



nil. Intnmatlonal. Trade, 

r Union wllbonl a poalti'e 

Ion ol thn trade inriidletloa elaimod by 
t applicant, and the ebariar ahiU not ba 
anted if tbe juritdletlon claimed la a trei- 
11 on tha Jnrledlcltan e( eilitlng aSlliited 
lana. without the writtaD conient of inch 
afllUatsd Tntamatioaal. Kattonal 
lion iball be panolttod to ebanga 



„Goo<5lc 



AMERICAN FEDBKATION < 



e or Dime, if taj treipiu la made 
' on Iks Jurladictlon of an kfflUitcd 
:mlloD, wlthoat birinff flnt 'oblalnad 



1 Join 
- -"m 

ialad with t 

Bm. 13. I'he EiaeutlTa OonnFll of tha 
nmerican Faderation of Labor iball onlr liavd 

Eswcr to TBToke tfaa chartar et an aSUsted 
atlonal or IntianiAtional Union wbsD the 
rovocatlon haa baan ordared by a tiro-tblrdi 
majority of a ragnlar OoaTentlon of the 
AiriOTican Fadaratlon of Labor, by a roll -eati 



ABTICLE X— Revennw: Sectdon 
rrieDUe of the Federation ahall be 
capita tai ■ ■ 



., Tbo 



dariiad 

... ._, __ , ion Ihfl 

full paid-np DHmbsrablp ot all afflliptad 
bciliei, ari (ollowi: From IntarnatlDnal or 
National Trade Unlonb, a par capita l» 

■nontb: from Local Trade Xfnioni and I^d- 






_._. BB, flfteei 

per month. Are oanta of 

wide to b« naed only In eaae of itrlka 
...t.... . ...., T,_.— .1. Tj.joxity of whc 







laia tbi 


Ln aisbtcan |1N) yean 


of am^ ti 
from Cent: 






ir n»mbar par month; 




and 8tal 


:e bodiaa, flO par year. 


payabla q; 


larti 


.riT. 




Sec. 2. 




hall not be entitled to 


a aaat in 


tba 




Oonvantloa onleia tha 


tax of the 








Ar 


ticu X, 


l>aa bwn paid in toll 


tn April B( 






tbe Convention. 


Sao. B. 


Yn 


y oreanliatlan affiliated with 


thla Feda 






payinE Ita par oacita 








a"ll°ba n' 


Dtifl 


ad of lb 


e tact by tba Baeralaty 


of the Fej 


era 


tlon, aat 


1 t{ at the and of thras 




(till in 


arroar. it (ball become 




Irt 




baralilp by tba Fcdara- 
»(atai only by a role 


Hon. and 




be leli 


of.tba Co. 




itioa wb 





and Federal Labor Unlona i 



r Ita )url(- 



8<c. 3. Where there are one or mora Local 
Jnloni in any citv baloQEinB to any National 
•T International Union affiliated nitb thli 
iVideration Ihsy may ornniia a Tradaa Aa- 
>em~jly ot Caalrai Lnboc Union, or aliall Join 
inch body If already in axial once. 

Seo. t. Tha Gxarutiia Council and Local 
Jontrsl Labor Uoloii* ahall « 






Local 



\ (hei 



International Union* 

'Ictnity- to aiif 

Duai or Intamallona 

where the nsmbar oi 
ly other form of or 



jee. f>. No Cantral Labor 
ilrsl body of dalagatti. 

C _ ___. . 

cputral labor body, on atrika. irbei 

mtil the propier anlhorilli 



Intern 



anal 



anlia 



N»- 



laid In full, aa provided In Section 2 o 
articla. 

ARTICLE XI— Local Oantnil Bodlea: Sec 
Hon 1. No Cantral Labor Union, or any 
Dtbar cantral body of delegataa, ahall admit 
to or retain la tbelr eonnellB delegates from 
any local organliatioa that owei ita ajle- 
(lanee to any other body, National or Inter- 
Datlonal, boatile to any afflllatad ori^nlia- 
tion, or that baa been anapandad or expelled 
by. <ir not connected with, a National or 
International orEaniiatlon ot their Irada 
herein affiliated; nor ara delegataa to ba 
seated from locala ot National or Interna' 
tlonil organlaatloaa vliieh are not afflliated 
(0 tfaa American Federation of Labor, nnder 
penalty of faaTing their charter ravalied for 



_- .„jr.tlon of Labor __ 

tbelr Local Unione to Join chartk-red Central 
Labor Bodlea, Dspartmenta. and State Fed- 
eratlona In their Tlrinitv where anch axial. 
6imlUr Inatmellona ahall be given by thi. 



been conanlled and agreed to anch aetlon. 

Sec. e. Separate chartera may be lianed 
to Oantral Labor Unlona, Local Uniona, or 
Federal Labor Unlona. composed excluslTaly 
ol colored roembars. where, in the Judgment 
ol Ihe Eiecotii^ Oonncil, it appear* adTia- 
able and to the beat Intareal o' the Trade 

Sac. 7. No Oentml Labor Union, or other 
central body of dalagataa. shall have anthor- 
i(y or power to orieinate a buyeott. nor ahall 
anefa bodies indorae and ordei the placing ot 
the name of any peraon. linn, or oorporation 
on an nnf>ir Hit nntll tha Local Union desii^ 
ing the aaae haa. betoiv declnrin( the boy- 
colt, anhmitted the matter in dispute to the 
Cantral Body for inyesllgatlon. and tfae best 
endeavora on ita part to ef^et an amicable 
settlement. Vlolstion of this aectlon shall 



ihsll reject credentials presented by 

. dnly alaoted or appointed delagalion ot a 
'OCal Union chartered by o Natfonal or an 
nteraatlonat Uplon having affiUatlon with 
he Amertoan Federation of Labor: pro- 
Id el. uowsTer, that upon written charges 



gate of 

victlon a 


an afflliated 


rial, ba Bxpelleror sns- 
ha Central Body under 


pended. 


Aetlon 1 


of t 


this sect: 


ion ahall 


be 


■ubjeel to appeal to the 




I Council 




the American Federa- 


tlon of I. 


.sbor. and 






Local Ui 


ilon. affi] 


lis"" 


■a. a* herein described, 


shall be 
action la 




or Bi.pelled vntll like 


Sac B 


. No'osnl 




Body shall lake part In 


the adjni 






>ge oontr»cle. wage die- 


putes 01 


■ worklni 


g rules of Local Unions. 


affilUtad 


with a 




tlonal or International 


Union. nBleaa Ih. 


) U 


ws of the National or 


Intematl 
Ihe reqni 


°at*dr col 




,;f~;'-.."x'..x.". 


»'.'^5 


'Nallon.1 







Sec, 10. Local Union* of National or In- 
ternational Unions afflliated with tha De- 
partments attached to the American Fedara- 
tlon of Labor, In any city wb<are a Local 
Depsrtment exists, shall not be eligible to 
meubertlilp in any Local Deiiartment nnlesa 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



HISTORY, BNCYCLOPBDIA. RSFRRBNCB BCX)E 



■umb«nUp In tha CflDtnl Bodj nnlni thty 
■r* aWlstBd with tb* Loeal DspaitiBMit. 

ABTIOLE XII— Auniameill In Delsua of 
Nktlonal KDd latsniadDDBl naloni: Bsction 
1. Tha BxwntUa Coancll (hall haT» poww 
to daelar* » l«fr ol on, .ini par ^la^l^». 
poI wMk on all ■ailliLed vniona (or ■ pcnod 
not •leuadint I si. weela In siiy ena T8»r, 
10 liUUt in tba annpOTt of m aBUatad Sa- 
tiona) or Inlamalloaal Union ancacrd In 
a proUftctcd itiika or lo^ikont. 



a dBprlTa 

„,-„ „ D i-adeni'tll 

ABTICIiE Xin— Dafaaaa Fnnd for Loi 
Trada and 7tdaral Labor Colont: Soetlon 
Tha mona; of (ha defanta fond a ha II 
drawn only to aaatala itrlkaa or lockoni* 
Local Trada and Federal Labor Uniona vh 
aneh attlkaa or ladconti an anthorliod, . 
dotitd. and oondmilad in eODiormltT wl 
"■ ! following proTiaif-- -' "-'- ■-■'-'-■ 



S«o. 



, tha I 



dllavrreminil 

LSe»™5n^n, 



rated nndar Iba proTlaiooa ot Bootiona 3 and 
B, the Amariean Fedaration of Labor ihall 
pa; Id the bonded oScar of tba Daloo In- 
TolTsd, or hla order, for a period of ii> 
weeka, an amonnt aoual to four (t<) d il- 
Ibra par weak lor each membar. Each Loc*i 
Union ahnll reqnlTc ita IraHnrer to cl*a 

E roper bond tor Iha aafekeaplna and dia' 
Dnemant of all fnnda of th« Loeal. :to 
banellt ahall ba paid for tha irat two week* 
of ttat itrlke. The EiecntJTe Oonnell ihall 
have the pover to anthorlia tha pavment of 
■Irika beaeflia for an additional period. 

Bit. a. No member ol ■ Local OaloD oa 
atrlke (hall be anljtled to weakly bsneBta 
ufllaaa he reporla dally to tha proper oBcat 
of the Local Union whi)« tha itrlka con- 
tiuuaa, and no membBr who ahall recelte a 

ivcvive bfineDtB. Any member rafnainv other 
fork while on itrlke (prOTidini aald work 
is not iu eonflict wilfi labor'a intereaUJ 
■hall not be entitled lo any benefit a. 

Bee. T. Any Union iDancoratlnK a glrlkt 



Sec. 9. Ill caae taf lockont or the Tictlmiia 
lion of mombera, the EiecutlTB Oonnrll ahall 
■■--■■ ■ ■ neflla if, npon Inteatr 



rutiratlon to be made ot 
ui»BniimiBDi, and sndaaTor to adjnit l,^ 
difllenltjr. If nia aflorti abould proTo ftttlle, 
ha ahall take anch atept aa be may deem 
ntovHarr in nolifylne the EiecntiTe Oonn- 
cll, and if the majority of lald Oonncil ahall 
decide thai a Itrike ia neceaaary anch Union 
fball be iDthorlied to order a alrike, bnt 
that under no circnmstancea aholl a atrike 
or loekont be d«eraad leial, or money a et- 
pendad from the defeoee fnad on that ao- 
ronnt, nnloaa the atrlke or lockout ahall 
have bean tnt anthorlaed and approTed 
by the Preildenl and Biecntire Oonnell. 

Boc. S. When a atrika baa been aulhorlaad, 
■Bd approTed by the Preaident and Exaen- 
(ire Oooncil, the preaident of thu Local 
mion interaated ahall, within twenty-fcur 
honra, call a meeting of aald Union, of 
vhlch cTery member ahall be [vgnlarly noil- 
fied, to take aetioa (hereon, and no membar 
■hail vote on kuch qneallon nnleaa he ll Id 
Bood atanding. Bhonld thne-tonitha ot the 
mambara preaent decide, by iieret ballot, 
on a atrike. the preaident ot tbe Tioeal Union 
ahall immediately notify tba Preaident of the 
AmeHean Federation of Labor of lb* oanae 
of the matter in diapnte; what tha wacea, 
boon, and conditiona of labor then are; 



flee. a. Dur._, __ „., 

he eiecnllTe board of tbe Local Uojoa ahi 
r'akewewkj^ report* to the Bi 



; Mala the nombe 



-ade 



imployed and nneniploTedVthe 

■aiRnlly in the loealitT. and tha numbei 

■ ed. onion and non-nmon; 



J. Tto Local ahall be entitled to bune- 

tfrara the detenie fond nnlsai it bat been 
eonlinnoni food itandinR for one year; 
d no member ahall be entitled to benefll 
im aald dafenae food nnleaa be baa been a 
iraber In Kood atandlnx In the American 



ike the lockout by 
Itrlke 



■ake woikly report* to the Beeretary of 
Lmerinar. Federation of l,ahor, ihowlni 
»monnt of money dlalributed (or beneilla. 
and lo whom paid, farntnblng IndfTJduHl re 
ceipla lo the Becntary ot the American F«d 
eration of Labor from all membera to vhoiL 
■nch heneiila haTe bean paid, and all olhm 

Bee. 10. Before a Kirike ihall be doclarril 
off. a apcclal raMtlns of l-ie Union ahall h« 
ealh?d for that pnipoae. and II thall requin 
a tnajnrily Tote of all membera preaest to 



nemnsly low throogb pmtracted 
kont, tlie ExeeutlTO Cnnneil of 



Hie American Federstijn of Labor ihall ban 
on eanh member of I^cal Trad« and Fed 



I Ihosaand (fa.ot 






e or Fedenl Labor Union directly adli 
ateo to the Ainerican Federation of Labor 
ahall. through tba Secretary of th« Fedara- 
tlon. hood (aid financial ofllren In anch ns 
B( ihall be adequate to protect ita fnnda. 

See. IS. Local Trade and Federal Laboi 
Uniona ahall aet aalde for thu mainteaanct 
of a local defenae fand not Ivia than Hti 

See. 14. That Initiation Ite* oharmd h| 
directly aiGllaled Local Trade or Federal 
Labor Uolona ahall be not leaa than tl nor 
e than |10. and that one-fourth of 



ovGoo»:^Ic 



AMERICAN FBDBBATIONXOF I.ABOR 



lo the BttteitTj gf tha AmsrlMn FederatiDu 
of Lftbor, toEtthar vith th<a per e«plt« tui, 
■Gsompuilad Of ■ monthl]' report gfTlng tbe 
DDmber of mamben paid for, uid names oi 
thole Initiated, Tcinilated, loapandad and 

Lack per capita tax la balog paid and moathi 
paid lor, on blanks lo bs luruiBlNd by tht 
SacrataT]> ot the Federation. Wlien daei 
•re paid, tha Financial Secretarr gf the Lo- 
cal Union iball fiUee ■ iwr capita tax stamp 



in iball place a 
mambera^ dna t 



ralnitated only by the parmeat of I 
montha' back per capita tax. in additlo 
tha lax for tha cnirent i 



1 Label 

. jra oraaBnl' 

tame to mamberihlp in Lo— _ 

eral Labor Unl(.ne diractlT aSllatad ui im 
American E'edtritinn gf Labor. 

See. le. That Local Trade and Federal 
Li.bor Unlgni ahall be prohibited tram ag 
■caiinE their midmbars or appropriating their 
fnnda lor any pDrnoee otber tban union or 
Amrrican FedRratlon of Labar parpoiea. 
That each directly aCSIiatsd union ahill fo>" 
vard mnnlh'v to tha RuRTHtmrr of thj Ameri- 
' ' atate- 

-- - - .- -«d. 

Rao. 17. Ko Local Trade or Federal Labor 
Union ahall dlaband u iocs aa aeTOn mem. 
bare dwalra to retain the ehanir. UTOn the 
dlMolutlon o( any Local Tiada or Federal 
Labor Union all fundi and property of an^ 
character ahall roTart to the American Fed 
oration of Labor. 

ARTICLE XIV— Mlacellaoeona: H^olion 1. 
Certtflcitea of amilatiga ahall be granted b; 
the Pralldent ot the Fnderation. by ant.' 
with the eoneent of tb« Eitacnti»a Connril. 
tg all Matignal and International Unlona an'i 
Ileal bodiaa alBllatsd with (hie Fadkntlon. 

See. 2 Sayan wase-vorkera of good ehar- 
aetar, lollowlng any trade nr caUlng, vbo 
arc faiorable to Trade Uniona. vhgie trade 
or ralUnit ll ngt orKaalied. and are not 
mamljen of any bod> anUated with Dila 
Federatign, who will aubacribe to thla Con 
■titntion, ahall haTe the power to form a 
local body to be known aa a "Federal Lo 
bor Cnlon." and thvy ibal' hold regular 
maellnpa for the pnrvoaa of alrengtbening 
and adTaneing the Trnde Union moyemeni, 
and Shalt ha ye power to nuke their own rn>fh 
in conformity with Ihll ODnEtitntion. and 
ihall he granted a local cFRifleata by the 
Praeident of thla Federation; proytded, tlie 
reqaeat tor a certificate be indoraed by the 
nearest Local or National Trad« Union nm 
rials connected with this Federation, bdl not 
more than three Federal Labor Cnione shall 
chartered in any owe city. Employers 



who a 



admitted I 



hallol, ba 

Fadoral Tjabor . - - - 

pffllialed with tire American Federation of 
Labor. SDbJcet to tha approyal of the Presi- 
dent ot the American Federation of Labor. 
Such mnnbera ehall not attend me'>tlngs gf 
tha nninni or ha«e a vote In cootrolKng the 
affairs gf tbe unions; they muet comply with 
the scale of wages aud mlet sdoptud by the 
union of whien they are members. The 



Labor or Local Trade Onions as tb« Prsiil- 

dent pt the American Icderatlon of Labor 
may direct and report the reault tharoof to 
tbe President of the American Federation of 
Labor. The booka and acooiuits of each 
Federal Labor and Local Trade Union shall 
oe at all times open to the Ingpeotion of 

Sec. 8. the" wtlfloate t« "or'"Vfflliated 
Hdles shall ba Ave (16) doltan, payable lo 
if the Federation, and the '*• 



the Secre 



lall a. 



any tbu application 



■ball refer all aDpIicatlona for oertlfleates of 
affltlation from Local Unlona or Federal La- 
bor nuione from a yjclnity where a char- 
tered Oantral Labor Union eilati to tbat 
tody for Inieatlgatlon and approral 

Sec. 6. Certlfloatei of afflllatlon shall not 
be granted by State Federationa of Labor. 
That power la Tested aolely In the SxaentiTe 
Coanell of tha American Federation ot La- 
bor and the Eieentiia offleen of National 
and International Unions aflllated therewith. 

Bee. e, Piaternal delegates attending the 
Conyentlon of the American Federation of 
Labor shall ba entitled to att the rights of 
delagalea from Central Bodies. 

ARTICLE XV — Seneral Bnles OoTemlag 
Dcpartmenta of tha American Federation ot 
Libor; aaelion 1, For the Kieater deyelep- 
mont of the labor moyement, departma&U 
aiibordinate to the American FedaraUon of 
Labor are to be eatabllshed from tim« I., 

l!."/„:?i '" '."si?:?!""' ?I i?" *"«*.«" 



aao. S.'to b( 
any departmen 



repreaiDtation In 
atlons oliglbla to 
emaln In afflllation 



Loci 



:. 3. To be e 
Councils o> 
of dapaitmenia. Local Anions 



onlrad to bo part ot afflllatad National or 

Iptematlonai Unions afflllated to depart 
ments. or diwetly afflliated lo the AmeScan 
Poderatloa of Labor. Said Local Union* 
shall flrat be and remain in afflllation lo Con- 
tral Labor Unions chartered by the Anisri- 
csn Federation ot Labor. 

c«diire oi oach department are to'conform 
to. and be administered in the aame manner 
as the taws and procednre gOTarnlng tbe 
American Fodaratlon of Labor. No Depart- 
mant, Local Oounoil or Railway System Fed- 
eration of tame shall enaet laws, rules, or 
regulations In conflict -with the lews and 
procedure gf the American Federation of 
'"""■■ ivent of changu ot laws 

■ .tier. Department. 



Lrcal Oouncili 



and Railwi 
ange their 



a Federi 



and 






the ofllcial n-ethod of the Aon 
tlcn ot Labor fgr transacting 1 
its bueinets indicated by the name of _lhi 



Federa 

irtion of 



should comply with their actions and deci- 
sions, labjert to appeal therefrom to the 
FiMutiTB Oounoil and the conTontioDa of 
fhr American Federation ot Labor. When 
in organliatlon baa intere(fi In departmeBts 



oyGoQt^Ie 



HISTORY. ENCYCLOPBDIA. KBFBRBNCS BOOK 



othv tluD tlw oi 
in wtJeh It ihB 

it* entW matobc 

in uiil p*7 iwi Mplt. 

ti»ruiiaDt« Dpon th* rnunbor ol mambnn 
vliaia oeanpatloiw coma osiIst ancli olhai 
dopartmoti. but tfais io no liutaaea iball 
b« !«■ tliaj] :tu p«r cent of tha mambunhip 



vpoa wbich It ptya i 
Araarieta Fedetatlon a 



Sac. S. Tha otlcan of each dapaitiaant 
Ettall report to the EmemlTe Coi ' ' 

American FaderatiDn ot Labor lba> ma ae- 
parlmant haa confomied to the laws, pro- 

— J .^j aolioni of the American rad«nt- 

thar affect each dsparl- 



ioD of I 



with thp heidqaarlura of the Amarlaan Fed- 
eialiOD of Labor, uDle<ii tliare kr* raMOni 
to the flontrarr tatUtutorj to tha BiemtiTe 
Connell of tha AmcrloiD Vadvratloii ot Lalior. 
See. 7. Oepartmenta of the Amarloui Fed- 
arallon of Labor (hall hold tbelr cosTantloai 
immediateL^ befoiv or after the coDTention of 
the Amailcan Fedaiatio-i of Labor and Id the 
Buna city whar* the sonTention of the Ameri- 
can I*adaratian of Labor ig held, at vhich 
time and plaea their law* and procedure 
aball be made to conform to tha lawa and 
imtrican Federation of 

-_„ — , — „ to ooBform to 

the date when the lawa and proeednra of tha 
Amarlean Federation of Labor co into effMt. 



,_j th« baeli o 

'i deleiala a 



pRKedure o 

Labor and t. .. 

ASKOat immadiatelr following, t 



the 



cent* aball aabmlt a qaarlerly report to the 
EiecntlTe Coonail of the American Federation 
of Labor ot the work done b^ their dapart- 
■nent, and It* gennsl rondltiooa. 

Sec. la. At all refvlar maetiuga of the 
EiMntlTo Oopncll of the Amarteaii Fedeta- 
if Labor, there aball h« pi ■ ■ ■ 

period of th* Conncil 



I of Labor, there aball be preaeot, durinf 
acme period of th* Conncil meotlng, the 
fliwcntiTa oflicar or offloara of each depart' 



fanaportatloD, eipediani 



OD, oipedienrT 
lalfon the Batl- 



and tha melhoda of rnirea 

war, Uelal Tndea and Mlnlns Departmenta 
ii:a7 hold onuTaDtioB* at other dataa and 
pla«aa, and in that event laid department! . 
■hall anthorii* thdr eieentlva boarda to haTe 
■aid dapartmeiiti' law* oonform to the pra- 
eedlng portion ot thii aeelion. 

Bee. 8. The decnllTe OooDcil of each de- 
partment ahall eonaiat ol not mora than 
acTen memben, Incladlni the exeentiT* oS- 



that 



and h 



be naed bj each dapaTtimnt for oflelal __ 
port or for pnblleation of lome anqjrct Idon 
ttfied vitli th* departmanh. each departmaot 
13 dealsnate It* offloar to anbmJt tha nport. 
ABTICLK XVI— Amendmpnla: Thia Oon 
atituUoD can bs amended or altered onlj at 
a rarslar laaalon of the Oonvention and to 
do 10 It ihall Fsqsire a two-thirds TOl*. 



DELEGATES TO 1918 CONVENTION 



Aibaatoa Workon, Inlematlt __._ . 

of Heat knd Froat loiolatoia — Jaaeph A. 
Holtaner IG Hth Btreel, Blmhnnt. L. I. 



_-. Louie, Mo.: B. a 

Sebn*14ar, 39 Oakland BI., Balem, ICaan. 

Barbara* International Union, JoomermeD — 

Prank X. Koaehan(,i 322 E. UtcUcan 

i, Indianapolia, Ind. ; Jacob Piieher. 



232 S. MIoUfaB Street, 



._. - >M7. 323 MichUan 

IndlanapoU*, Ind.; 0. M. FeTder, 
Temple, !«■ Anialea, Oal.; O. F. Foley, 
430 X. Second ffl., FolUville, Pa. 

Dm Fottera and Billera of Amerloa, Inter- 
national Alliance — Thomaa Noonan, 2 El- 
ton St., Dorchealer, Mat*. 

Blackamitha, International Brottaarhood of— 
Jamea W. Kline. 12S5 Tranaportatlon 
Bldg., SOS B. Dearborn Strcnt, Ohloani, 
til.: Wni. F. Krimar, laSS Tranaportatlon 
Bldi., flOS 8. Baarborn Street, Ohlca^, 
ni.; W. a. Powlealand, S50 Beatrice St., 
Toronto, Ont., Oanada. 

Rnii>rTnKVar. >ni4 Tron Sblpbolldeie of Amer- 
• ' Franklin, 



Booma 1 A 3, Law Bnll 
Sana; Looii Weyand, I 
BldE. Kanaai City Kan 



• cm. 



: Ghaa 



1 St., Seattle, 



417 k-iei Bidg., ^hili 
Mcflowan, 21C- "■■ ■- 
Dan UcKlllop 
Wnh. 

Bookblndera, Intematlonal Brolharbood ot — 
A. P. Soiej, 323 B. MlehlBaD St., Indian- 
apolla, lad,: Walter S, Roddick, 332 E. 
Uichlfln St., Indianapolia, Ind. 

Boot and Shoe Worker* ' UaioD— Oollia 
Lovalr, 24B Summer St., BoBtoc, Man.: 
Obai. L. Balna, 31d Bummer St., Bolton, 
Kaai.: John F. Orant, B5 Battlai St., 
Brockton, Uata,; Harr Noonan, 1B3T 
Baaon St., St. Looia, Mo.; Frederiek G. 
Schmidt, 938 Bank St.. Olncinnati, Ohio. 

Brewery and Soft Drink Workari of Amer- 
ica, Iniemational Dnion of the United- 
John SntllTan, 2S Third Aia.. New York. 
N. T.; Albert J. Knjjlar, 167 BaTgan Aye.. 
Jena; Olty. N. J'.: Joaeph Proebitla. 2847 
Yin* 81., Cincinnati. Ohio; Joiaph Obar(- 
fell. 384T Vine St., OlnelDnatl, Ohio; John 
Rader, 2B47 Vine Bt., Oincianall. Ohio. 

Brieklayara, Ifaaon* and Plaa 



national Unii 



of 



Bowen, UniTcnltT Park Bldg., 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



AMBKICAM FBDBK&HQN OF I.ABOK 



ap«lli, Ind.i Thai, B. Ftmcs, Unlvanilj 
P«rk Bldg, Indi»n»P«U», Ind.j Wm. Dob- 
ion, UniTtnitT Puk Bids-, IndluapolU, 
Ind.: HKlcolm Oeddai, SZS V^n Bonn at., 
Bt. PanJ, Klon.i John J. Oorsoiaii, S5B 
So. Haalln Avs., Chicsio, 111.; Wftlter V. 
Prioa, ITd St. Hlcbolat ATa., Maw York, 



WiiUnilon St., Bnlta TOO^hiogo, III. 

Bridn and BtTuetiusl Iron Worken' latar- 
catloaal AiHJoIltlon — J. X. HgCIdit. 804 
AmsrldPD Central Lita Bldg., lodlanapollt, 
Ind.; Bam Tobin. 804 Anariean Oantral 
Llfa Bide, IndisniipoHa. Ind.; P. J. Mor- 
rin, 804 American Oentrat Ll(« Bldr-. In- 
dianapolii, Ind.; F. H. Ryan, S04 Amar- 
ican Central Life Bldg., Indianapolll. Ind. 

Broom and Whiik Maken' Union, Inttnui- 
tlonal^-Wlll B. BoTei, SSI King Plata, 
Chloago, III. 

" oi AmsrlcB, Brotfaarhood of Ratlway 

_ „_„ „,^ g,„. 

_. JdS HaU 
ennor Ander- 



.... -. . . --- _. _ _ 8t., 

ChieaEO, HI.; Bamnal Gompora, A. T. of L 
Bids., Waablncton. D. 0.; J. Hablon 
Bamen, BBS S. Tenth Bl., Philadelplila. 
Pa.; W. A. Campball, Oars of G. W. Par- 
kln«, HO B. Daarbom St., Oblaap), 111.; B. 
8. 8e»too, Oare of G. W. Parkini. 440 S. 
Dearborn St., Obkaeo, III. 
Cl«rk>. Brotberbood of RallwaT-^amat' J. 
Forreatar, Room 40T A. F. of L. Bldg, 
Waahington, D, 0.; Soae Talea, BO Bel- 
mont St.. Woreaitor, Masi.; Frad W. 
Smith, 88T BImpioD Ato., Bt. Panl, Mian.; 
H. C. Reevea, Northern' PselBc R. B. 01- 
flse. MlnnaapoIIa, Wnn. 



Retail — K E. Baker. 182 E. Bt. Olalr St., 
Nqw Phlladalpbia, Ohio: S. 3. Oonwar. 
Lock Drawer 24S, Lafayette. Indiana; W. 
G. Detapte, 2940 16th St., San Franelaco, 
Cal. 
Coopert' Taternatlonal Union of N. A. — 
Andre* C. Hnghoa, 1012 Boyliton Bt.. 
Newton Hlgblanda, Uaaa.: Jamei J. I>oy\t 





5 South St. 


, Roalindale, 


Mail. 




ond -Work. 


an' ProtBc 


li« Ui 


Ad 


wrica— And 






too 


I St., Brooklyn, N. T. 






rleal WOrke 


ra of America. Inter 


Br. 






Nooni 




'"" »!?«■., 


Sprinrfald,' 


m,; «, 



Old BoBth Bldg.. 
J. BcAndrewa, ■■'*"• 

- -_ — Obicago. m.; 

122H Cep'iol Bt,. OharlntD 



£. Bilaaman, T5 W. Tth Bt., Bt. Paul, 

EleTatoc Cpnitmcton, InteraaUonat Untoa 

of— Prank Feaney, T08 S. Sad St., Pbil«- 

delphia. Fa. 
!:'.gineera' Benefloial Auoclatlon of the U. 

B. of A., National Marine—WIUiam 8. 

BiowiMl 850 Xllloott Bq. Bldg., Boaalo, 



^eritlnr— MIltoD Snelljngi, 
Ayo., CMcago, 111.; Jaa. Q. 
8884 Yala Are.. Obleago, Ul.; 



__-i, i08 Hall Bidg.i Eaniu City, Mo.; _. 
.;. Bhoamaker Boi No. 52B, Wiablta Falla, 
Taiu; Theodore Thomnaon, Rente 4, Box 
No. ST, Port Worth, Texas. 

Cbrpentera and Jolnera of Amerle*. United 
Brotberbood of— Wm. L. Hutcheaon, Car- 
penters' Bldg., 222 E. Ulabiian Bt., In- 
i.fanapolii, Ind.; Prank Dnffy. OarrieBtari' 
Bldg., 222 E. Michigan St., Indianapoiii. 
Ind.; 0. E. Woodbnry. 448 Bast 4Sd St., 
Chicago, m.; T. M. Gnerln, ZSO Second 
Are., Troy, N. Y.; E, W. Van Dnjn. 617 
Franklin Are., I>e5 MoloS", Iowa; Bob 
While. 10 02 Weat 21 at St., Oklahoma 
City, Okie.; J. A. Roaa, 818 Oakwood St., 
Pittsbnrgh, Pa.; P. H. McCarthy, Mrreh- 
anta Bank Bnildlag, San Pranciaco, Ol 

ClEaimakark' Intemallonal Union of Ami 
lea — G. W. Parklna. 440 S. Dearbom 8 



ard Bldg,, Byracnati, u, i. 
rsgraTen' Union of North AmerlKB. Intor- 
natlonal Pliotn — Mailhew Woll, 9111 
Biabop St., Chicago, Dl,; Peter J". Brady, 
628 Pulilior Bldg., New York, N. T, 
Federal Employaa, National Pederatlon of — 
E. J. Newmyer. 40S A, P. o( L. Bldg.. 
Waahlngton, D. C; Lnther O. Btaward, 
4D1S Cheatnnt ATe., Eunaai Olty, Mo.; 
Ohaa. P. Nagl. 480 Federal Bldg., Obi- 
Fire Pightera, Ii.tam«tloral AaaODlattoa if— 
Thomaa O. Spellaey, S48 Brandywine 
Ale., ^obeneetadr, N. Y ; Owen O. Dnnn, 
Fire H«adqnanera, St. Panl, Minn. 
Fireman, Inlernational Brotherhood of Bta- 
tlonary — Tlmothr Healy, 21) Bast 4Eth 
St., ;Kew Yo_rk,_N. Y,; C. L. Shamp. gei.l 



. 24tb St., Omaha, Kebr.;' Joaeph 
ark. 'N. .1. 



Morton, 158 W. Waahlngton" 
ni.; Wllliai- ' " 






Pnr Workera' Union if V. S, and Canada. 
Internatlontl — Philip A. Silberatslo 291 
aiookton ei., Brooklyn, N. Y.; Morris 
Kanfman, 747 E. 182d SI., Bronx. N. Y. 

^ . T,- _. . , United— T. 

"" ago, IIJ.: 



A. REckert, Morrtaot _ „ 

B. A. Larger, Room 117 TS'ble Hona 
T'f'k. N. Y,: John J. Uaonlnc. A. F. of 
L. Bldg.. Waahlngton. D, C; Margaret C. 
DahT, Boom 117 Bible Honaa, New York 
s. Y.; Prank Doyle, Room 117 Bible 
Honao. Now York, N. Y. 

Gann«it Workers' Union, International 
Lndiea — Benjamin BrhlBainger. HI Dnior. 
Sgnsre, New York City; Jacob Hetler. 117 
2d Atv... New York, N. Y, ; Max Ooren- 
aleln. 7 W. 21st 81., New York. N, T.- 
Al. Laporta. Lincoln Park New Jer^ay; 
K. Friedman IB W. 21st St.. Now York. 
S' T'^?- ^"'"'"'B. *° E. Z8rd St.. New 
York Olty. 



Philadelphia, Pa. 



Oolonliil 

-Tohn W. Olifton, 201 Y . „, „„„.- 

tor. ni.; Thomaa W. Eanraa, 817 N Bee. 

OBd Bl., MlllTllla. N. J. 
01a«a Workers' Union. American Flint — 

Wm, p. Clarke. 788 Ohio Bldg.. Toledo 

Ohio: John F. Kennedy. 312 N.Henry St 

Wrooklyn. N. Y.; John B. O'Brien, N 

Myrtle Are.. Vineland, N, .r 
31 BIS Workara, National WIndow-J. M 

Neenan 410 Electriv Bldg., OoTelaDd. 

Ohio: .T. O. Montrosa, Dtica, Ohio 
-loTe Workera' Union of America. Intema- 

L'.""™**"** „J^'"°'. '88 North Clark 

St.. Obicago, in, 
Branlte Cottm-a' TntamatioDal Aiaoclatloa 

of America. The — Jamaa Dnnoan, SS 



■„Goo»^Ic 



HISTORY. BNCYCLOPBDIA, RBFBRBNCB BOOK 



School 81. 

Joieph ' D. ~Wril,~B5B 



OalDcr, UaM.: Alcimihr W. 
Qilmors St., Qnlncr, Mui.; 
~ Msin 81., Bmm, 



Hiitiri ol North Amwic*, Unltiid— Ifsrllu 
Livlor, T2 BIbiB Hout, Haw York Oltrl 
-. Meqo«._r-- -- ■ - ' 

ud' dommon Labor 



, Chicago, 

El A.B., CI 

, SOD Guar 



D ' Aluiaodro, 1_ _.., , ,. 

Mau.; J. B. Etrhiion, 120 North Noble 

at., Indianapolia, Ind.; J 

loss KoTth Rlehnond tit. 

Joka 0*rlay, SIO ProipiK 

land, Ohio; W. F. DwjBr 

St., San FraDslaoa, Cal. 
Br-nt 8ho«n o( U. S. and Caoada. lalBraa- 

llonal Uoion of JooTnaTmeii — John P. 

Kana, 44S0 W. Jiokaon Bl*d., OUcaeo. 

III.; Hubert S. Harahall, 101 liacond ^a 

Tio>Bl Bank Bidr, CincbaatI, Ohio. 
Ho lei and Reataorant Emplorea' Interna - 



liooal UUan 



and Bar 



—Edward Flora. 



. Y.: Jara 



dpi- 



llTan, aiO Oommarclal Tribune Bldf.. _.- 
elnnatl. Ohio ; Tbomaa 8. Tarrtll, 1988 B. 
S8rd Bl., Snita fl, 01*Ta1and. Ohio; Eman- 
uol KotvImIi, lot Roynoldi Arcade. 
RochMter, N. Y.; John J. lioDBTitt. :i26 
V. Broad St.. Phitadalphla, Pa. 
, Bteel and Tin Wnrkeri. Amalitaniiit 
■ ■■ o/— John WtlUamB, "" " 
, Pltubureh. P«.r ■ 
___ .*llb at., B. ChlcB, . 

Laca OperBtiTea of America, Thr> ObarteKed 
SoelatT of Amalrimalni — TliTid L.~ Gould. 
545 Weat Lshifh Ave.. Phlladalnhia. Fa. 

Lalhara, IntamatTonal Union of Vood, Vlre 
and Ketal— Winiam J. MeSorhaj 401 
Superior BId«r.. OlaTaUnd, Ohio; Joieph 
H. Dnty, Roam S, Labor Temple. Pitta, 
burgh. Pa. 

Lanndrr Workan' TntrrnadOQal Union—. 
Jamea F. Brook, P. O. Box 11, StatioD 1, 
Troj. N. Y. 



Kana 



Oity, Mo. 



Lfttnr Oarriera. National Aiaociation el- 
Edward J. QoinoT. Kenoia Bids., Wanhioc- 

tnn. D. O.; John T. Ucgniin. 8)14 WdoS- 

bnm Aie.. Ginclnnatl, Ohiok ChBrlai D. 

DnlTr. 834 Blmwood Ate., Oak Park. Til.: 

L. E. Swarti, 1300 SaTenlh Ato., North 

Naah title, T«nn. 
Llthographen' Talamational PralaetiTa and 

BanBltclal Aaan. of tin U. B. and Canada 

—Philip Bock 409 Che " 

" " : Leopold Bnnbi 



.. Chiea 



D. HI. 



. 5021 1 



BrODklrn 



, jmen'a AiBOelatlon. Intemalional — ■ 

Thonaa V. O'Connor. T04 BrlabBne Bidtc.. 
Buffalo. N. Y.: Tbomaa P. Woodland. 
290B Poarth St., Nev Orleans, La. ; 
George F. Treltai, al7 Lawrenw St.. San. 
dually. OMa: Simon P. CBrten, ZBl Cum. 
berlaad Atb., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Kaehlnliti. Intenatlonal AaaoclBttOD of— 
Wm. H. Johnaton, Room 800 A. P. of L. 
Bldn.. ■WaahinglOB. D. C.i A. O. Wharton, 
Ohio BIdK.. St. Louia. Kn.^ Jat. O'Connall, 
Room 402 A. P. of L. Bid*.. Waahlnrton. 
D. 0.:Thoi. J. SsTBire. Room SIO A. F. of 
L. Bidi.. Waahlnffton. D. 0.; -Tai. A. Tay- 
lor. Labor Templo. Seattle. Waeh.; Thoi. 
Van LMr, Ulnneapolia, Ulnn. 

IfalDlenanaa of Way Employea, IntBmalional 



Brotherhood of — P. 1 



Pljaidal BT I 



St., Winnipag, Han., Canada; F. FIddbod, 
27 Pntaam Ave., Detroit, HIsh. 

llarbte. Slate and Stone Pahahara, Eubberi 
and Sawyara. Intl. Aaioeiation of — 
Btaphan 0. Hogan, 448 B. 14fith St., New 
York, K. Y. 

Haitera, Mataa and Pilot! , American Ajio- 
eiatlon ol-^ohn H. Pnratt, 4a8H 40th 
St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Meal Cnltara and Bulcher Workmen of N. 
A., Aualaamatad-^ohn P. Hart, York- 
TiliB, K. Y,; Denaia Lane, 188 W. Waah 
IngtoD St., Chicago, III.: Pied Schmidt, 
4148 Oaceola St., St. Loula, Uo.; Tim- 
othy KnCraath, 858 Kauiai Ayf., Kansaa 
Oily, Kana. 



Bedding, GOia Wsahlngton 6\ji., Chicago, 
111.: Jaa. T. Morlarty. G Appleton St.. 
Boston, Main.; Jia. J. Ryan, 623 Sonth 
Halated SI., Chirago, Jl>. 

Uina, Ulll and Bmeltrr Workara, Intenia- 
■lonal Onion of — Chaa. H. Mo^er. S0» 
Danhani Bldg,, Denri^r. Colo.: Wm. Day- 
Id aon. New Denver, B, 0., Canada: Pat- 
rick Delonghery, eara of Box 220, Buits, 
Uont,; Joaeph D. Cannon, 14S Wa*t Slat 
St., New York, N. Y. 

Mine Workera ot America. United— Frank 
J. Hayei, 11C8 Haichanta Bank BIdg., In- 
dlanapolii, Ind.; John P. Wbitu, 1100 
Uarchanli Bank Bidg., Indlanapolla, tnd.; 
William Oreen. lll.i March^nta Bank 
Bldg., IndlanapoliB. Ind.; John H. Wal- 
ker. 802 Workman B!d(„ Springflald. HI.; 
Prank Farrington, 508 Parmer.' Bank 
Bldg.. Hpringflatd. 111.; John Uoore. IT 
Buggery Bldg^ Oolnmbni. Ohio; ,rohn L. 
Lewia, llOS HarehantB Bank Bldg., In- 
dlaiiapotit. Ind.; John T. DrmpaeT. 512 
Miller Bldg., Bcranton, Pa. 

Uoldera' Dnlon of N. A., Intamational — 
Jos. P. VBlentini, Oommarcial Tribune 
Bldg, Cincinnati. Ohio: John P. Fray. 



."■iioT" 



Olne 



Ohio; 



Snnnyrale. Oal : Artbni 

La6oi Temple. Portland. Orag-: J. W. 

Mara, IBD Endlealt Bl., Worcester, Mass. 

Mnsiclana, Araarlesn Pedsration of-^os. K, 
.Weber, 110-112 W, 40lh St.. Neir York. 
V. Y.: Owen Milter, 8536 Pine St.. SI. 
Louia. Mo.; Job. P, Winkler, 168 W. Waih- 
Ington St., Chicago.; D. A, Carey. 170 
UontroBe Are.. Toronto, Onl., Canada. 

Palntara' Decoraton and PapvrhangeTt of 
A., Brotherhood of — Geo. P. Hedrlek. 
Drawer M, Lafayette. Tnd.; J. C. Rkemn. 

r. =o^ Lafayette, Ind.; P. J. f— •- 

t.. '" .■"■-. . -. 

j7; 

Lynch, 28b OroTe St., Hwdford 

MasB.; A. Aylna, 188-40 E. 112th St., New 

York. N. Y. 

Paper Makers. Intematlonat Brotherhood of 
— J, T. Carey. 127 North Pearl St., Al- 
bany. N. Y.: Geo. J. Schneider. 941 Slate 
St.. Asplaton. Wia. 

Pattern Makera' League of North America — 
Jss- A. Wilion. RoomB 1008-9 Second Na- 
tional Bank Bldg,. Olnclnnsli, Ohio: Jaa, 
' " Road, Brook- 



, '/"■ : 



Bridge 



f iha United Btataa 



■„Goo»^Ic 



AMBRTCAN PBDER&TION < 



DOT Wi. &IDIOD, n. X. 

Plino Had Organ Warlcan' Union at Aner- 
ioi, lilt; — OhM. Dold, lOo V/. WishlDK- 



John Donlin, A. ¥. of L. Bld(., WMhing- 
ton, D. C; Chrii Hede, 908 W. Monroe 
Bt., Chicago, ni.- ThtmBi Oeorne, 1B21 
Riuiell Road, aaTeland. OMe. 

Plumber* una 8l8«m Filter* of the C. e. ind 
Canadn. tJniied Asm. of — Jobu B. Alpinp, 
«ll Bunb TVmple of Uailc, CbUtgD, III.; 
Thnmiu B, Kairney, 64 W. Randolph Bt., 
CUlcai^i. m.' Chirlai Anddrtaa. TJAion 
Labor lampla, PitUbnreh, Pa : Cb>rl« M. 
Ran, ise W. Randolph St., Clilaa«o. HI- 

roIUlirra. Hptal, Intamstloaal nnioa— W. 
T. Brllton, 408 Nrars Bnildine, Oineln. 
natl. Ohio; Qaorgi! Learj. 408 Nagn 
lidg., dnciinall, Oblo: R. 0.. DloM. 
I1G28 Hirrard Ais.. W. Pnllmaa Bta- 
tioa, Ohicaro, HI. 

Poilal E-nployM, National Pedoration ol— 
Thoi. F. FlahartT, Room 400, A. F, of L. 
Bldg., W»«lilniton. D. C. 

Potter*. National Brotbarhood of Overatlve 
— Bdnard Hann, Boi ^o. 6, Eail Llwr- 

Kol, Obio: Will T. Dlnke, Bot No, 84, 
St I jTerp'wl, Ohio. 

Prlntara and Color »ixert of the U. S., Ha- 
ehlDG, Natl. AiaoclatlDD of— Patrick E. 
LTona, S34 Tranton Are., Bnffalo, N. T. 

■^nlBTi' Union o( N. A.. I-' "*--' --• 
opp€r Plate — Danlal Ha ax 
- . W., WeihlngtOB. B. 0. 

Printing Freaamen and Aaalatanti' Union of 
N. A., Intern attonal — Geo. L. Barry, 
Praaiman'i Home, Tenn.: Wm. H. He- 
lingh, Prestmen'a Boma. Tann.; Cboa. O. 
laaaeMn. 148 W. Owrm 81., 81. Paul. 
Ulnu.: Thorn** Yonld, Preaaraen'i Home, 
Tans.: Cliaa. Ii. Stmnk, 4fi5 St. Anthony 
ATe.. St. Faol. Hlnn. 

Pulp, evtpblta and Paper Mill Workers of 
the C. S. and Canada, Intl. Brotberbood of 
— John P. Bnrke. P. O. Drawer K, Fort 
Edvard. N. T.; Herbert W. Snlllixa, Main 
et., Orono. Me.: Kanrlce IiaBelU. P. O. 
Eoi 2a S. Stnrgeon Falli. Ont.. Oinada. 

Quarry Workera' Intamatlcinal Union of 
N. A.— Fred W. Bnltor. Soamplnl Bldg.. 
Barre, Tt. 

*of"freel"and'El«tcle^W. D. Mahon. 104 
Eaat HUb St., Detroit, Mich.; Win. Qdln- 
lan, 882-384 S. Aahlind Bird., Ohleaco. 
III.; P. T. Sheehan. IST Oopeland 81.. 
Oammllo, Mate.: Michael J. OahlU, ISB 
ninol* St.. Oentr*l Falls, R. I. 
Railway Mail Aaaoelat ion— William M. Col- 
lins. BD4 Oalorado Bldg.. Waahington, t). 
C: Walter J, Brown, 13B1 Oommonwaalth 
ATe.. Alltlon, Masa.; James R. McOoy. 
183B Ben too Bonlerard, Eanaas City, 

Roofcra. Oomposltlon. Damp and Waterproof 
Workers of the U. B. and Canada, tntl. 
Brotherhood of— Henry Sands, 848 Sussex 
Ara.. HewBTk, M. J. 

Roofers' Union of America, tntenational 
Slata and IHle-^. K. Oavlak, 8848 W. 
tTth Bt.. OlaTeland. Oblo. 

flfamra's Union of America. International — 
Andrew Fnraaetb. GT Olay St.. 8an Fran- 
daeo. Oal.: Paul BebarrenberE. Under- 
wood Bldg.. 52S Uarket St.. ^n Fran- 



ciaeo, Oal.; Pattlsk FlyDn, 68 OommarelaL 

St., San Franelaeo, Oal.: John Tanse 
TkompeoB. 48 Clay St., San Fionelaco. 
Oal.: Oscar Carlson. 40 BnrtlnE BUp, Nhw 
York. N. Y. 

?ipialmei nf Amerloa, Brotherhoad of Rail- 
road— D. W. Halt, B38 S. Market St.. 
Bhamokln, Pa. 

Srinnera' International Union-— Urban Flam 
ing. 188 Lyman St.. Balyoka, Moa*. 

Btan Employea of Amailca, IniematlonaT 
Alliance of Theatrical— Oh aa. C. Sbiy. 107 
West 46th 8t.. Kew York, S. T.; Lester 
G. Dollivar, lOT West 4Sth 8t.. Vev 
■"""'" " '■ '"' ", Hsny, 88 Draper 



N. Oar 



1 Shon 



Maax.-, John Ssarei 

■e.. at. -- 



nation 






■ Union 



Joi 



■reotyriera and Electrotypei 

A.. Inlematlonal— CharVa A. Snmi... 
1110 OliTo St.. Kanta: City, Mo.: J- Fri 
nont Prey. The New*, Indianapolia, Inc 
Itara' Aasoclsllon of North Amerlci 

leymcn — Ssm Grljtg*. S'H •■" f" 

LifaBldg., Indlanapolli 



llldE.. Indlu 



lis. Ind."" 



>enlra. 



Life 



llldE.. Indluapolis. Ind. 

. o»e Moonlers' international Union— W. _. 
Fnnder Bark, 1310 Jefferson kt».. Eaat. 
Detroit, Mich. 

9w<tebiaen'a UnioD of North America — 
Samnel E. Beberllns, 826 Brishsne Bids.. 
Bnffslo. N. Y,: ThOB. ClobBsay, 1207 Peo- 
ria Bt.. ChleaES. III.: Jaa. B. Ooniwm. 
lahlnrton St.. Cbi- 



Tallore' Union of America, JaurnsTmen — 
Thoa. Sweeney. Oor. E. flTth Bt. and Stony 
Island Are.. Cbloaco, III.; John B. Lao- 
non, BloomlngtOD, fli. - " — 
3^. STth St. and Stoi 

a, m. 



ran. 1 

Teacbera, 



B. Stillmi 



D. O. BIg:r>. e 
(ration of — Obarles 



Chanffenra, Stabler 
nerica. Intematlom 
1 J. Tobln. 232 E. 



I Brotherhood 
Ulobiian Bt.. 



222 G. HJefalgai 

William A._.Ne«j. 186 W. Waatlngton 



■hicsm, U!.; .lohn M. Gilleiple, ITO W. 
IrooVliwe g'.. Boaton. Mass.; James Wll- 



Bt. Lonis. Mo.; 3. I 



imlc. Mosaic a 



1 Enea 






Daly. 17 Welling St.. __,_ _. ... .. .. 

Hn Printera. International Brotherhood of — 

Lonia A. B. Aiethen. 547 Channcsy St.. 

Brooklyn. N. Y. 
Pobacro Workers' International Union — A. 

MrAndrsw. 2002 Wayland ATe.. Norwood. 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORY. BNCyCLOPBDIA. RBFBKBNCB BOOK 



. OnrtU, B08T 



I L. Bld(^ 



Tnnaal ud Snbnr Ooni 

Honal Union — Thamu J . 

Hnll At*., Maw York, S. 
Tjpocnphlul Cnlon. iDHinat 

HiTM, BTS Paikvqod Dli 

Ohio; Frank Marriw>n, A. ] 

WaaUoiton. D. O.: &n(h , .. 

IitutT At«.. ToKnto, Onij. Canada: J. 

W. Har>, M0-6G0 Newton Oliypoo' Bldf., 

iBdlMupalla, lad.; B. O. Bndf, S40 Haw- 
ton OlaTpoel Bids., Indlanapolii. Isd. 
CphDiftaran' Intarnational Union of M. A. 

— Jamaa H. Hatoh, 329 K. STth St.. Mow 

Toik, N. Y. 
Whita Rata Aeton' Unlgn of Annrfck-- 

Harrr IlDnntlDrd, BTB BroaAwar, NaSr 

York. S. T. 
6rar(ia Stati rwlBratlan of Labor — I<ob1o P. 

Harqnardt. 
IllinoU Stala Fedarallon of Labor — John P. 

IfeOrath. 18GG LodlU A**., 8pTli>(flald, 



Marrland-Dlitrict of Colombia Tadaratlon of 
Labor — Jaupb T. Tooni, SOd Stb St. N. 
W.. WaiblngtoB, D. O. 
Uaaaaehnaatti 8tata r>doratlon of Labor — 
P. HaiTT Mnninn. B8T Waahlnfton Bt., 
Baiten. Kau. 

HMCa Pedarallon of Labor— K. 8. 
"■ - ■ ■ Bonth, Wnns- 



H«l], 1134 Brjanl 



1 of Liboi^-If. If. 



WnnlBna HtaU Frdar 

Donoghaa. ESI Dlamacd SE„ BQKo, Kont. 
Naw York Htalo PedoralloB of Labor — Jaa. 

P. Holland. 211 E. dStb Bt., Naw York 



Boris, 
Ohio. 



of Labor — Jamw 



Twalftb St.. 0)bo 



OnwOB State Fwdantlon .. ... 

Stack, lia Stock Eiebansa Bide. Port- 
land, OraK- 

PonntyWaDli State Paderatlon of Labor— 
Hlchaal Eann. Bntfrrllla, ?«,• 

Forto Rloo, Prea IVderBllDn_ of Worklnf- 



SlantUg 



, Porto RIeo. 



Irlaalaa, 



T»»> Stat* Federation of Labor^Harrr L. 

Btwb««', Box 408. Ronaton, Taiaa. 
TlrrlnU Stat* Federation of Laboi^-J. R. 

ainedinat, NawpoR Kewi, Vt. 
W^hlnirtDn State Ted*atlon at Labor- 
Robert H. Hailin. Box 1Z8E. Taeoma. 

Waih. 
^laeonain Slate Fedentlon of Laboi^-Fra-! k 

J. Webar. Boom SOB Brlabano Hall. Idll- 

wankaa, WU. 
Abardaen. S. D.. Oanlral Labor Union— 

Mathlsa K. ObrUtonaen, 114 Sonth 8*e 

ond St.. AberdMii. S. D. 
A ah land. Wis.. Oeotnl Labor Connrll— 

Franti Wlon. 807 St. Clalr St., Aahland. 



Anntta, Ga., Fedirat^oo of Tradat — Max 

Wilk. Tba Ijabor Bvriow, Ananata, Qa. 
BalllDwra. Hd., Fadaration of Labor — John 

H. Farnuon, IT 15 Jaflaiaon St., Baltt 

mote, lid. 
BalUa Oraak, Mloh.. Tradea and Labor Oonii- 

all — Uri. Goldla If, Bpsnoai, SOB Ward 

Bids., Battle Oraot If leh. 
Iiallingha-n. Wath., Oantial Labor OotuoU — 

Emll Hoof, 1485 Frankliii St., Ballinr 

bam, Waafa. 
Bllllnn, Mont^ Tradea and Labor Adambl]' 

— Stniben Kir, Billing. Mont. 
Blamarck, H. D., Ttadaa and Labor Aa- 

nemblj— Frank UllhoUan, «33 Pint 8t„ 

BUmarek, K. D. 
LloomlBflon. lU., Tradea and Labor Ai- 

aembiT — Hn. 3. If. Fatteraon. ftW E. 

Ifonroe St., Bloomlafton, HI. 
Boaton, Mi — "— — .-V^— ^ 

F. Star. 



. , 518 Van Bnren St., Brooklrn. 

N- Y. 
Buffalo, N. Y., OMitral Labor Oonnall— Jnl.n 

J. DoTia, Bsffah, M. Y. 
Butte. Kont., SIItot Bow Tradtta and Labor 

ODnnoll — Cbaa. Mallor. P- O. Bai 1185, 

Oedar [lapida. ' Iowa. 

J St.'. Weat, 6wlar Raptda, Iowa. 
Charloaton. W. Va^ Kanawha Talln Oantral 

Labor Cnlon — Otiaa. Oriekmora. Box 1 lOA, 

Oharleaton, W. Ta. 
ChlPin. HI., Federation of Labotv-WllUan 

". Foil-- — — t— .— ™.. 



ni- 



, 8042 



'»., OUeacOi 



Ohio. 
CoTlngtan. K;.. Trad 

of Kenton * Can. 

T. Dill. Bavaria Bldg.. Clnelnnatl. Ohio. 
Mlamra FalU, V. Y.. Tradei and Labor 

Oonneil — Dm J. O'Shea, Niagara Falli. 



370, San 



Waah. 
uiangx, N. I.. Fadaratad Tradea OouneU-- 

Iflehaol F. 0rMBe, Orange. N. J. 
Ollawn. Can.. Allied Tradai and Labor Aa- 

•ociatlon— P. If. Draper. Box 51S, Ottawa, 

PhlladvlphlR. Pa.. Oei>tra1 Labor Union — 

Joaeph Rlcbla. 41T Heed Bide, 1311 Fll- 

ticrt St.. PhiladaiphU. Fa. 
PltUbnr«li. Pa.. Iron Ofly Central Tradet 

Crmaell — Lnther Ott. PlttabnrKh, Pa. 
Portland. Oregon. Central Labor Conneil — 

K, .7. Vennewlli. Lnmbar Bxebange Bids.. 

Portland. Orag. 
Purhio, Colo.. Tradea and Labor Aeaemblr — 

W. H. Young, 131 Xaat Bth St.. Pnablo, 



Boaroka. Va.. 

Hotel, Rosnokv, Va.' 
R«che*t«r, N. Y-, Central Trades 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



AMBRICAN PSDBKATION < 



Oannell— Biohud H. Oniru, lOT Hob*r: 

81., BachvlBi. M, Y. 
BschaRgr, Minn., Trtdu *od Labor Aa- 

tamblj—John A. Vricskc, Kachs*(sr, UtDn. 
Rookford, 111.. CenCnl Labor UniaD— M. 

MsUnrk, afiO N. Horaman St., Oocktoti, 



St. Joseph. Mo., Central Labor OoudoII— F. 

W, Brand. 416 a 2Znd St., St. Jotsph, Ilo. 
et. iHola, llD.. TridM and labor Union— E. 

O. JonuiDaa. IT 15 KUaourl Are., St. 

Luuia, Mo. 
8t. FanI, Hiiui., TradM aod T<abor Aa^ambl; 

—Ed*. J. Cdtrr, BOS Caat fllh St., (it. 

Paul. Hlnn. 
Salem, Orac., Tradaa and Labor Oonneil — C. 

U. Byaeraon, oare IST Conrt St., tialeni. 



8obi 



meoti. Bait Laka OIIt, Utah. 

in Franclaoo. CaU Lahur Oo&uuk — •. a.. 
Raardon, Upper Tarraos and CliftOD St)., 
"-- -^aneiaoo, OaT. 

>dT, N. T., Tradaa Aaatmbly— K. J. 



a. uuiiGau, labor Tampla, Soattla, Waah. 
Sioni CTitr, lova, Tradaa and Labor Aiiara- 

blT— Wm. J. Fallon, 410 Weat Srd St.. 

B>au OltT, Iowa. 
Blonz Falli, B. D.. Trada* and Labor Aa- 

lamblr— Archla Haekigllan, ItBB B. Spring 

A*e., Slou Fall), S. D. 
Saalh OUtan, HI., Tradaa and Labor Aa- 
•■ —H. W. Raran, T9S8 OAutanea 



SpHn (field, 



.. (Mean, HI. 
field, III., F"- 
E. Woodmi 



Mirhaa! J. Scanlan. 11 Lyndala St., flpi^nc- 

Seld, Mail. 
Denver, Oolc, Tradea and I.abor Aiaambly — 

Earl B. Hoag*. 3Sai W. Iltb Ave., Dan- 

*rT. Colo 
Detroit Mich., Federation of Labor—Wlll- 

lam BaUer. f* Macomb St.. Detroit, Mich. 
Dnbnqm. lova. Trailas and Labor Connen 

—J. M. OoDley, Dnbnqnr, Tova. 
Eaaton, Fa., Central Labor Union- Harold 

WlllUmi, F. O. Box AS. Kalton, Fa. 



i.u.iuTi, Box 16V, Fort Worth, Tei. 
Grand Forks, K. D., Tradea ond Labor Aa- 

■«mblT— Pfller Mornn, 421 Ohrrrr St.. 

Orand Forka, IT. D. 
Grand Raplui, Mleh., Tradai and Labor 

Counril — Olaiida O. TaylPr, 32S Ann Bt.. 

Orand Baplda, Uleh. 
Hamilton. Ont., Can., Tradea and Labor 

Connell — E. W. A. O'Dalt. 221 Stlnaon 

SI.. Hamilton, Ont., Oan. 
Hannibal. Ho., Tradea and Labor Aaaambly 

— R, F. Brown, Box 45. Hannibai. Mo. 
Hlllaboro, HI., Tradaa OoqdiU— John T. Mc- 

Gurtj. Box ass, Uillaboro, nt. 
Holyoke, Mii*.. Osntrst Labor Union — E. 8. 

Alden, 214 VaQle St.. Bolyoke, Uaaa. 
Hogniam, Waih,. rradea and Labor Council 

— Harry 8. Kreai, 

HoqDlun, Waah. 



Kanaar Olty, Ho.. Oeotral Labor OiJon — 

John T. Smith, Labor Temple, Kanaaa 

City, Mo. 
Keaaiutaa, 111., Caliimtt Joint Labor Conn- 

oH^^homaa L. Qregion, 144S E. 69th 
' Flan, Ghleafo, Ul. 
La Oroaie, Wit.. Tradaa and Labor Ooiinoil 

— B. Q. Snnlion, 614 8 Srd 8t„ La 

Croat B, Wla. 
Lanaford, Pa., Oanlral Labor Union of Pan- 
ther Croak Talley— John B. Braailn, Lana- 

ford. Fa. 
LonlsTllla, Ey., United Tradaa and Labor 

Aaiembly^-George O. Barton, 9 Lincoln 

Apartmanta, LonlaTlDa, Kt. 
Uadlion, WU.. Federation of Labor-^oaapb 

H. Brown, 740 Orandall Bt., Madlaon, Wia. 
Manitowoc, Wia., Central Labor OOnncll— 

" ~ *- , 8B0 18th Bt., Hanito- 



, Wla. 



— Frank Walnheimar, < 

wBDkae, Wla. 

MiniNapolIa, Hinn.. Tradea and Labor Aa- 

aembly— Nela Halaon, 48 South 4th St., 

MinneapoUi, Xlun. 
Uonlreal, One., Can., Ttadoi and Labor 
Oonneil— F. J. Byan, 2 Bt. Paul St., Eaat, 
Hontraal, Qna., Oan. 



nati4_ Kew Keniinoton, __, 

Mew York, N. T., Central Fadaratod Dnlon 

— B. P. Brlodeli, ISBO Daly Are., Biooi. 

N. Y. 
Nbw Badtord, Kasa.. Oeatral Labor Union — 

Saranel Boia, 109 County Bt., Itaw Bod- 
ford, Haaa. 
New Orlaaoa, La., Central Labor Union — 

F. T. Ohinn, Jr., Sltl DeleohaUa 8t„ 

Ifaw Oileana, La. 
Superior. Wia., Tradea and Labor Aaaambly 

— Jaa B. Campbell, 1S09 Huchit An., Sn- 

porior, Wia. 
Taeoma. Waah.. Oeotral Labor OoDncll — 

Tboa, F. Bums, IISBK Broadway, Taeoma. 

Wash. 
Tatt, Cal,, Ojntral Labor Union— 8. O. 

Voiher. Taft, Cal. 
Toronto, Ont,. Can , District Labor Rounril 

— W. F. Bush, 112 Alton Ato., Toronto. 

Ont., Oan. 
Tray, N. T.. Central Federation of Laboi^— 

Jamai Lemke. 160 Srd St., Troy, N. Y. 
VlDCennen. Ind.. Central ^LaboT Union — 

Ohac. Enhn, Tineannea, Ind. 
VlTElnla, Minn., Central Labor UnioD — J. 

P. F. Bandera, 414 Srd 81.. S. Tlrfiula, 

Ulnn. 



. D. C. 
Whoelhiff, W. Ta.. Ohio TalleyTradaa and 

Labor AiioniblT — Wn. F. Hahna, 4Sag 

Water St., Wheallas. W. Va. 
Winona, Minn.. Tradea and Labor Oonncit— 

F. H. HcKer, 118 ■ff. Hark St., Winona. 

Minn. 
Yonkeii, N. T., Federation of Labor — Oeorn 

B. McOoTern, Yonkari, N. Y. 
Zaaeavllle, Ohio. Central Labor Oonneil — 

Pat Oaiey, EOS Lnek Ats., Zanearilla, 

Ohio. 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTOHy, BNCYCLOPBDU, KBFBRBNCB BOOK 



W. lUllaar, 848 Bmranj St., Moilolk, Ta. 
Oold DnWB BUbI Worktn' Union Mo. ISSSfl 

—WallBT Brum, 310 5th St., Ktw Brtgb- 

ton, Fk. 
CooTt Reportan' Vadentloa Mo. 14ITl~ 

Un. C&aee H. Horta, Balt« GOl, 31 V. 

La Salla St., Ohlcaco. HI. 
J>raft«iii«n uid Dailcnara' Unhtn No. 1SQ>5 

— U. J. BTowna, oara Sacrolirj A. Strip- 

planu, «SGS Balla Plalna At*., Ohloaso. 

Eh 'loipeeton' ITnloa No. STOfi— Edward 
Lunpm, TSS H. Larmla Ava., CUeafo, III. 

Padanl Labor Union No. 7*30 — Hiai Harr 
Uorrla, B13 N. fltli St., Spiinrlleld, III. 

fedaral Labor Union No. flfiST— Ida Lavl, 
Labor TampK Saattla, Wafb, 



, 413 Hattan Atb., 



OBoa SmploTaa' Aiaociallon No. 12TSe — 

Joaaph J. Ellleolt, SSGD W. Adama 8t„ 

Ohicaio III 
Oil Flsld Worken' Uolon Ko. 1504B— W. E. 

WQlrh, DrnmrlKbt, Okla. 
Oil Plaid Worken- Union No. 1S3BT~W. 

W. Bami. Oooia Croak, Tai. 
Oil riald Workan' Union No. IBGOa — C. O. 

Hoora. 
Oil TI«Id Workara' Union No. ISSOS — W. A. 

Campbell. OH Ollr, La. 
on Yield Workan- Union No. ISSIO — C. A. 

Ennter. SIT Tianln St., Shmvport, La. 
Oil riald Worken' Union No. 1581S— U. H. 

Orane, Palloiri, 0»l. 
OU rialj Workan' Union No. ISBSl—OllTar 

Iflller, Box tM, Marieopa, Oal. 
Oil Field Workera' Union No. 18976 — T. P. 

Bell, TiTlan, La. 
Oil Pield Workara' Union No. ISOBl— O. D. 

Piskiton. Taft. Oal. 
Oil Field Wortara' Union No. tSTBl — B. H. 

Fnier. Brea. Oal. 
on Field Worken' Union No. 1GT4S— H. R. 

Pararaora, P. O. Box 310, GvffaT. Texaa. 
Oil and Ou Wall Workan' CnloB No, 1SS3S 

—Walter J. Ymmtr, Marah Strong Bldf.. 



. IGSTB — Ed. Wen. 

UHh ^. u. n» ai., nilllaTtlla, HI. 

FoH, Panama and Straw Hat Trlmmera and 
Owatora' Union No. IdSAB. United — 
Wnniv Tdtelbanm, T Eaat 15tk St.. New 
York Oltj- 

Fait, Straw, Panama, ValTot Hat TriitiBian 
and Opontora' Union No. IBBBO. United 
— Allea Sootl, MS Broad St.. Newark. N. J. 

Grain Workrfn' Auodatloa No. 1140T — 
Braeat Bohm. 310 E. Stb St., New York 
Olt7. 



Lonla, Uo. 
Jaoitora' Union. Flat. No. lasSB— Wm. F. 

Qneisa. 4T82 Indiana Ato., Obieato, HI. 
Janltora' UdIob. Flat, No. laaoi — 6. W. 

Kaater. 570 Belbr Aia.. St. Paul. Iflnn. 
Lead Bnmen' UdIoh Kd. 141)51— Joaaph 

StanntoB, SB Eait SSrd St., Baronne Oily. 

I.Ibnrr' Employee' Union No. 15fiao~M(T 
Walker. BS Wwt loth St.. New York Cilr 

Marine Draitamen'a Union No. 15880 — 
Plato F. WapllDctoa. 8432 10th Ato.. 
Brookjrn, N, Y. 

Karina I>Taftamen'a Union No, 15388 — .T. C. 



folk, Ta. 
Naokwaar Haken' Union. United. No. llOlf 
54 IfeEIbban St. 



BrooklTn. N. Y." 
Noekweu- Workara' Union No. 15200 — Mlaf 
'— Walnatock. BIO Waihlncton St., Boa- 



ton. Haaa. 

Newibo^a' Local Union No. 1BS84 — Hatha 

■^ '" " Orpbanm Bldg., Spattli 



''5f..' 



"p^ M«b, 

Wa«h. 



Oil and Gaa Woll Workan' Union No. 1SB2B 

—John L, Oonlter, Box B8. H. P. r " 

1, Bakwafleld, Cal. 
Oil and Gai Wall Worken' Union Ho. 15444 

—J. J. Bnllor, Loit Hilla, Oal. 
PiTlnr Inapecton' Union No. I488S — 

Ulcbael K. Blordan, 441B Berkater At*., 

OhleaBO, ni. 
Pipe Oaolken and Tappera' Union No. TU8 

-Frank A. Brmo, 1428 Eait 10th St., 

BrooklTn, N. T. 
Railroad Laborara' Union No. 1SB4T — 0. O. 

Voijl, 10 Oronkhlte At*., DanTlIto. m. 
Railroad Hetpan and Laboren' Union No, 

16T81— E. B, Pmlll, Hortoo, Kana. 
Shipyard Laborera' Union No. 1578! — B. 8. 

Lanoaitar, 5G4 St. Fnnela St., Mobile. Ala. 
ind Pntletln Board Hinjnira. Union 
1487! — GaoFKe Rlnoker, Villa Park. 

i... (General Delivery.) 
Stenoaraphen, TypairrUen, Bookhaapm 

anif AiflatantB' Union No. IISST— Hra. J. 

Bharon. 28 N. Delaware St.. IndlanapoUa, 

Stenographera, Typewrltera, Book keep an 
and Aaaiatanta' Union No. 117T8 — J, B. 
Ollai, A. F. of L. Bide, Waahinnon, D, 0. 

Brltiih Tradea Union ConKnaa — F. Hall. H. 
P. Hinen- Offloaa, BarnileT Yorka; Itlai 
If, Bondflold, Dlike Honaa, Halet at.. Lon- 
don. W. C. I. 

Can ad inn Tradai and Labor rnmrreaii — 
Tbomaa Iloore, Nlacara Falli. South, On- 
tario. Can. 

Women'a Interatloaal Union Lab«l LeaBue— 

National Wonau'i Tnilp Union Leana — 

Hlai Hellnda Scott, 43 S. 2Bnd St.. Now 

York City. 
National Labor Pnblkltr Organliathni— 

UsTid J. Berry, Union Labor Tempi*. 

Pittabnrsh. Pa. 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



AUBSICAH FEDBRATION OF LABOR 



DELEGATES TO 1881 CONVENTIOK 



Aiiinu, John F.. Plllibarili — Window Olui 

Worksn- L. A. 300, K. of L. 
BiDtoi'sEi, H. H.. FEttuburfb — Frlatsn' 

Locil AMtmbtT leSO. K. ol L. 
_ Winiam, Chlcato — Olc>nnak>ni' 



BnrKnu, Oharlsi V., San VnocUeo — B«p- 
TomtallTa .tiMtobfy of th« Faelfle Ooaat 
rrada aod linbor IJnIani. 

B;Tns, Ulchacl J„ Buffalo — OpsntlTi Plaa- 



Carroll, Thomii 
L, A. 1SS8, K. 



Pi ttibnTfli — Horanfaoan ' 

r L, 

DV aiaii Workara' L. A. 

F., Fittabnrgh— Iflnara' 

iIjCanM'td So 

■ehibaid. Coa! Blaff, Pa.— L. A. 151. 

Cei. U. W.. Haw Oaitle — Oood Wilt Lodn 

Nn. Ffl. A. A. d( I. and 8. W. 
Crawlord. Danlal, Flttaburvb — Caipanlsra' 

and Jolnrn' L. A. 14SB, K. of L. 
Crawford, Utrk L.. Dwrn-. Lao P.. Ohlcapc 

— AmalMioatcd Pain ten' Union. 
Oroilar. .Tamei W., PittibnTfb— L. A. 1«82, 

K. ef L, 

Bo ■ tan — T.vpO(rBT>)iicB' 

Allarhany — Oarpantari ' 



Gnllrta, BobiTt, Piltabordi— L, A. 1S«8, K. 

Hanlian. Patriek, Piltabu^— L. A. 16B8, 

K. of L. 
Hannabarn, Tbomaa, OlaTaland. Ohio — 

Ooopan*^ Intanational Union of North 

imt. Joha.' Piltabnrsb— Iron Uoldara' Union 

No. 2*8. 
Howard, Eobert, Fall BItct — Cotton an.I 

Unia eplnnan' Aaaoclalion. 
Kuntar, Thomai J,, FitlabnTgh — Garrwatara' 

L. A., X. of L. 
Jarrrtt, John, Pittabnrgh — Hati^nal lAdn- 

A. A. of I. and S. W. 
Keltar, -Tohn, BnlTalo— Uniona' AaaaublT. 
K!akka, Frad J., BnffalChT-BiiSBlo Branch ol 

Ktlly, John It., Pitta burgh— Pri»nrl»hip 
LodEB No, SO, A, A. of I. and B. W, 

Klnreir, J^hn, Cambridga, Uaaa. — Oantril 
Tradifa and Labor Union, 

Knirolniaier, Jacob, Plttaborgh— L. A. 1584, 



Lcjton, R. D., Pitta] 
K. of L. 



Tnlon No, 
Cummin^ 1 

L. A, 1581. 
DaTla. W. H.. FlttabnTgh — Sllco Lod«u 






K. of T 
HoMara 



, Pitt ibnrirb— Iron 
■ ■— , K, of L. 



- hard, UnionTillf 

.^aaaIn>>1r No. 3, Knlithli of Labor, Malai.i 
Rcan. », t>. Plllabarrh— StDnc-nltBTi' Aa- 

Hoplallon of Allrabanv Conntr. 
Frb, Oharlaa Detroit — Coimril o( Tradaa and 

Labor Uniona of T>ali«il. 
I.Tana, W"., Piltabnrjh — Harmony Lnitia No, 

18. A, A. of 1. and 8, W. 
I'llar, John W„ plttaburih — Boilarmakara' 

L. A. 13(13. K. of L. 

• ■ - --■ ■ nrKh— Window Olaaa 



Fli>liar 



, sno. 



. Pitti 



nrih- L, A, 1803. K. 



of L. 
Foatar, W. H„ CInrlnnatI— Tradai and Labor 

,ta>iwniblT of Oinrlnnati and Vicinily. 
Fowlli, GuttaT. BalHmnre— Orrman-Amari' 

pan Tjnocrapblfa! Union. 
Frunrla. TlaTld, PI ttabornh— Window Olaaa 

Worltfra' L. A. 800. 
Oiw, S, R., VlttabiiTnh— Tailora' L, A. 

laao, K. of L, 
Qi-mvm. Bamnpl, Npw York — Clitarmahara' 

Intam^lional Union of Amprlea. 
amndlann, Irromiah, FlttibnTKh— L. A. 

tflSS. K. of L, 
arav, .T«hB, W«at Slliabath — L. . 

Of L. 



. 10», K. 



nrch— Third Diatriet 

Indianapolia — Tradaa 

ncker, n„ Pitl>iinrEh-^L. A. ISOT, K. of L, 
rnch, Charlaa D.. Datrolt— Braaa Flniahsra 
and Uold-nv' PmtactlTa Union No. 1. 



Trad«a and Labor 1 
VlclnUr- 



of Mow Tork a 



ItpRrlda Tliomta J., Pittibnrich — Iron aiU 
Braia Unldara' L. A. 1080, K. of L. 

ph. Plttabnrgh — CiEmnnakara' 



McCInra, Joiai 



. 1008, : 



Erie — Typo jraph l«a 1 
abnTgh- L, \. ISaS 



UcOlU, MlchB< 

of L. 
MrRonodl. Thomaa ,1., Piltabnrith- Pattar- 

Uak^n' L. A. isoa, K. of L. 
WoTrar, H., Pllttburgh — Stonemaaona' L. A 

1631, K. of L. 
KcK.-an Will I an 

Union No. T7, 
ir..HaitfTa, Thomaa, PittabnTg 

K. of L, 
UeWUlinint. Alaxandar MeK. 

Typographical Union Ho. 7. 
Hark«rii>, Knineth, New Tork- Sookblnd- 

ara' ProtaetiTa AiaoFiatlon of Raw York 

ani Vicinity. 
Madera, K.. 8t, LonIa— Tradaa and Labor 

Aaaerahly. 
Ilaloy. .Tamoi. Piltabnrr'' — Rnbo Lodn No. 

70, A. K. of I. and B. W. 
llaartaT. John. Rrh — Iron Moldon' Uiion 

So. 88, 
Manila. Ooorits C, Hariatla — Iron Koldan* 

Union No. SOT. 
Mirholi, .Tamai. Pit tabnrKh— Window Olaaa 

Workm' L A. 800, E. of L. 
Moorr. C. T., Pllta^ur^h— L. A. I5T5, K. of 

Moon-, William, BnHalo— Itoot and Sho*. 



Uornn. Jnnn J.. AlWhan*— Blabop Lodca 

No. S8, A. A. of I. and P. W. 
Oabom, Oaoro W.. SnHnittald. Ohio — Iron 

Holdara' UnioD No. n. 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORY, BNCYCLOPBDU, KBVBRBNCE BOOE 



OOluktbnic — D. A,, SS, E. 
PItubnrfh — Qliii Paekan' 



of t. 

Poimt, wmikui, C..HU. 

L. A. ISSB, K. of L. 
~ " , William C, Clctclidd — Trada* A*- 



[■owall, : 



Fl tta burgh— Kafln a*ra 



-- -_ Hldhard, Chisafd — Baames'a Baoa- 

iDlenl OnioD. 
Riukjn, Ateiandar 0„ SI Boblaaoa 81., A11<- 






thSBT — Iron Uoldi 
BaibDnataln, Thao., AllaEhi 

CniTian' L. A. 1*47, K. 

Bannal. Yalaollsa, Pittibuieh — OhJmoay 

Olaaa Blowan' L. A. glB, K. of L, 
Bisp. Charlaa, OasDeltoD— Hloen ' Aiao- 

E0b7, J.'k., Pittibusb— L. a. . K. of 

Bobartaan, Richard, WbaaUnB — Ii. A. IKGl. 

Rodtart. banlal. PlItitunb—lUDen' Aaao- 

elation. Plltabnrgb DlaCrlet. 
nodgara. K. T PltlibDrgb— Plnmban' L. 



K. ot "l. 

William J. 

I Oo«ki' and Paatrj Caoka' AiiMla- 



ShnUingw, Jobs F., Pfltabnrgb — Oarpantara 

U A. ITDS, K. of L. 
ailokar, W. H., Pittaborgb— Window filaai 

Worfcart' L. A. SOO, K. of L. 
Smith, Joaerb B., Allaghanr — BrleklayaTa' 

L. A. 1S37, K. of L. 
Bmltb, II. H., PitUborg)! — Qratncn* UaloD. 
Stanrt, Andnw, AllacbaoT — Allachenr 

Lodgu No. 14, A. A. of L and B. W. 
Soman. Parrr O., Jollat, HI.— fonrlh Dli- 

trlet Amalgamated Aaaoslatlon of Iron and 

Beal Work era. 
Slinb, John, Plttabitrgb— Etot Palthfnl 

Lodga No. SI, A. A. ofl. and B. W. 
Sliaat, H. S., Chloago — TrpographiBai Union 

No. 1«. 
BiilllTBn, J. W., Pittaborfh — Coopara' L. A. 

1SS3, K. of L. 
Thomai, D. H., Hontidale, pa.— HInan' Aa- 

(oelatlan, Claariteld Dtalrlet. 
Thompion, John J.. Waatn-lr, B. 

Cutten' Natlooal Union. 
Walih, Michael P.. Ullwi 

■ embtr ot UllwankH ai 
Weber, B. E.. Plltat 

ISSO, K. of L. 
MilaoB. William, St. Loaiii— Trpognphioal 

Union No. S. 
^'ind, Z., St. Iiooli — Oarpontan' Oalon Koa. 



UNION LABELS 

Tbara mm now SI labeli and 10 cards laraad br the (allowing o 
in indomd by the American yadaratlon of Labor: 



Amariaan Todaratlon of Labor. Qlora 
Bakan and Confaetloner*. Qrindi 

Bill Foalen and Blllera. Peek 



Blaefcamithi. 
Bookblndort. 
Boot and Shoe Workara. 



„,. and Joluan, 

nvtharbood. 
Oarran. Wood. 



Workara. 



nlahar 



on and Steel V 
•walrj Worken. 



Uarble Workeia. 
Metal Pollabara. 
Metal Workwa. Sheet. 



PoJntera. 

Paparmakan. 

Photo ' EngTaiara. 

Piano and Organ Worken. 



Timber Worker*. 
TobacKO Worhera. 
'I'rPOfrapbieal. 
Ujihoiatarara. 



Lara Emplorea, Thaatrleal. 



Orgtnlialloai Uiliig Oarda. 

Barbara. Hotel and Raalaurant Employe! 

Olerka, Belail. Meat Cntteri and Bntebar isauiBtBii. 

Englnaen, Btaam. Workmen. White tUU Aston. 

FiTPmen, Statlonarj. Mnilclani, 

Tha following eiatta and ealllnga are utng (he Amarloan Pedaratloa of Labor Label; 
Badgea, Banner. Bagalla, Bntton, Norelty and Lodge ParapbomallB Worken; Bottle Cap. 
Cork Workara; Oottea, Splse, and Baking Powder Worken; Nail (Honeahoa) Worken; 
Noekwoar Oattin and Makm; Paper Boi Uekan; Snapendarmakeii; Oartar, Arm Band and 
Boa* Snpporter Itakna; rtonr and OarosI lOU ImploraB. 



(ibyGoOt^Ic 



AUBRICAN PBDSRATION OF lABOB 



Kcdsmtioa at Labor to the lotcnUloBBl PtdenUoa of Tndt DoiM* 



To BrtHA Tndc* Oidaa Coc^cm 



P.J-McOBln. 
J. W. SuIHvu. 
Adolph atruMT. 

Gm. B. HcNtU. 

Rmtt Uord. 
^nua O'CoDDcD. 
TbooM* F. Tncjt. 



J. M. HbbI 
SUbctJ. 1 
DuldJ.I 



,. Eafi. 

, P. O'Rourlu. 

PUrickDaUD. 



Jobo A. MoOtt. 
Tuna Wood. 
Pruk E. PoatB. 

JahB T- DempivT. 
W. B.WlEni. 



Wm. B. UacfuUa 
DuM J. ToUn. 
Gcorn L. Btcnr. 
Johnlo. Walks. 
Oua. L. BalD*. 
Loula Eanpcr. 
W. D. Malna: 
Matthew Wall. 
W. D. Mabon. 
Hattbaw Widl. 
W. D. Mahon. 
Matthew WoD. 
John Ooldot. 



m 



Pram Biitiifa Tndei UdOD Const***. 



John Burn I. 
David HolOH. 
Sdward Cower, 
Jama Mawd^tr. 
Sam Wood*. 

SID MallinBQ. 
wacdBarlDnt. 
T. Havelod Wlbut 
WlUiam Indiip. 
WOllani TfaoRM. 
Jame* Hulam. 



WUkle. 
John Wdr. 
Pete Cuinn. 



9 Jamc* M. Sullivan. 
D W. D. Mahon. 

1 John R, O'Brien. 

2 D. D. DriMoII. 

3 lotui C<dei>iaa. 




.. Rickert. 

... Malooey. 

«» Hugh Vnjat. 
""• "^lomeJOMi. 

•hn J. Mannlnc. 

'm. J. Tracy. 



.2 John T. Smith. 
3 Wm. J. McSorler. 

I91S H.J, Coow^. "'" 

Bmanud Eovetoki. 

StuHit H. Hajrward. 



David A, Catef. 

1999 David A, Caref. 
David A, Carer. 

P. M, Draper. 

■"-■— " Kfontdy, 






Uam V. Todd, 
Buel L- Lander*. 
R. Trotter, 
we P, M. Draper. 

.909 P. BuooTt. 

1910 R, P, PettiplcR. 

■911 V "-— 



ISlrt Thooui A, SCaeami 
"17 Wm, Lodce. 
IS Thoa. Moore. 

***Dekfata did ant attod. 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



0bvGoO<^lc 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OP LABOR 



rfUir 
Fir 1m HIS 
2726,473 




27,75a 

LnUhni 



j,Goo<^le 



aiSTORV, ENCYCLOPEDIA. REFBRBNCE BOOK 

LABOR IN PEACE AND IN WAR 



T^d. 



dar ind tnsr coocapU of hmuui 
I WM, Id Tiaw of thU dtiutlwi, 
•..« luD EieeoHTB Conncli ■ppcored ttc 
propoiillDD ■abmitted to tham ij PrMldsnt 
"Bmpen tiiBi » eoBforaniB of tbs ranreuaU- 



I intaroMlsniU tnit 



take ti 



'W^HERE iWM no divisum in Ihe ranks of the American Federation of Labor vihen 
■» war threatened our country. Prenious to the breaking out of kosHlities that had 
icem forced upon the United States every mone made by our government was supported by 
the American Labor movement. Its deciaraUon to stand by the goKmment. whatever might 
occur and the history of its activities may be found in the foliowing condensed official state- 
ments and decisions by the officers of the American Federation of Labor, the nalimal 
and international unions and the var 



(IBIT, pp. TZ-TS-BOB) Thi Ooncrau ot 
the Called StitH on April 6. 1917. puud 
■ rnoldtloB dMUriDE '"" npon Iha Ta- 
pcrial GoTemmsDl of GencuBT and ilrested 
the Preaidanl ut the Unltid State* to ani- 
ploT the armed fo»a* ot our EODntrT to 
eaiTT the pDipoaai of tha var to a neeata- 
fol and. we made etei7 effort to praTall 
upon Odd(t«u to aTold conpiLl*oi7 milltarr 
asTTieo, bnl wa wen not meeatifnl. tha law 
haflns bom enactad for tha drafting of all 
■vailabla man batwean thp agea of 31 and 
30, InotoalTe. Tha naecwitr fai the de- 
TelopmoDt of plana (or detenaa of the oa- 
lioD bacama ImparatJTe. The aeopa of tha 
war vaa ao sleantlo and tha Datura of mod- 
•m warfare m complex that mobltlialloo of 
OUT nation neeeHitaled reorgaoliation ot the 
euttra nation from a peaes to a war baiia. 
auah plana atToet tha life and the work of 
the ontlre nation. Whathar In paaoe or In 
war tooU are tha buio Initrnitaiitallliai tor 
an ereaiiTe work. The datarmlnatlon of da- 
fen ae plana wat of vlt^ eoDoera to wase- 
- earnera. The tianei and tha eoaasqBenaaa 
were ao tremendona that raaponalMa tcanta 
had to hiTe read; plana to meet aor anrar- 
CFrej. It vaa ot Tltal Importa&M that 
thoaa immsdlatelj affeot«d b; thaae plana 
ahonld have a Toka In their determination. 
Clearly It wafa-aamaTa. ai repreiented in 
the orgBBlied labor mOToment, remained 
aloof from all participation In dafania actiV- 
itie* and praparationi. they would hare to 
areept the determlnallon at thoae ootaide 
of, and parhapa hoatile to, the labor mo**-' 
mant who etthar had no paraonal knowledge 
of Ihs li*aa and aroblama ot workert or were 
tha aetiTa anemlai of orcaniiad labor If 
wace-eamara did not take a reaponaible' part 
in dstormlDlnc onr ralatloai to war work 
that field would be left nndlapoted to thoae 
not immediately coaean 



tlTaa ot tha natlona. i— ™ 

n^iona be called at WaahlDgtoa to e 

"■" — "" — which Ameiioan labor aho^d 

:ha war aitDatlon, Aeaordtnslr, 

. ...... ™ aanl to the repreaentaUte oS- 

clal* of all national organiaatioiia. both 
thoae aSllated to the A. F. of L. and thoaa 
not aflllatad, aaklnc than to maat In Waab- 
infton In ths A. T, of L. BnUdlnc Karoh IS. 
Tba E O. mat on March S and daTotad" the 
following three daja to tha preparation of 
a statement to be anbmltted to Iha oonfer- 
enee for oontideration and aotion. Thar* 
were preaent at that conference, In addi- 
tion to the mambera of the K. 0., IdS rap- 
reaantatiTea of 79 aflliated organiialionB, fi 
uaaflllated organiaationa, and 6 depart- 
meat* ot the A. F. of L. The d»slantlon 
waa anbmltted to the eonferenca. A apirit 
of tntanie aerloaaoeaa pertaded the delib- 
araliona. The repreaentallTei of the work' 
stieallr eTarjr irade bad eneoon- 
-'- deteloplng ont of da- 



teied new altsatloD 



"Amiricsn L^or'i Patitien in Ptact or in 
War.—V/e apeak for mililona of Americana. 

'We rapreaent tha organiiationa held together 
by the preiiare of our eommcn needa. We 
rtpraienl the part of the nation olotaat to 
tha fnndamentals ot life, Tboae we repra- 
aenl wield the nalion'i (ooli and grapple 
with tha forcea that are bronght cnder con- 



Iheb righu and 



a plalD dnty of detendinf 
intereala, Ibe radlul 

,._ for mobiliiation alTorded 

opportsnity (hat would either be need by 
the wac^aamera In Inrtheranco ot hnman 
welfare and progreaa or wonld be aged by 
the agent! of reaction and tor the entrench- 
ment of tha priTllegea of wealth, Tha only 
Jnatlflution for the daatmction of war la 
that the aweeping aalde of exlatiog condi- 
tloDi affords opportunity for the oatabllab- 
raant ol new Ideala and cob dll long baaed 






■e of Indus 
Dla of war i 
aa of deilr_,_ 
world war ia 



etion 



iiTilllS' 

[ tools 
rill in 






The time haa ni 
yft come whan war naa oaan aboliahed. 

"Whether we approve it or not, we mm 
reeogniie that war is a litnation with whie 
we mnat reckon. The preaent Enropi 
war, inirolTing aa " "" ~-' " 



doe* tlie majority of 
- ■■ Iha Indnitry 
imeree of the whole world, threat- 
at any moment to dra 



elTlliied 



all eonntrtea, 



obvGoo<^le 



AMERICAN FEDHRATION OF LABOR 






thongrbt. lialon, prlBelplas of imiri 

and conaemtlao that itaoald dinot dot 
coune Id arsrr eTsntnilltr of Ufa Ths 
wax to BvBrt wir i« to (■Itbllgli eonitrnatiTo 

thm control for paasa liliutlDiia and (otom 
IhBl micht olherwlaa rMiilt Id wu. 

"Tha DiBlhoda of raodarn warfua. ita naw 
taati», ita fait onanliatioa, both mUlUrr 
aDd iDduatrlal, preaani problant laitl; dlr- 
faranl from thoia ot praTitma wan. Bnt 
tha natloD'a pMblanu afford aD opportDDltr 
for the aatabllihaiant of naw fraedom and 
wider opparlDDitlai bir all tha paopU. Hod- 
BTD warfara iDolndai coDtaata botwaaD work- 
■bopa, factorial, tha land, fiBanclal and 
tranaportatioo raaaorcaa of tha cnuitrlai In- 
TolTod; aDd naceaaarllr appliaa to the rala- 
tioDi batwaen amptajara aDd amplarat, and 
IT fasaa an ImpandlDt 
he maaaaa of Iha pM>- 

^ ._B tboald take eoitniet 

.a what cooraa (hay ahall pnrana 

ahonid a crlaii aiiae necaaaltating the pro- 
tectleo of OUT Tepablic and defonae of the 
Ideala tor vhlsh (t alaada. 

"In tfaa itmcsla batwaiD tha forcai of 
damocraer and apaalal priTlIage, tor Jnit 
■ad hlitoric rsaaona the maiaes of tha peo- 
ple neeaaaarilr rapreaaDt tha Idaata and the 
(he fnilUatiODi oi daDtoflraoT. Tharo la In 
organliad aoelBty odi potanUal orsanltatlon 
who IS porpoae li to torthar theae Ideal ■ and 
inatltntloDi the organlMd labor moTaniant. 

"In no prsrfona war haa tha oTganited 
labor moTomant taken ■ dlraotlng part. 

"Labor baa now reached an nndantand- 
ins of III Tichti. ot Ita power and reionreaa, 
of Ita Talna and oontribullani to eoeletr. 

~ maat make definite oonitrnrtlTa pro- 



e frar.kly p 



poiaU. 

"It la tlmelr tL_. . . 

parlancai and eondltloaa whleh In 

tituea have praraDtad natloni from banaflt- 
ing by tha Tolnntary. whole-hearted eo- 
oparallon ot wace-eanera in war tlmr — ' 



"War haa nCTar pnt a atop to tha nacea- 
iitr (or ttmcEle to eitabliih and maintain 
Indnilrlal rl|bt>. Wage-eameta in war 
iln>ea mnat. aa haa bean mid, keep one eye 
on tha axploltara at honte and tha other npoD 
(ha eoemy Ihreateninfr the national toiam- 
mon( 8tieh exploKadon made l( Impoaalbla 
for a warrinc nation lo mobilUe effeetlvelr 
ita fnll itrensth for oatward dafanie. 

"We malntiD that It !■ tha tondameDtal 
Map Id preparedDean (or tha natioD to ast 
ita own honie In order and (o M(abIUh b( 
home Jnadce la ralatloni between mao. Pre- 
Tlons wan, for whaterar pnrpoie wa(ad. da- 
Taloped new opporlnnltles for eiploitlng 
WBse-eamera. No( only waa there falltire 
td raeofnlie (he neceialty tor pro(eetlne 
rlEhta of workera tha( (hay mlfht Ei*s U>»' 



only . 



righta, freedom and opportunity. bn( 

KDlia of national necaaaKy, Labor wa« 
B(rlpped ot ItB maana of defanaa aEaina( 



fall (hat no ma((er 



none workara haT 
(he reault of wai 
rally loat. 



"In preriona timea Labor had il_ 
■sntatiTea in the ;eoi)ncllB aothorited to 
deal with the condtie( of war. - The righta. 

oiBtioally lacrlflced for the eloEan ot 'db- 
tionai aataty.' 

"The European war haa damonitntad (he 
depeodence of goTammaa(a npon the oo- 
operation of (ba maieea of (he people- Knee 
tha maaaea perform iBdlapaniBble Barrlee, it 
fotlowa that they abonid heTe a Tolea In de- 



11 of (hOH wbo dicaody eoDadtnte 






"Wha(l>er 
lied Ubor in 

opportODKy. 



The li 



tha defender of (hii prinelpte and nnder- 
taka* to protect (he waaHh-prodncert agalnat 
(he exorbltan( rreed ot apeclal interaaU. 
againal profltaerinjc, a(alDa( eiploKation, 
agalnit (he de(eatab1e mslhoda of irraapon- 
■Ible (read, atainat (he Inhumanity and 
crime o( heardeo corporatlona and employ- 






oognlted defender ot waje-aamaia 
la aame force* whieh In formar 
t made nadonal naeaaaKy an ei- 
lora mOitaaa methoda. Aa tha rep- 
Ba of (he wara-eamera we aaaert 
Klona of work and pay In BOTam- 
iloymen( end In all oecnpatlou 
itorm to prinelpiei of hnman wel- 



a«alDa( 



aaked (o take par 



B of keen Injiu- 

iieVInflloled "by (he BOTerDmeDt they are ei- 
peclad (o aDd will defend. 

"Tho corDen(oDe of oatlonal dafanae la 
jnatlca In tnndamental ralatlona ot llta — 
economic Inadca. 



■ (he 



"The 
r (he vorkan i 

r nadonal dafenee 
ro((la the oiguiiaed 1 
afford Ite craateat aci 



rganlied Ii 



a (hia 






B hnman aide of ladDa(ry and 
I a graat aoeial tac(or. nhteb 
led In all plana which aSae( 



orsaniied labor moTemant aa the aaenoy 
throuEh vhleh It mnat cooperate with wage- 
eamwa. Indnitrlal Jaatlce la the right ot 



oyGoQt^Ie 



HISTORY, BNCYCLOPBDIA. HBFKRENCE HCX)K 



IliMB lirlsf within onr eonntiT With thlt 
ri«ht there ii u*cMlitad abliotlDn. In wu 
tlmj obti«.tion Uk« th« form of Mrrioi. 
hi defoiUB of the B«pabll(i anlnit ennnlet 
We reeognii. that Ihii lerrlee idit be eithor 
miUluT or Indniltial, both qnal); emantlil 
for national defenae. We held thla to bo in- 
conlTOTartibla, that the corginninit whloh 
dnnand* that men and mnm giTe theit 
labor povar, their badlei or their llvaa to its 
aarriee ahonld alio demand the larrice, in 
the intereat of theae human belnn, of all 

•raalth and tha prodaota of hnman toll 

propartf. We hold that il workara mar be 
aakad In time of national peril or amergancT 
to tiTe mora eihautinc aorrlee than tha 
princlplaa of hnman welfare warrant, that 
Mrrlee aboald be aikad only whan aeooni' 
panltd bj Ineroaiod (oarantMa and aafa- 
rnarda, and when tho pioflta which the «n- 
plorar ihall aecnra from tha Indnitrr in 
which tha; are onraiad haia been limited 
to fizod parcentagea. We daelara that aueh 
detarmlnation of piollta ahonld be baaed on 
CDita of praeeaiei aetnal]; needed for pro- 
dnet. Workara haTo no dalnaiana ragudlnc 
tha poller which properiT ownari and ax- 
ploiling emploren pnrana In peaee or in 
war and they alaa recocniia that wrapped 

Swith tha aaletr of thli Kepnblk ara tdeala 
demoeraey, a haritage whlob tha maaaaa 
of the people received from onr forafathera, 
who tooght that libartr might live tn thia 
eonatrr — a haritage that ii to ba maintained 
and hiuidsd down to aaeh genaratlon with 
DDdlminiahed power and naofnlnaaa. 

' 'The labor moTamant raeognliaa tha 
Talna of b«edom and it knova that free- 
dom and rlghta aao be maintained onir br 
tboae willlni to aaaart their elalmi and to 
defend their ri^ta. Thq Amarioas tabor 

condleta and all ware for acfrandiiemant, 
and enilaTemant, and yet It haa 
. t in the world'i raTolntiona. In 
rn»l** to eatabllah graater freedom, 

.-*tle Inatitntlona and IdaaJi of human 

juatiee. Onr labor morement dlatnuti and 
pioteata aialnit mllitarlam, baoanaa It 
praaanta prlTlIege 
' :, ezplolt- 






I that miliUrii 



en and deapota. Bnt while It oppoaea mil- 
Itarlaot, It holda that it ta the dntr of a 
nation to defend itaelf agalnat lojnatlee and 



thnmgh laalatlng tha defanaiTa 1 
tha atnte front eirle aotirltaa 
creating mllitarT ageneii 



I of 



;h with 

of the people laolatlen 1> anbrar- 

tirt to demoeracT — It' harhora and nnrtnrai 
tlia germ* of arbitrarr power. 

"The tabor moTemenI demand* that a 
clear differentiation be made between mll- 
itaiT aerrlea for the nation and poliea ivtj. 
and that mllltarr aarriaa atumld ba eare- 
fnltr dtatingulihed from aerrica in Indna- 
trlal dlapntea. 

"We hold that Indnatrial aervice ahalt be 
deemed aqnallj merltoriana ai militarr aari- 
lee. Organiiatlon for indnatrial and com- 
merical aerrlea la npon a different baila 



from 



in timai of peace wilt beat take eare or Iha 
aame problem* la time of war. 

"It la fnndamental, therefore, that the 
goremmant cooperate with tha Ameriotta 
organ lied labor mo»emant for thla pnrpoaa. 
Barrlce in joTernmsnt faetoriei and prWate 
eatabliahmentg. in tranapottalion ageneiaa, 
all ahonld conform to trade nnlon atandarda. 

■hcold ba recognlied la war aa welt aa la 
peace. WhereTar chanRei in the organiia- 
tlon of laduitrr are neceaiar/ upon a war 
bails, ther nhoatd be made in accord with 
plini agreed upon b; repreaentatlTea of the 
p^Tcrnment and those engaged and emptoTsd 
in the Indaatrj. We reoognlie that In war, 
in certain employrasnta requiring high iklll, 
it la neceaaarj' to retain in indoatrfal larr- 
iee the workera apecialtr fltted therefor In 
>B7 erenlnatlt^F when women mar be en- 
ploTed. we iniiat that equal pay for eqnat 
work ihalt prcTail without regard to aai 

"PInally, In order to aafegnard all ifae 
intaraata of the wBge-earnera organlied lab6r 
ahonld haTe rapteaeQtallon on all antneiaa 
determining and admiDiatering polliSea of 
national defeniB. It ia partienlarl; import- 
ant ttiat organliad labor ahonld baia repre- 
aantatiTee on all boardi aulhotliad to OOQ- 
tml poblicitr during war limea. The work- 
era haTe (Offered much injnatics la war 
timaa br limilatlona, upon thair right to 
apeak frealj and to aecnre pnblloll]' for 
their ]uat grlerancea. Organliad labor haa 
earned the right to make thene demanda. It 
ia the agency that. In all conntriea. ataadi 
tor hnman rlchta and la the datandar of the 
welfare and Intereati ot the maaaea of the 
people. It ia an agency that haa intama- 
tlonal racDKaltlon which li not laeking Co 
rob, exploit or oormpt foreign goTernmenta 
but Inatead leeka to maintain human righta 
and interaata tha world ofer, nor doea it 
haTe to dlipal anapicioD nor proTa ita mo- 
tiraa either at home or abroad. 

"The praaant war dicloaea the atnggle 
batween the initltntioni of democracy and 
thoie af antoeracy. Aa a nation wa ahonld 



rollt fro 



the e 



tabtiah 



The tooada- 

Tldnala muaf be organliad' open pilnelplea 
01 democracy and lelentlfle prrnclp]ei_,ot hn- 
man welfare. Then a national almctDre 
can be perfected in harmony with human- 
ilarUn idqatlam— a almetnrs that will itaad 
the teeti of the naeeaeltiea of peace or war. 

"We, the oncera of the National and Id- 
tametlona] Trade Unloni of AmeHca in B>- 
tiona] conference aiiemblad In the eapltal 
of onr nation, hereby pledge onrielTet la 
paaoa or In war. io itreii or in itorm, to 
itand nnreaerredly by the atandarda of lib- 
erty and the lafety and preaervatloo of the 
iDatltotioni and Ideala of onr BepnbUc In 
thli lOlemn hour of our nation'a Ufa. it la 
onr aamaat hope that onr Republic may be 
aafagnarded In "- — 1-_ ^— ■__ ._ 



: thi 



itiii 



people may be apared the 
bnrdena of war; thi' " — 
the opportonity to caltiTa 



and tha burden 



: that they 



trial, eoiomerclal and tranaportati 



oodand a higher clTiliiatlou. 

"Bnt, daaplle all onr endeaTora a 
hanld onr eonntry be drawn into 



0bvGoO<^lc 



AMBRICAMAFEDBRATION OP LABOR 



■tram o[ tha Eurossin coi 
thus Idaala at Ubart; and 
dccEarad, u tbe Indlapensab 
ttonal pollolea, nffor our aerri 
try In aTar; field at aotlTlIj 






. - . -, — dal«ad, a>le- 

nard and praasn-a Iha SepabUs of tha 
United atataa of Amariu acainit Iti enamlw 
vboaoaTor thay ma; ba, and ve eall ap«B 
Dnr fallov workan and fallow cllliena In tha 
half Bama of Labor, Juatlce. Fraedom and 



auMtiie* acblaiad m ■ raanlt of r«*n of 
aacrlflee and utrogcle to be taken ava? tnm 
labor on aar pralaxt, and vUla hoplos lor 
an banorable paacs, Ihaj daclarvd that U mr 
country ware drawn Into tha maalatroia ire 
mwld atand aqnaralj bahlnd tha »' ' ' 



eanaideratJeB 



nagk 



llkt aarvle*." 

After oarafnt 

dUcnialan of i , .— ,- -. 

laratlon tha mambara at tha oonfaranca nnan- 
Imonalr adapted it. Tbna the deoUratloa 
of Labar'a attitude vhelher In paaca or lu 
war waa unanlmouaty aet faith br the eon- 
ference hefora tha declaration of war bf the 
Ooncteai of the United Statei. In addltioa 
to the decUralioa at prlnoipla It ia nacaa- 
larr to ot(aulia afenelaa far carrring the 
declaration into affeet. Aa wai reportad to 
tha Baltimore ConTanlion Preaidtnt Wilian 
appDlntad the Preildant o( tbe AmaHean 
raderadan at Labor ona of the aaron men 
compoalDff the AdTlaory Canuniatlan to the 
Oouneil at National Dalanae. In earrring 

I the work of the Advlaory OoDmlailou 



imher < 



ihe < 



an In 
preaa. 



licit,. , 



, inf 



jmmiltaa. wagea 
Dnekllati-- 



liTlni a 



and ■ 



jm;. Walfara work, which Iqelndaa the 

loilowiDg dlTiiiani: Indnatrlal aataty. aan- 
Itatlon, Tocatlonal education, hoiiains, reera- 
atlon, public adueatian in health maltara, 
■tandard gsidaa tor einpIa]reTt. 

(P. SIS) Thia raaoiution waa nannl- 
■aanalr adopted br Iha eauTentlan: "That 
tbl* eouTention in regular aaaglon aaaem- 



lonth before war wai 
roneur in the action taken at 
at which tha repreaeDtatWaa 
red thair uniwacring loyaltr 
tha labor mOTement and to 
untrr in peace or In war, and 
Inaafar aa Ilea wtthto 




intTT, . 
imbara at organiaad 



all 



Tad It t 



do Ukavlae. 
1 Ihe I 



lion of Praaident Oampara and the Eiecu- 
llTa Couuei] In alt of their actions in can - 
DMlian with the *ai and all other labor 
Bian In accepting poaltlona at trnit npon 
boarda, eammiaalana and coamitteei, and da- 
elare that In thaii ao doing the beat Intaraata 
of organiied labor ha*a been adiranced,' aaf e- 
gvarded and proteoted." 

The foil Hat at thoae preaent la aa (ollawa: 

EiecntlTe Council ^ Preaident, Saeanal 

Gompara; Becralarr. Frank ICorriaou; Treaa- 

Jamea Doocan: Second Tiee-I'Tealdant. 
Jamea O'Oonnall; Third Vice-Preaident, 
Joaeph F. Valantlne; Fourth Ylce-Piealdanl, 
John R. Alpine: Fifth TicaFieaident, H. B. 
Parham: Sixth Tlee-PrMldent. Prank DnSy: 
— Preaident, William Qraw ; 
William D, Ifahon 
la. A. MDllanar. V- 



_. _ . ViCL . 

Bighth Vica-Pri 



chairman of the Oommittea on Li 
Ing OanaetTatJoa and Welfare ot Worki 
aaked a number of raprAaentatlTa man i 
women to accept mambenhlp on hi a com- 
mittee, ainea the Inrladietlon of tha com- 
mittee waa to be ai wide aa the labor rela- 
licna ariatng oat of war work for the gor- 
errment, it waa fltting that the memberi of 
the commltlee ahould repraaent all elemeuta 
concerned In dalerminlng or ragnlating tabar 
coudltiona. The peraonBel ot the commit- 
tee, therefore, Ineluded emplorara af labor, 
llnancien, diraeton ot corporation a, pub- 
lic lata, tachniclana, aa wall aa repreienta- 
tlTea ol men and women employed aa wage- 
earnera. The (Emotlana ot the cammittee 
were puralr adTiaolr and neeaaaarilr aubject 
tti tbe approTal at Ihe AdTlaory Oomnla- 
tiOD and the Conncil of National Defenaa 
For practical work tbe following r 



Bakery and Oonteetionery— A. A. Uyrup, 
Cbas. H. Hohmann. 

£111 Foitera and Billen P F. Unrphr. 

Wm. MeOarlhj. 

Blackamltha — 0. 0. Van Doniea. 

Boilarmakara — J. A. Pranklin, Cbaa. T 
Scott, A, £. Barkndala. 



lia L 

Brewery Workmen- — A. 
Obergtell, John SulUTan. 

Brlcklayera — Thoa B. n 

Bridge and Stmctiual Iroi 
E. HeOlary, Edward Ryan. 

Carmen, Railway— M. F. Byan, J. T. Ka- 
Creary, J. 8. Wilds, R. E. Hamilton 

Oarpentera, United Bratharhood — Frank 

Clgarmakara — Q. W. Ferkina, Bami 

Olerka, Paat OOce — Thoi 7. Flaherty. 
Clerka, Railway — Jaa. J. Forreater. 
Clerka, Railway PoiUl— Oarl Preasaan. 



. Kogler, Joaapl 



a Workera — Jaa 



nobtle Worken- 



Cler 



. Retail— B. 



Coopera — Andrew 0. Hughea. 
Diamond Workers — Andriea Keyar. 
ElBClrical Workera— F. J, MoHnlty, Wm. 
.. Hogan, W. B. Godihall. J. J. Pnrcall, 



L. Eallay, J. S. UoDanagh. 




-Prank Paener, 



W. Miller. 
, United- ThoB. 
ert. B. A. Larger, Abe Berkaon. 
Olaai Bottle Blowers— John 
Harry Jenkina, Jamea Maloney. 
Otaas Workers. Flint— Wm. P. I 
Granite Ontters — Jamea Duncan. 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



HISTORY. BKCVCLOPBDU, REFERENCE BOOK 



B*( ud 0>p Haken- 

ZuHOy. 

KatMn— lobB W. B<tbII«7, M 

Hodemrrltn — D. D'Alcuandrk. 
HennluHn— HalMrt 8. litrabill, John T. 

Hotel aoil EeiUiinnt KnplorM 
Flan. 

Ina, lln ud StNl Warkan-~-Jolm WUI- 
iuu, V. F. TIgh*. 

Jewalry Warkan — Jnllna BlrnbiiuB, Abnt- 



Lw« OixraUTM DsTil L. Osnld. 

LMken, WMd. Wb*— Wa. J. IfiBcrTli 
Imiidry Workan— HuTT L. llon*»on. 
LaMbST Workan on Hona Ooodi — W. 

LonaahOTaiaaii — Antbonj J. OUapak, Wb. 
P. Denpaaj. 

Maehlnliti — Wn H. JohiutoD. Frad 
lit. I. L. Taokar, A. K. Holder. 

IlaintaBaiiea of Wi7 Zmplaraa — All 
Barkar, Hasir Irwin. 

Xaalan, Ihtai ud PUota-^. H. Fnall, 
nutai DaTia, Altrad B. IXtHb, ftabart ~ 

Uaat 'Oattan 
Hover ». Call. 

Mata] PoUahai- 

Hatal Worfcara, Bbaat — Jehn J. Hrnaa, O. 



Uoldafa, trott — Jaha P. 1^7. 
lIa*klaii*--Joa. N. Wabor, J. E. Blrdaall. 
PalDtara — Geo. F. Hedrlsk, J. 0. Skamp 

- — '■ - I l: 



PaMan ICakara— Jamaa wilio 



P*Tiag Oottara — Cai 
PlaatN^ra, Opamtli 
<niaa Smith. 



Phmbara — John E. Alpine^ Wm. J. Span- 
Mr Woi. J. Traey. 

Pattaia. OparatiTa — Edward Menfa, Frank 
H. Hatehliu, John T Wmd^a. K. Moora. 

Print Caltara — Balpb T. HolBian. 

Printing Preafmm— Jo*. 0. Orr, Honrj 

4narT7 Workera — Frad W. Boltor. 
SallwaT Rmployei. Street and Elaotrle — 
W, D. Vabon 

Hoofer*. Compaallloa— J. T. Hsrlar. 



■ Unfoi 



-Andrew 



aeth, T. 



Sifualnan. Byroad — A. B. Adami. 
Steal Plata Tranifarrari — BanJ. CFolda- 

Slag* Emplo^aa, Tbeatrical — Obaa. " 
Sbi7. 

naam SbaTol and DradsemeD — T 
BradT. 

StareotTpart and Elactmtjpara — Janiaa 8. 

Stonacnttan — Sam Qrine. Walter W 

Switchmen — 8 E. Habnilnc. 

Tailon Thoi. Bweenn'. 

Taaehere— Ohu. B. Stlllman. 
Teamaten— Daniel J. Tobln, P. H. Jan 

Telecraphan, Railroad — B. B Perham, J 
r. Miller. 

Textile Workeia — John Golden. 



■Tobaeeo Workera— A. KcAndrow. S. 

Tnnnel and Subway Conitraetora — Mioh- 
■•I J. Oarraher, Tito PaoaUi. 

Upholaterara — Jai. H. Hatch, John Han- 

Woavera, Amerioau Wlra — John T. Onrtay. 
Whlto RaU Aotera— Jack HajdOD. 
LoeoDOllTa Fireman and En^aaen — W. 
9. Oartar. 

Hailwa7 Trainman — W. 6. Lea 
Rallwa7 Oondncton — Ii. E. Shappard 
LoeomotlTa Enflnaar* — W. S. Stone. 
National Window Glaia Workera— Herbart 

Bnildlng Tradea Department — John Door 



Ketal Tradaa Dapartmenl 

Kinlnc Depa ' ' ' 

Railroad Ei 
Wharton. 

Colon Label Tradea 
Uafa. 

AaddaU PranntUn — (lOlT. p. Ul) In- 
doned plan of saomlttaa on labor of the 
Mallonil Ooonell of Dofenaa to prarant aaoi- 
deata In order that a maxlmnm BBonnt of 
auppllaa he arallable for tha allied armtea. 



A. J. Bar 
iplojaa Department — A. 



a— B. J. HoGlT* 
E. Ooodjear, William 



A. 7, af Ii.'B Ininanea Is tha Wtr — 
(1915, p. 15) Report of ExacntlTe Oesndl; 
Tha paat year hai been on* of parttcnlar 
■tmi tor the labor morament, taatlnc Ita 
power and ill. practical •ffieJaney. uk* 
oTery other orcanliatloo the labor mora- 
mant haa toond Iteelf sonfrontad in it* *ari- 
onr ralatlonahip* br war rondltlon* and war 

dlKcultlei. ■- ■"- ■-• -'- — 

Ihara came _ , 
whan the aetiVIl 



red Into an atmoap^aro of Huhtus and 
metlon. Uan'a tboniht and efforta had 
cantered opon procreaa, i "■- '- 



1 tha da- 



Dpon procreaa, npon tht 

_._, ciTllliatlon and open tha .., 

aerratlon of human Ufa and tha aalarta- 
ment of opportnaltlea for hnmao darelop- 
mant. With the doslarationa of war, alnoat 
In an inatant eTerjrthlns waa ohansad, tha 
" ' 'led Koelaty war* 



tlon and 

mlnda ac 



> fnrthar the purpoae of daatrnc- 
) larra war neada. Skill of aan'a 
hnowIedK* and lolan- 



hninan Ufa with nnpari Holed effaollTenai 
It aaented ai thODgb Europe had aadden 



r.t,lt7 ' 



horror had ptaiad, ' 






of almoit parair^od 
> bec*n to derjaa waya 
oy wmcu wa coma control the coDmlalon 
following the war and utilize eren war eon' 
ditiona for hnman betterment. The period 
of raadjD(tm*nt enabled na >i a nation to 
adapt omaelTea u ai to orcanlae npon a 
batli that would enble n* to protect the elt- 
liena of onr own nation. The working peo- 
ple bar* been thoae who have anfFarod moat 
from thaae ehaagee During thai poiiod of 
wonder and horror that follawad the bafin- 
nlng of tha war many of tha workers were 
fi-Atnlj left with ' ' 
a Urdhood : left t. 



_ _ aamln;( 

atmgtl* on aa beat they 



obvGoo<^le 



AMSRICAH FEDERATION OP LABOR 



eould tar themielTU uid thois depsudsot 
DpoD Ihem. althDugh thsy bid not bein able 
to r.roTida out o( Ihuir (.panly WBgr* so 
meat BDch an amergenc;. Induitrisi tlmnch- 
onl the country «truggl8d on for ■ tlms in 
■ taftlting lOTt of rsBliion nnd lome sloppad. 
The commercs that wia prepared to meat 
Ihe need* of peace wai nailed in the war 
aitDation. There followed • period of d«- 
preiiioa which meant to iha workara of our 



1 faeine alaryation. 
. oi \bh contnaioD, 



wai appealed to bj Ihe loilari and tho 
'esaed, not on]; of thii bnt ot the n>- 
1 that ware suddenly aubmerged In tha 



inr oiil ideal! and plana tor graater helptol- 
naaa in all international ralallanl. Thia 
■Kaney remained hecanaa it waa taundad for 
an unaaldah purpoae, hecauea it did net axiat 
for the hope of gain, baeauie all of ill e(- 
forU were bent npou ths protaetion and aa- 
aiitance of human beinga. The labor moTe- 
ment owea it a eiiatanee to tha needa of 



Iha people, and it malntalua ita power and 
11a rigor in proportion aa It liaapa Itaalf free 



_ _.- wonld weaken it 
inate its orpoiitton. In thi* country aa tfaa 
detirea of men Increaae and are mora urgant, 
the need for the labor moTemant beeomea 
greater In tba period of diatraai and dii- 
mptnre that followed, men 'a thonghti and 
men'i hopei were turned lo the labor moTo- 
ment of America. Whether prganlaed or Bn- 
organlied, they knew they eenld depend 



■ and dlaorganiiad c 

eratts In Induitry i 



nctire 



ral 



ro^eaa — agenci ( 



radual i 



„ _.„ o help them in their 

time of need. In tha lime of peace, the 
labor moTement is the eouatructlTe lorea In 
the IndDatrial world wbish btinga ayatam, 
onsnliation and opportojiity for progresa 
into induatrial relationa between amployera 
and employes. It in the democratic medlnm 
by which the loilara ean work onl their 
piobloma, remedy wrongi and lecnre for 
thamaelvaa eTar Incraaalng opportODity for 
better living. Indmtrlal organlaation lia 
now npoD too large a aeale to permit of '' - 
haiard — ■»■-,•- — ■ ,»i.~™."i.^ «<nji 



problema arliing In theio Tarioua relation- 
ahipa can ha worked out without Tipheaiala 
or nnneCHiary dlitnrbancea. It ia now rec- 
ognlied that polieiaa and prinelplai of itataa- 
manahlp muat be applied to Induatrial re- 
lationa aa well aa to polltieat relationa la 
truth, Induatrial yalatloBa are now ol greater 
oonaaQnenee than political relationa bacauae 
they tonoh the Urea of the people mora In- 
timalaly and with greater power (or good 
or evil than do polllieal relationahlpa. rnr- 
Iharmore. it ia now racognlMd throughout 
tha elTlliiod world that the agency uecaaiary 
for the eiiatenee of regulation, tyttera and 
prograaa in relationa between work era and 
their employera ii the trade union, whioh ia 
rounded upon the higheat Idealg for aaaocl- 
aCad elforl ot any kind. It ia a aimple dem- 
ocratic organiiatlon which meeti Iha neoda 
of tha wsTkera and enable* tham lo protect 
Ihtmaelvea and mska anch progieaa that they 

portance to tha uation. The labor nioTe- 
meut of America waa the great ataadylng 
force in tha period ot uphaaTal and traoai- 
Ilon that followed tha outbreak ot the war. 
It waa the foraa that inalited upon tha main- 
Cenanee of ailatlog ataDdardi that protected 
the worker! againat all effort* to throw 
upon them the full burden at Ihe war. It 
«a« tha force that demanded for Ihe work- 
era an opportunity lo work in ordar lo earn 
a dally llring. It waa the torca that Md 
true and tided thingi orar. When employeri 
bad read] sated to meet tha clianging condi- 
tiona and to meat the demands ol Ruropean 
nalloni that had grown ont of the conduct 
ot the war, the labor moTcmeol of the coun- 
try waa the agency that enabled the workers 
to abare mora equitably the reanlta of tha 
Indnatrial impatna given by Iha war. The 
workara aoon reallied Ihat the employers in- 
tended to keep to thsmielvei all of their 
raatly increaaed pro ate. The OTganlaed 
workera made demands tbroagb their npi- 
la^ repreaenlatives and many unorganiaed 
workeri caught the apiril of tha day and 
organiied in order thai they too might 
make thair demand* effectlye. Thna there 
came is many Indnatrles a great labor for- 
ward campaign. It waa racogolied that tbe 



helplei* 

diiiorganiieil 'mas* with inarticulate want* 
and needa it they are not to be ernshed and 
maimed by tha strong organiied force* in 
ir.duitry. Booh inhomane and nnwisa policy 
would remit in redocing the workera to a 
condition tor which only industrial reroln- 
tiona and rebellion, would secure bettar- 
meot. protection or iustice. Such a polioy 
U not worthy of an enighlened nation. It 
ia anbTorelTe to all idaali of induatrial 
pngreaa or Induatrial atateamanablp, II 
ba* become a generally accepted fact that 



dlliona and all neo 

tection or tor opportonity t 

parity. In - -■■'- 



aiorted opon international rel 

manlly. Appaala cama from I 
desolated leads for aaaiitance 
and through it ill the spirit 
the spirit of 'jU'>«^'P_; 



■vlTed, even when tha outward 
physical Ilea ot organlialioa were tempor- 
arily lost In tbe aires* of war. Eren though 
at late Ihere has been increasing diaeatty 
in maintaining intoreourae with the labor 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



BKCYCLOFBDUj BBFBRBNCE BOOK 



muDilr, of the 
iHm, and vlll inilit npOB the pvanunuit 
ImpiirUiieii of homaDltr, TM to iBaintalii 
the tDKa of o-ai labor mOTOiBBiit itial(lit 
»Bd ananina, hai not boan an »uj talk. 
Than have Gaan Isniunarabla iuSaenoaa that 
baie aonfht to taatan thmaaalTaa upon thg 
labor moieuvit of this country baeaoaa thajr 
n^ialied Ita powar and beoaua they de- 
airad to ma it to sarvo thair on pnrpoata. 
It ham baan dna to tba Inlacritr. th* honor 
-' "■--' -' "■» nage-Mmara that 



■idaratlo 
•iata thi 






mplloati 






not daviatod _. 

bD fereaa and 

tha pncraa* o( tha labor mOTsmont wi 

ia Om wall-balng of tha wasa-aarnera. 



bat aamathinE 



Thar baie oaad thair 
ra not paraonal banaflta, 
>t woBld lilt tha labor 

. , hlihar pUua with gntUr 

arpottoBlUn. Thaaa afTorta to naa tha labor 
BoTonant hare coma in aU aannar of nlaa*. 
Tbar ha*e eom* aa hamanltarian dorta; 
tbn have eoni* ai patrlotia apptala; thar 
hau eoma aa proaotint tha hithaat Idaali 
vblab hnman Mlnfa ha*a ooncaiTad. Bnt 
Ibo ^wla nnlon moramaiit of Amarlaa haa 
atM^HtlT rctnaad to ha BOied Irom tha 
pilndplaa spon which it hai boilt np Ita 
pMaant powir and dIaatlTanaaa. Tba trade 
nnlon mOTanant. tha powarfnl militant or- 
tanlaatlOD In Indnitrr for tha piotactlon of 
tha rlihla ol tha workara and lor "•- — '"- 




„__ a aecordad thair ri(hta and i 

(■eared opportnnltla* lor uaaaaaarr piosraaa. 
Tha trade nnlon uoremant li fonnded upon 
denoeratle piineiplaai thanfore, II holda 
that pamle hsTe a rirht to work oat thair 
own aalTalioB accordliiK to their own Idaala. 
In accord with thia. Ideal It retniaa to auio- 
tinn any afort to InteHaie with othara who 
are workina oat their own pioblani. Tur- 
thar, it hold! that it onsht to take adTutace 
of aTenr opportnait; to pl«» /" peaeo In a 
coDVtmcliTo way. At the Philadelphia Oon- 
Testien, the trade nnlon movanant endoned 
a propoaal that whan the natlona ahall meat 
to dei«mins npon condition! of peace at the 
conelnaion of the praasnt war, that rapreaen- 
tathea of tho wage-aamara — tha great 
piaaaea of all tha nationa — ought to be praa- 
(Bt In order to praaant and in^t upon oon- 
ditlona and daelaralioB that ahall prortda for 



I7 and the advancament of hooan 
and a hi 11 maintalD hnmao rlghti ai 
iir import aoce than an)' other oon- 
n Th« trkrfa nnlnn moToment iMr 
B of greater ln>- 
>f hla toil. The 
and Id him ilea 



than the prodacl 



t haa endoraed, and 
to tnrther in ^1 of tba 
Aa wa have aald again 



effort! of ths trade union moTemanl am dl- 
rcated flrat of all to aeenre certain material 
benaflta, thaaa benalita arc for (ha pnrpoaa 
of promoting and adTancing hnman life- It 
faac bean demonatratad that the ahorler 
kdar toDgtheni tha liTc* of the workora. 



niUed br t 






women. ImproTed conditlona of wi>rk pro- 
tect tha health of the worken, conaam their 
prodactlte power and make tham of greater 
value to themaeWea and the nation. 

A. r. ef Ii. Thanfcad by Wmon—CISIB. 
p, 1B4) The WUta HoQ■^ Waahlngton, D. 
a.. Jnui 10. laiS. Bamtial Oompara, Amer- 
ican Fedaiation of Labor. Bt. Panl, Minn.: 
Pleaaa conTej to the TUrtjr-Blghth Annual 
OonrentlDn of tha Amerleu federation of 
Labor my aongratnlatloiu upon the patri- 
otic inpport which the member! of roar 
organliatlon hara giTea to the war program 
ol tha nation In the p!!t rear, not only in 
tha trencbaa and en tha bittlefleld where ao 
manj of our yoongar men are now Iil uni- 
form, but eanallr hi tba fietoria! and ahlp- 
T!rd! and workihop! of the count — — ■- — 
th* armr li inpported and lappUa 

lojral indn!lry of yoor ikiUad 

We era facing tha hacdebipa ol tha oritieal 
month! of the atruggla. The nation can face 
tham confldantir aaauicd now that no in- 
triguea of the anemr can arar dlTii^e our 
ubH; bj mean! of thoae Indutrial quarrela 
and clait dt!!analoa! whloh he haa triad lO 
dllllgently to foment. In thaaa dajri of trial 
and !elf aaerlflea the American worklngman 
ia bearing hi* ihare of the natlona) burden 
nobly. In the new world of peace and frea- 
don which America ia lightiag to eitablUh 
hii pluse wilt ba aa honored a! hia larriea 
I! gratafnllT etteemad. 

WOODKOW VILBOtr. 

111118, p. aOE) 

lu! rote Inatma — . — . . 

to the telegraiB of Freiidenl WUion and 

wai lant: "St- Piol. Minn., June la, lOlB. 
Honorable Wood row Wileon. The White 
Hcoie, WaiblDgton, D. C. Tour meoaga 
brought to the coDTontlon of the Aiserican 
Vedcratlon of Labor an Inipiration Impoa- 
aihta to eipreai in words and by uDanimon* 
Tota I wai directed to nuka reply. It ti 
ly pleatanbla dntj t" "~ '"^"' ' '"-'" 



.... igard yon aa the 

world Bpokeaman for damoeracy and human 
juatloa aud we conSdantly truat your laad- 
erahlp. Wo wiah to expreai to you onr d«- 



(ibyGoOt^Ic 



AMSRICANyFBDBKATIOM OF LABOR 



MtmtnatlDD to (iTt whalahurtad nppQrt to 
(he goraniBiant of onr free eonntrT Is tbis 
war to sitabllsh priaeiplas of fnsdon Ibst 
will Iniare psuc bilvaen tl» sationi. Wo 
■re doing and irill eontlDDo to do our put 
vbethar at tha tront or at home and will 
■bars tha boidaDi and the laoTifloe*. We 
IilsdEe loTkl anppoTt and lorTlfle tinlU ba- 
man fraedom and equity ahall be tha eom- 
mon Titbt of all paoplai." (p 1st) "ni* 
maeiaee wai raealTad from the Hational 
CdudcIi dI Dalenee: WaibinMon, D. 0., 
June 10, 19ia. Frank Uorrlaon, Senntarr 
AmsrlMu Vederatloa of Labor, Ht Panl 
Hotel, St. Paul, Ulnn. I am dtree'lad br 
the Conndl of National Defense (a trastmjt 
(o 7an Iba following raaolntloB paaaed br 
the ODnuoU and Adv!>ar)r Oommiaiion: 

"Wbareai, Tha Oouneil ot National De- 
fesaa and tha AdTliorjt Oommtaalon ire 
oo^laaot of tha Thirtralchtb Annual Oon- 
Tontlon of the American Tedaratlon ot 

"wiareai, Tha Oouneil ot National Do- 
and AdTlaorjr Oommiaaion are eqnallr 






liiTt; right 



of tha sIBrmatlTi , 

icn lenaerad lo the people, and the OoTom- 
mant of the United Statea hy the oriauliad 
labor movfiDBat and tha workata of Amor- 

■iiutohing before thia rei.ublli: and bar alllai 
In tha world atmisln for freedom, juillea 
and democrncT, ba it 

"BsBDlTad. And it ii hetebr raaolred. 
that tha Coiineil of liationil Drfanae and 
AiItUut; Commlaslon tianimlt to tb* 
Thirt; right h Annual OonTention of tha 
_ „ ... "j^^ 

of Ihair knowledge of the effoitt on the 
p»rt of Hamual Oomp?ta, Eaqnlre, Prealdeni 
ot the Amarlean Federation of Labor, to 
make this in-rlee a tangible and iltal Ihiai 
In tha interest ot Amarjca and her allfea. 
"W, 8. GIFPOBD." 
Amailean Allianoa for labor and Demoo- 
raeT^(191T, pp 94-38S) In May. lOlT, a 
conTanlion call wai lant throncbont New 
York etate by Iha ao-call>d WorUngmsn'i 
OouDdl, ■ branch of the Feople'a Oouneit. 
requastinK nniona to aend dplecataa to a 
aoDterenee to ba bald in New York City to 
eonaider what proTisiona onght to ba made 
10 protect tha Intrrrata ot labor dnrln( the 
war. Becauae of (ha oall there waa appi«- 
henilon le>t wnge earnara of that olty 
ahculd he aliansted tram the bait Intereatt 

lean workera. Tha president ot tha A, F. 



called a 
workera of tha 
liation waa for 



1 the Centra 



Federated _ _ 
» York City of 
bich a local orf 






and toys . 

Iba Uniled Stales In earryl 

war for jnatice. fraedom i 



When the Inaldiona attorti ot the < 
of our country bad reaabaid out inti 
ot the Blatea, it baeams dear that t 



brclnnlng Saptambar G. Eaoh parson who 
partielpatad aigned the toUowlnc: 

Tha nnderaigned hereby aOrms that 11 
U tha dutT of all tbe people of (ba United 
Stataa, vlthont legard to alsas, nation- 
ality, politlcB or rellgloB, faithfully and 
loyaUy lo support ths KOTomment of tho 
United Stalea In carrying on the present 
war tor JnsUce, freedom and demoency to 
a triumpbant coDclaalon and viTsa thia 

Sladge lo Bphold arery bonorablB affort 
ir Iha aeoorapUahment of that pnrpoae, 
and to snppott ths A. F, of L. aa wall aa 
the declaration of ottanlisd labor'a rep- 
resantatlTea made llarcb IS, ISIT. at 
Waahinltoa. D. O^ aa to "Labor'a Poai- 
tlon in Feaes or In War," and aireaa that 
thia pledsB ahall ha hia rlcbt to member- 
abip in thia conference of tha American 
Alliance tor Labor and Damoaracy, 
President Wilson, who had been inrlted 
to attend, sent tbli reply: 

understand that 



of tha Impor 



fellow patriots uphold 
... _. — defendlnr 
and aalr 
k to hold 



with arma. While oar aoldli 
on are doing tbalr manful i 
back raactlan In ita moat braiai am 
sreaiiTa torm, we muat oppoaa at 
ue orpudaed and indlTldual affort 



loyalty behind a 
STSsWe phrases, 
pride the names c 

' Not o 



ten at spacious and 
isTa raad with nal 

apolla 



1 Hlno 



card of 



derotad sarriaa to tundamantal democ- 
racy; not one but bas fongfat tbe long, 
hard light for equal Juatice. braTing arary 
hlKamess that tbe humblest lita mlgbt 
know a larger measure of happinasa. With 
all my heart I want tfaam to feel that Ibelt 
davotion to country Is in nowiaa a betray- 
al of principle, and that In earring Amar- 



■ympothy with tho tsara 
a of the United Sti 
f war is toward i 
military neeeaaillai 



tha 



It ii the sense of this conteranoa that 
■ the duty ot all the peiiple of tbe 

ted Btatet, wlthont regard to olass, 



standards. 
proved to 

aympatbiaa 



1 quickaned 
with a new 



ground that 
imjgle, hut . 
e Twanllelh 



:b,Goot^Ic 



HISTOKY, BNCYCLOPSnU, RBFSRBNCS BOOK 



ibor ud lndiu(ri>l rMdJutDmt hkT* 
innd * wlntlos which gltM to tha tollsr 
dipiltT knd ■ naw 



i econoiala' mnuitr. I beg rov to teal 

(hat mj anppoTt hai not baen lujUnc uid 
that the goTanuBant hai not failad at aor 
point In gnntlng arary Jnit requeat ad- 
laoead bj too and tout aaaoolatai In tha 
oama of tne .AmaiieaD varkar. Ns ona 
who It not UlBd «aD fall to IM that tho 
battiB nna ol damoeno]' for Ajoariu 
Hiatahaa lodaT '""o (be Aald* ol naodara 
to ararr honia and mrkahop- whara toil- 
iDR, npvard itriTlnr man and mmon ara 
roontlnf tha treaanrea of riaht and Joi- 
ties and llbartr which ara beinr Ihraat- 
enad by oar praaant anemiaa It hai not 
boon a mattar ot anrpriaa to ma that tha 
hare wnjht to 






•^." 



tha 



rbo haTB aqnallT mlilad Iha Qamun paO' 
,1a. Thair Inaiatanea that ■ nation w&oia 
riehta hafa baan (roaalr vlalatad, whoii 
eltiiana have been IobIIj mvrdar«d nndar 
tbdr own flac. whoaa neichbora hava bean 
ioTltad to Join in makint eonqnaat ot lU 
lerritorr, wlioaa paUanaa In pnadnc tha 
claim* of Joatlea and hnmanlty haa baan 
met with tha most ahamefnl poUay of 
tramlenaa and traacherj; their loalatanaa 
that a nation ao ai-tia(ad dosa not anow 
Ita own mind, that It hai no eooprahinal- 
bla raawn Ik defandint itaaW; or (or 
ioioinc with all lU might in maintaining 
■ free fDtnre for itiatf and Iti idaala, U 
.• . _iu. _«t, tbelT deafaaaa to tha oft-re- 
it of our national porposaa. 
it, perhapi, that thaia (orcaa of anWg- 
Duam hara not Tat learned to know tha 
Tolee of that America we love and aerral 
It mar ifall be that thoaa amoug na who 
■Und Toadr to forward the plana of ar 

Kiaion brad in aeerat do not nndaratand 
langnage of democracT whon It pro- 
clalma tha pupoaaa o( war Is tanoa of 
a peaee (or tha peoplaa that ihall ba «■- 
tianblad bj thoaa to vbom mu ara bnt 
- a In thalr atnggle tar i*J" »™ 
hopo ol battor 



rs 



tha pawna In thalr itnggK 
gain. Bat traa AMariea 
toil ban (or horn* and tha 



t lifted ara* h 



ot Oa poU<T ot hteod and !«". ^. , 
aban be an end and that aqnal Jaatiaa, 
wbloh la tba heart of damoeraar. abau 
rala to Ita alaad. Hay not thoaB_who 
UAI and thoae who 
cauaa of the larger I 






iwed heart aa thay 

think on thaaa dayi whan Amnlea hai 
takan Ita atand for tha righla o( hnman- 
Ity and tha tallowablp of aoelal and la- 
umatlonal Ji-JJS^^^^S^'^BO^?^' 

jx^^i^'^Si t'K f'o^K ?:s.St^ 

lUiaBimooaly adopted: 

•■Tha Amarleao Alliance for Labor and 
Damooraoy. to it* »r« national oonte- 
cnea, declare* ita nnawerrtog adharaaea to 
the eanio ot democrac/, now a.aaUed by 
Iha forcaa of antooraey and military.. 
Aa Ubor nnlonlata, aoalal ntcram Md 
aodaliala. we pledge Oiir loyal mpport and 
ana lU alliea in tha preaeift world oon- 
Bl^ Wa daalara that tha one o*arabad- 
owiAt iaaoo i« ">' praaerratlon ot damoe- 



1 will be tree, 



) will be aaalayad. 



We deolara that the greU war moat ba 
(ought to a dtciilTa tmuII; that nntil 
autocracy ia defeated tliara ean ba no 

hope of an honorable peace, and that to 



™r,-,' 



world-wide 



..__) In the future. Wa deelare _. 

hoirrnce of war and anr daTotion to tba 
civniB of peace. Bnt wa raeognlia that , 
ILrre are eylla greater and mora totol- 
■rabla than thoie of war Wa daolara 
that war waned for evil and* mnjt be 
mat by war wagod for allraiatig and*. A 
pease bojgbl by the lurrendar uf aiary 
principle lital to dcmacraay la no peaee, 
bat ahamefnl lerriltty. Dnr nation baa 
not vinght thie war. Aa a petipla, wa da- 
aired peaee for III own aaho, and we 
held faat to onr traditional prineipip of 
keeping aloof from (be political affairs of 
Knropa, Onr Frealdent, with a forbear- 
anee and a patience which *oma of na 
thongbt QitrWe, uhaaitad erery honor- 
able maan* In behalf of pease: and Iha 
declaration of war came only after many 
monthi of futile effort* to BToid a eon- 
tliet. Thli war. ao relentleaaly forced 
upon ni, mnit n ~ ~ ~ 

^--— tog a — 

..8. We — 

. .1 (imdaBiantal need la unity ot aetion. 
The inceaaafal proieentlon d( the war ra- 
qslraa that all the enarglea of onr people 
be oonoeatratad to a aommon pupoae. 
Atter more than two yeara of aihanitiTa 
deliboralioa, to which eTary phaaa ot onr 
relation to the great world problam bad 
bean thorongbly debated, the eonatitn- 
tional raprenentatieaa o( the people da- 
elarad the nation'a will. Idyalty to the 
people demanda that all sequleaoa to that 
dacialon and render the goTamment arary 
(arrlcB to tbelr power. W* atrongly da- 
Donnee (ha worda and actions of thoae 
einanlBa of the Kepnblle who, (al*aly aa- 
lumlng to ipaak to tha name of Ubor and 
dfmoeraey. ara now ceaaalaaaly strlTing to 
oba trust the operations o( the goTem- 
ment. In misrapreaenting (ha goTam- 
ment'i pnrposea. In tiadnetog tha ehar- 
aelar of the Freaidant and of hie adTlaera, 
to atealthily altampttog to inoita aadltion 
and in openly or Impliedly eonnaalltog ra- 
aiitinca to the enforoamant of lawa an- 
seted far the national dafenae, they abuaa 
the right* ot free ipeeeh, tree aaiamblage 
and a tree praa*. In the name of liberty 
thsy encourage anarchy i to the name ot 
demoeraoy they strire to defeat tba will 
ot the majority, and In tbe name ot hu- 
manity they render every posiible aid and 
comfort to the brntal Pruisian antoaraey. 
It the (Inlater eonniela of thaaa peraons 
ware followed, labor would be reduced to 
sDbJeetion and demoeraey would ba ob- 
literated from the earth. We declare 
that tha betrayal of ona'i fellow-workara 
dnttog a strike flnde ita exact eountarpart 
In tbe betrayal of one'i fellow -eltiiana In 
time ot war, and that both ara Dffeases 
iriiich deaerre the deteatallen ot manktod. 
Wa declare that a stmdr datenaa of tbe 
tnterasta at labor la wholly compatible 
with suprama loyalty to the ga*emmsnt. 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



AMSKICAIflFEDERATION OP I 



a tba DI07 pToofi tin 



Dclpla ( 






r lowarltiB maj 



t be mad) _ . .. _ _ 

._ tbs itaDdarili *faleli luTe beeo 

Uibad bj labor in_ lu lon^ itnu^a. Wi 



tlibad bj labor in It* Ions itnu^a. 
doclara, howsTur, (hat prgdatorr Inllani 
ata at irorli at all tlmci—and pftrticalarlj 
in tima of war^^to lowar tbaia atandarda. 
Tliaia eflorti, wharaTST mada, mnit ba ra- 
■Jatad. Not 001; auat all pTBisnt atand- 
arda ba maistained, but thars moat ba no 
Enrtallmanl of anj of tba praasat asasciaa 
wbisb maka tor tha batlarmast ttt tha 
Bondltion of labor. Our lojialtir to the 
■DTBnunaDt tt tha loyaltj of tree man 
who will not anqnlaaaa In aoy anrreudar 
of prlnotpla. Thla war, irhloh oo our 
part ii waged tor the praierratlon of 
dBmocraor. hw aireadir aat In motion bale 
foreaa for the fnrtbuanoe uid oxtenaloo 
of dantiwraor. Serolntionk^ cbaacea 
baT* baaa mad*— ohanfM waleh reToal 
(ha powar and dattnulnstlon ol a dem- 
oeraua people to oontro) Iti own eoonomlD 
lite f«T tba common food. We deoUre that 
peace ahBlI oot be another name tor ra- 
autlon, bnt that the faini thai far mada 
for labor afaonld b« maintained Id per- 
petnlt)-. Wa daolare that a mndltioo 
vhlcb damanda tha oonierlptloa of men 
likawiae demanda tba eonaerlpllon at 
wealth, and that inoomat, aieaia proAta 
' Talaaa i&onld be tsiad t~ 



! tha i. V. of L., bald i 
., Uareb la, 1917, in wl 



_.. __ __ onat and Interna 

ional trade unluni and the railroad 
rotherboodi pactlcipalad. Betle*lnE that 



tha 



dlaiB a 



t the a 



tnlleai 



oremment. Wa da- 



..f their dapendanli 

■uDuia Ds withdrawn from the realm of 
charity and chanoa. and thai health and 
Ufa ahould be tnliy fatnred, wa Indoraa 
the loldien, and aailort' inauranoa bill 
DOW before Congraai. We declare for nnl- 
Taraal equal anlTraga. Fnllj realillnE 
that the perpataltjr of democratls Inatltn- 
tiona ia InTalrBd in freedom of apaecb, of 
the preaa and of aaaemblaca we declara 
that theae eaiaatial rishU moat be gnard- 
od with laaloua earo leat all other rlshta 
ba loBl. Wa declare, bowcTer. that when 
eipraaaiona are naad which are obitnellTe 
to tha goTammant in ita oondnet of the 
war, or are cleaii; capable ot clTlnc aid 
or comfort to tha natlon'a toea, the ot- 
ffindera ahonid be rapreaaad bj tha aon- 
..!._.. J — .V -_:.... I., aooordanoa with 



^, .^ — ..,mea of the Cniti 

and oalla upon them to unite In n 

aapport of tha FrealdenI and the nanvu 
for the pnMeimtlon of tha war and the 
preaarTatlon ot democraer." 



ranrd to the apeonIatlT4 

teraata which, aapeelallr dnrlnc tha 
have done ao mneb to anhanaa prisea of 
tba neceaaarfea of life. To Inereaaa tha 
aupply and to lower prioaa, the (ot- 



actlon witl 



mm ant abould 



pnblio I 



We ^eelara that 



nsected with the war. 



bonld 
Ita 



that the volnDtarr inatltntlona that 
organ lied the Indnatrlal, eommarolal 



tbeir recognlied 
that labor ahall 
in all the sonnr 
the war and In 

negotiate terma 
(ufl accord wlt( 
□pon by the conierf 
nnionlita called by 



larad in 

fnnctiona daring the 

)o adeqnalaly raprea* 



commlaaion aaleetad to 
Wo dsolare onr 



tK'd'fol 



"Sana of libarly In all landa a 
watsblng with heayy haarta the d( 
BOnteal of their brothen In apliit aad 
arma now battling on the plalna of Boa- 
aia. Bom amidit the thondare of tha 
graateat war of all timei, the great B«a' 
alas damoemey hmnght to all lOTera of 
man 'a freedom a new hope and liiBpira- 
tlon. Aaaallad on all aldaa by a tarribl* 
and inaldiona foe. now apraadlng death 
and detaatatlon In lu rauka and now 
maaqnerading aa a friend and panatratiu, 
.._.._ ... __._. .. ^eyolntlonul Into tSa 



under the 



ifla of the 



--..-- aing tbntn^ 

tba moet critical time In ita atrog^o for 
aiiatence. Ths American AllUnco tor 
Labor and Democracy aenda graatlnga i« 
tba flghten for liberty in Roaala aa broth- 
era In the aame caoae The alma of tb* 
Koaalaa democracy are our alma; ita Ti«' 
lory la oar Tictory and Its defeat la oar 
defeat; and eren the Iraltora that tmil 
the Ruaalan democrasy lilnwiae hhOI u. 
In the conflict for the libariy of Bowl*, tbe 
Ubarty of America ia llkawiaa at ataka. 
Every Bnaiian aoldlar who faoee n " " 



I liberty of Ami 



r loyal thongbt of 
jnarican BoeLaliam. 



of the RuiiisD 



> the anpport and aerrlce 



erica and alio npon tha goTera- 
> United Slatea to atrain erary 
reaonrce In their command U 
'. the Bnaalan democracy, and 



jyGooi^lc 



HISTORY. BNCYCLOFBDIAl 



ba It TMDlTed, that ■ sammiltce ol Bt* b< 
■ppoiutod for Ifag pnrpoat of oommiml 
ntins Tlth the leidm ol th« Bnulai 
itmoatej and •■■to din e to tham tht 
•Dppoit hflra pledged." Upon th' —-""- 
preblsm of deallui with (tnill a a 
.: — n,4de (he folio wlm 



Ub«r and cItIc a 



antiT Into tha 



coDgraiB which will i 
peace, tha leritlmata ( .. _ ._ 
lah people for tha roattabllahmi 
natleoal homeland In Palaftine oi 
ol lelf-Ei 



The declaration 



aled with the i 



cabled to 

1 Damoa 
ti of tha 



JKS, 



Oaoadlan BalmUaiit— (ISIB, : 
the United Statea daelated wai 
Oennan gOTammaDt and we be 
the Allies flihtiDC for the ci 

nf t^^i^An^ Eh> Ham li^^ama m 



Oanada. Oomi 



■ northern nol^bOT, 
ia and cenunon ptiT< 

plain that there nnat be 



a it plain thai 
lUndh; betwi 



msBta and the people of Oanada and tha 
Dnitgd Ettatea that national poliefai mnat 
■ J policy form- 

rha bonndarr 

intrlaa haa beeoma 

little more than a noKraphleal eonrenianca. 
Tha el Die relationihlpa necaaaarr for war 
pvrpoeea hare bound oar coontriei aTen 
~> elotalT. The nnitT nefleiaar? for tha 

, .^. >1 ,,^j_.-I I v.. 

■ beti 

orkera of tha United 



»"lK?nt 



tha workan of tha 

mant bald whan it was inancaratinc its war 
policies, raptaaentatiTea of (he Oanadiao 



ticipata in the Victory Loan Oafflpaign which 
tha Canadian goT eminent was oondnetiac 
" .taly after tha BafTalo 



addition (o tha p 
jmonntine to flO.C 
1 dnring tha Buffalt 



diea* In Toronto o 
furtheranc 



I of the I 

._ urgent inr. 

the Pratldent of the 



..r 3S, 1917, In 

I ware extended 
'. of L. by the 



itioni of Ottava and 



Uonlreal t. 

ettlat. The Inrltatloni < .. 

when the new war piTernjnant was turn ml ng 



the 



The American Alllenca fop Labor 
iDOcrsey eipreiaea Ita nnqoalifled 
1 of tha a*owal by Prealden — ■ 



of the motiToa (or America's 
'ar is to aecim for the 
s tha right to IWe their 
sic own ioU and to de- 
cnltnre under free na- 
Inasmncb as among all 



iecnritioa 



ernraent o&ciala in a spirit of coaHdan.. 
and mulaal respontlbility. Upon learning 
that President Oomperi was coming to Ot- 
tawa the goTemment extended to him ao 
InTitattOQ lo addreai both Honses of Parlia- 
ment meeting in Joint aesaion. Thli was 
an honor that has beau accorded to only 
two other man — Mr. Arthur Balfour, who 
was in Canada aa the heed of the Brttlah 
Mission sent to this country, end M. Bene 
Virianl. the head of tha French Oommlailon 
sent tor ■ similar pnrpoie at tha same tine 
that the BritUh OoaunlsaiDD was hare. Xr. 
Oompera accepted tha Invitation and ad- 
dressed Parliament on April IS. 

Capital Issues Oonunlttae Pallcy — (ISIS, 
p. M) The capital isnet committee of the 

" -' "■ ~ ird acts upon rsqu^ls 

..,__ .. ,j„ ,^^ ^^ 

— — foUowina deo- 

larstlon of policy: "The lolnllon ol! the 
problem of making sTailable to the gorem- 
ment to the greatest possible degree capital, 
inbor, material, and transportation means 
ciratiDg a surplns of each of these ele- 
ments ao vital to our national needs at this 
time- The creation of a surpltu at labor 
necessarily iDvalTes the creation of a short 
period of temporary unemployment, during 
which labor disengaged from Daeiiantlal in- 
dustry mar ba diverted la eeseatial Induatry. 
To mtnimlaa any hardship npon Isbor aris- 
ing from tha creation ol this UBaTOidable 
hiatus la the chief ooncem of all. The 
oapltsl Isaaes committee is eloaaly itndylag 
the problem from this point of view, aa it Is 
an j(ous that Its opsratlons should not create 
idieaeas any faster than tha demand for 
labor can counteract, A plan was adopted 
under which the committee, before actiug 
nt-on any application for the iaaua o( seenr- 
iUea the approval or disapproval of which 
would alToct serlonsly labor conditioDi, will 
seek the advice of the United Statea Xm- 
ployment Service, whose snecesaful eHorta 
to secnre a Bcienti9e distribution of labor 
fltted to prevailing conditions are heartily 
supported by the A. P. of L.-' 
Ohlneae Ooolle I^bor During War — (ISIB. 

11. 110-284) Honse resolution No S8 pro 
dad for the sdmisiion of 80,000 Ohlneae 
into Hawaii without right to proceed to any 
part of tha U, 8. Numarong betters i 



'A 



t from 






foealing abrogation of tha Ohinase eidi 

lav followed. Then this reaolatioa waa 
pieseDtad In the Senate: "That the Oommll- 
tae on Agrleultnre and Porestry is herebf 
directed to make careful Investigation Into 
tha advisability of reeommending le^alation 
that will permit the Importation of Ohlneae 
farmers into the United States under proper 
reatrictlons and regulatians daring the eoD' 



0bvGoO<^lc 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 



tl□1unl^s of the w»r.'' Thmurh opposition 
of tha A. F. of L., both reioloiloni had not 
bean reportod. 

Organliad labor !■ onaltanblT oppoaed to 
tba raodlflcation of the Ohineaa Sialiulan 
lav in order to penult Ohineaa oooIIn I 
enter this eonnlry. no mailer for whi 
pnrpoia. The A. V, of L for many, m»n, 
fears foacbl for a reitrietlTe ImnifrktiOD 
law, and aBiIatad In ■acnrinK the Obineae 
XiFlnsion Act. An oterwhalmlnf nialoritr 
of Ih* membpri of OoniciHi anaotod the 
immiiralion lair contaUilnf a literaoy tMl. 
Onr adTOcacy of reatriotad Immigration vU 
baled upon onr hDowIadgs of the eoooooiic 
iltoatioD and eonditlona in tUi oonatrr, 
addition, ostIdb a dne leffud for 



ion. By protecting war lien aiainat 
iliine and enabling thsni to (utaln 

hlsbaat dcETBe of prodictlTity and 

ibill, the elBht-honr workday not only i| an 

■ -'" make their 

I rodaotioD, 

I naefnl u>d 

The aiibt' 



the elBht-honr 

m«t efleetlTe rontribul 
bnt that they will alao 
honorable mt- " - " 



orkday i 



It haa 
and BTor 
that it ii 

RspreaantatiTea ol oi 



ilta ] 



demoiutntted 

lid ha ornniaed. 
tepablio Inooipo- 

DTemnant work 



he perpetuation of the inatitatloiii of onr - 

itinntry. It tor any reaaon the Ohlnaae tar of the 
Eiclniion lav wat modJfled or loipanded. It 
nOBl carry with It the modification » "■- 
ibTOgation of the Ouitlenan'a Axi.. 
eiiitini betwaen tlil^ conntiy 



,>Plying to KOI 

and eonlraoti. under war i 

Ooltad Statea GoTemment beeomea tne can- 

" I nition'a Indnalry and oammerea. 

,uthority hai ahitted from oTeiy 

■ oorpotation offlee to the goTern- 



. Japan, which 

addition to our o^oiitlon to the modlHoi. 
tioB or the snipenalon of tbe OhlMM Ex- 
ciDiion Act, It baa not he«B demonatrated 
that there Ii a ahortaca of tabor whloh 
would jnatify the leeortlng to •itremt meai- 
urei. Whaterar may be the oplnloo aa to 
the affect of the Importation of cheap and 
docile labor into tUa oountry, tbe hlatorr of 
the efforta of tba workinf people ergrywhsre 
unmlatakably demonatratae that the blfh 
■landard btult up and nulntalned by InleUi- 
Ecnt and cooparatlTa action moit nueumb 
to the inildiona Inflneneaa of ■ race of people 
whose liDpea. ambillona and diafraa likre 

Eatlfled by a itandsrd of Urine which falla 
r bek>* that of a growinf and fnutifying 
citiianibip. Even thooxb we mky be In the 
o-.ldst of war, and eren tbonth It were pot- 
iible to ndopt lomo mesiitre whereby a 
lirae ,b«dy of Ghtneee ralitht be imparted 






iikinttoD 



The 



inli t 



intry for tbe s 



1 then deported at Iti cloie, the Imprei 
ind raanlta of coolie labor would aUlI r 
. added hurae 



■ming 






Unde 



pjeaenl eonditlona of war. the orfulieil la- 
bor moTemenI hoa eipretaed Itaalt aa wUI- 
ing to meet tha re«ponalbilitlee impoaed 
ui-on It. and In earryinf! ant tbla policy, wn 
aie demontt rating to '.hi EOTarnmenI and 
tht people of the United Stataa ou loyalty 
to Ita instltutlani. Ho labor movement of 
an> belUgarent conntry haa taken a more 
advanred poittlou than haa tbe Americen 
Labor MoTement. ETCn before war waa 
declared, repreaentatlTea of onr moTomenl 
promolcated a declaration in which Ha po- 
ailion waa made clear, ^-blle it lolead Ita 
ojipoeltion to war, yet it elao deslarpd that 
11 eTcHts finally drew tbla country into 
the laaelitrom of war, it would atand solidly 
behind this gOTerninent. Id tlew of the at- 
titude of the men and women of labor, we 
arc jnitlfied In eKpreailnc the thuught that 

oiipoaed to Chlnaiahig say 



unity. 



— jthing that Interferes 

. -._ _- 'eral of the coUeetiTe needs of a)) 
Ihc people moit. under war conditions, be 
eliminated or retolated. There has re' 
Bulted a complete rearganiiatlon of indns- 
trlal and commercial life centered in for' 

B-nment needa and pnrpo«*«. "- " 

tl:c nalion'B Wi ' ■" ■ 

voik or contiBcla. 
vaRtly increaaed the 
eral eiiht-hour lew, 
ai'pliratlon. 

T>.e flrat law fliiOK sight 1 „ — - 

nailmum workday Waa practloally noliiisd 
by uarrow inlerprstatlDu and application, 
ulileb defeated the puT;>o>e ol Congress In 
enaetlor It. Thia necaoaltated the enaot- 
meut of the preaant eiiht-honr law. Acah>. 
there waa manlfeat the tendency ol ol>c{ali 
to apply the el(ht-boni rettilatlon within 
the aairowest poaiibla scope. This tendency 
was strengthened by legal inteniretatlans 
which took the heart out of the law Bat 
orfoDlied labor refuiBd to ba dateaied by 
legbllatle Interpretation) and peraigteotly 
ttklcd their ease for a wider interprelation 
and application of the law in accord with 
the pdrpoaei of thooe of Omgraea that an- 
acled it. Progrees had been mode before 
the beginning of war. The present Attor- 
ney Oeueral rendered an oplilon whloh glTef 
labor greater proteetlou. When the tart* 

organiaed labor inoigtently preaantad their 
caae for the application of tha elght-bour 
law to gOTemment conlraela and gorera- 
ment work. For a lime the InSuancea of 
eristing aacialdom were strong, and an an- 
licblenad policy did not preTail. Frotsata 
cMue from all labor orgauiaaliens affected. 
Oaie after case wa* taken op with tba 
gOTemment. At the beginning of war Oon- 
grasi. In order to protoct the eight-hour 
prlDcipla, included In one of tbe saetlans of 
the NsTil Appiopriationa law tbe followiug 



inaltembly 



principle of a maximum workday of eight 
hLirt bos bean indoraed by society and ofll- 
eially by the United Stataa OoTemment. 
The elght-honr workday reprraenta a stand- 
ard of prodnctirity, of IWIng. and of con- 



. inthoriaed to auapand the 

proTlsion of law prohibiting more than 
eight houra labor in anr one day of per- 
Bona engaged npon work ooTered by con- 
Iracta with the United Btataa: PnTlded 
fnrther. That the vagea of pereona em- 
ployed npon saeh contracts ahnll be com- 
puted on a baaic day rate of eight honra 
of work with OTertime rates to be paid 



■„Goo»^Ic 



HISTORY. BNCVCtOFBDIA. RSPBRBNCE BOOE 



•U bonn work 

TU» proTliiDii 
pilncipla wUla ■ 

c«r* o( my siD«r„ _ 

lont«r boon et vork and pem 



ID time ud on»h*U for 
■loen of alKht boon." 
lalntaiDi tlia elBhl-botiT 
Oa luna tlms U tkkaii 
iCT Ihit Tnaj nTC«ailt*ts 
illiM DTartlms 
will P";«nt 



•tar It hag batn neesiisaiT (oi tha Praaldeot 
ef the nmttd States to luDe a praclamalloD 
■lupaadlBg In tnj dspartmenli ths alght-honr 
workday hs bat qooted tbU olanaa a« hli 
warrant, daepitc tha tact tbat ba waa amply 
aotboriiad to tak* aach action tmdar tha 
arlctnal law. HowaTer. tU> leatlni of tha 
Maval ApproprlatioDi law proTidM for otoT' 
time whioh la not laalndM In tha orlslnal 
lav WhoD thU anoation of pollor aBma to 
Ike Taaponilble mambort of the pratent ad- 
minJatratlra, a chanfe oama. and the See- 
ratarr of war, daiplte tha oplnlona o( thoae 
who had the I^dlitio Tlewpoint, deolded 
in taTor of a nun libera) Intaiimlatkin, 
and Inaarted In eontraota already aada tha 
dabt-hoor prorlaioD. A ilnlUr polloy waa 
fonowed by the Seoretary sf tha llaTy, who 
Tvopenad a eaae already decided In hia de- 
partment. The caae In point waa that of 
th« iQbcontract let by the rore Bliar Ship- 
bnlUlnr Company to the Famll Voondry 
and Maeblne Oompany at Aoaonla. Ooan. 
The Fore BiTer Company had eatabllahed 
tha ai(ht-bonr day, bnt ttaa rarrall Omnpany 
had a ntno-bouT day. The molders in the 
latter company, who ware waiUnf on the 



QOTaniDieBt I 






one-halt for all time over claht boon. Sec- 
retary Danlalt InTeatlratad the caae and de- 
elded that nnder the el(fat-hoDr law time and 



It tha 



'tC« 






OEB-halt ahoald be paid the 

•nbeentract for at orartlma. With thlt 
eitenaioB of coTemment work, earrylni with 

-' "- baala eieht-honr work- 

I beeome acnte In all 

__ are aiBI under private cob. 

trol or eB(and in ««rk tor private cod- 
•ema. Tha nllnro et all ooaoerna to adopt 
the el|tit-henr biili ll the oaua of more 



ar^eraata* ^bor dlitmrbaneea that Intei 
fer* with work for the ■onmrnent ann 
B«ri«uly Impede plana for national defente. 
We vrn. therefore, that lome feoeral action 
ba taken by adminletratiTa aathorlty de 
elarlai for an elghl-hoor day In all com- 
meree and iodnatriei aa a war maMnro. 
In OUT lnd(nent neb an aellon wonld be 
ths 'moat (tfectlva tnndamentd proylrion 
that oonld be adopted to promote (enaral 
Intannti and writar*. In many prorUloni 
tor tha benefit of thoae aaring tha nation 
la thia critical emerj^niy. the admlhlatn- 
tlon haa ihown honeet ai^d nndantandlnt 
eenrvn tor thr welfare of thoia who are 
riaking their llToa and their all for tne 
-nered eaoa* in whioh ont Bepnbllg '.i en- 
^a It la in accord witb thIa policy tbat 
OTRa thia additional meaanra. II U a 
mnaun baeed upon appreciation of the 
Taloa of hnmao ifte. Ponaerratloa of tbal 
wondarfnl yet perlthaf'e thlnj called htt-nai" 
t,TodDetlTity la of tnndameBtal coneeqnenee 
to the eoatlnned prPureaa and perpetnltj 
of tha whole nation. Bneh a policy adopted 
ly tha foremoat Repnbllc of the world, en- 
■■Ked In a titanic world conflict fm- nni- 
verwa treedom and democracy, would come 



■»ced. 



witb a tremendDne Inapiratlon that wonld 
atir the whole world to Ha deptha. No one 
alRfIa policy conld do more to hearten the 
the'"ring'*Jtac'' an"d' ?'"?'' '"*? *'^" "P™ 
a ahadow of a doobt tbe l^M* of' pm- 

tOBo and the Ideal lim of o<ir lOTenimcnl 
1 the artt It 1, m.kins for beVer ataid- 
arda of lite and tor bnmanlty aa a whole 

(IBIB, p. IS) The attitnila of the PimI. 
dent toward tbe elshl-honr or ihorter work- 
day haa bean Tory deflnltaly ihown by the 
fact that Id every aiMntire order be baa 
lamed walTtnj the oleht-boor law he bae 
baaed hia action upon tbe autbority (ranted 
him by the proT&o provided by Ooncrva 
In the Maval Appropriation a Act, or alae 
haa aMoUoaDy itlpnlated tbat oompanaa- 
tion ahall ba not feM than time and one- 
lialf tor OTertlne in eieeat of eiebt houi. 
Fraaldent Wllion't codtbc hai been in oon- 
tormItT with the poaltlon he took in recard 
to elfbt honra for railroad workert when 
be atated that aoelaty hai aanctiooed tbe 
elsht-bonr workday. 

Anonc thoaa tufamillar with legal tech- 
nlcalltlea the Tederal elgbt'honr law meant 
an elghl-bonr day on work for the nTam- 
nienl_ With tbe deeliraljon of war, |o»- 
eriiment work and smploymaBt aaenmed 
mnch larger comparatica proportlona in the 
Indnatrial world. With Ihii growth the 11m- 
itntlona of the Federal eifht-h03r Uv be- 
ccme Ineraaaiagly appsreut. All workeri 
employed lor war production eipooted the 
Larlr dgbthour workday eiUbllihed in all 
Inatancci where the eighi-hour law wai ana- 
pendfd for the war emoigeniy. Proteata 
frcm worken all over the eonntry, who 
tbougfat they had a legal right to the baala 
etghl-hoar day, were aent to the American 
Federation of Labor, ths War Department, 
and the Navy DeparlmcDt. (P. 3981 No 
one laane la tbe caoia of greater dlaeon- 
tent and feeling of lajnilice than the dla- 
rarlty of the application of the eight -hoar 
law to war prodncdon. While the teehnl- 
col diatioclloni obiarred by lawyere lo in- 
lerpretinn tbe application of tbii law may 
aattaty their aenae ol Jnitlco. they in no 
way latlafy tba worki . < . . 



Nl In i 



ployea of t! 
t Spa: 



imbling 



I United Btatec Steal 
owa Point. 1 ■ 
e parte of tl 



the . 



the fl 



( eonatmction have the baalc eight- 
ni.nr day, bnt other employee if the aama 
company, aeparated only by a fence barrier, 
who are employed in making the porta which 
are need by the ghlpbulldan, do not have 
tbe elgbt-honr day. The legal diatlnetlon 
doBi not aatlaty them. Ho one policy which 
th^i goTcmment conM inangnrate wonld do 



sontry I 






1 of 



geonlnely humanitarian and demos 



THiible ._ _.. __ 

gotten far away from tbe old commodity 
theory t)t labor and waa genuinely and 



. aeUoally trying to 

D.ount elaima of human being!. 

BagUah and Frsneh Oommiaili 
p 78) Approved by Oonffntion: 
' Itealiilng tbat tbe exi-erlenee Of trorkan 



— {1»IT, 



ovGoo»:^Ic 



AUBRICAN PEDBRATIOH OF LABOR 



in albar conntriM who hid baan mMtlng 
pad lolTlnc labor war vroblami iroald ha 
of bBDBflt to tba workui of thia eoasIrT 
vlin wera taklnf tha initial Urpa In wii 
tiinltan. Prnldaal Qompsra aabtM to Pn- 
m^sr Lloyd Qeorse of Great Britain and 
Irmniar Rlbot of Fnnpr aaklni tham to 
■«nd repmeatatlTB labor nan to adtiia with 
Auiariean worksra. Hr, Llo^d Qtaiitr 
pnimptl; cablsd that ha ^onld lend ■ com- 
miaalon of labor man m raqncMad Am- 
baaudoT Junierand of Franca wrois Itx. 
Oompera that he wu Inatnieted by hii 
BDTamment to srt that tlia beat and mo>t 
appropriate plan (or Mr. Qompan to follow 
In aecnring repraafotatiTM of Frenth work- 
art mtn to oommnnicata dlnctl; with Ur. 
Jon ham acking him to tend two French 

Mr. ao'npen ciMed to Hr. Jonhanl end 
Mt. Kenfer of Parti. A nable in reply waa 
r(«eired to the cfTtct that it waa Impoiilbla 
for the French labor movement to comply 
with the runaat from Ameriea Upon (he 
receipt of the cable froiu the BritUh for- 
ariiment a almllar requeit wai aeni to the 
l>rime IflDliter of Oanadi that Canadian 
rei'ieaentallTM of labor be aent to the con- 
teronra. Tha Brltlah Oommiialon conaiilad 
of the following: - — - 



Coi 



nclUor and member of Briliih Home of 
imoiia: ■nrrBtBi-r of Brttlih Tradea Dnlon 



' Ocmmltlee 



H. Ihomaa. PriTy Gonncillor, member of 
Parliament; eeneral lecntary National Dnlon 
«f Ballwarmen, Great Britain and Ireland. 
Joaeph DsTli. member ol the laeretariit of 
Ihii prime minister. H. W. Garrod. rapre- 
venting labor, department of Kiniatry of 
M unit Ion a. Tha Canadian repTeaenUtitea 
vers: J. C Water*, Preaident of the Tradea 
and Labor Oonneil of Canada. Glddeon D. 
Kobertion. Tice pcealdenl of the Ifationai 
Aaaooiitlon of Railway Telafraphera. A* 
soon aa the Brttiah delegatei arrhed In thlt 
cnnntry a meettna of the Oommittee on La- 
bor wu arranged for April S, Thara waa 
A large attendance at the meeting, which 
UFled all day and eToning. The Britlab 
labor men wars giran ample opporlnnltj to 
relate the loll ■corr of the war aTperiancea 
ol the Engllah worVen and to tell how the 
Briilah OoTemment and the Engllch workara 
hare worked onl their Joint problems and 
to anawer all qneatloni aaVed by the men- 
bera of the Committee Ob Labor. Tha Tain 
able information preaented In their maetina 



the 






;ed In their maetlnga 
biially. pnbiiahod II 



^S 1 



which included New To_-k, Pitlabnrfih, Ohi- 
eogo. ClcTBland, Albany, Schenectady, and 
Boetnn. In thrie iiieellni,-^ tha memoera of 
the Britlab Labor Oommiailon told how the 
Enrilah people were meeting their labor 
rie1)lema ariilog onl ol war work and eon- 
dltloni and made anggratlona to Americani 
tow to deal with local •ItnatioDa. 

BiplonKo— (1917, pn. lie-BlS) ProTl- 
■lona o( the rapionage bill, which ippeara to 
be unwarranted interference with fraodom 
of apeech and pma and the rluhl of aa- 
a^nbTare, were defeated Ihroneh efforti' of 
leglaUtiTe committee 

(ISIS, pp. IIB) A Itteral Interpretation o! 



the aaplonage act eonfinea it to reprehraa- 
IWe «e(i dealgnrd to hamper tbi> United 
Staloa Ooremment in Ita .-roaHotlon of the 
war. The general eocaeniu o( opinion 
anong menibara of OongrcM waa that owlnr 
to the polyglot fharactor of onr population 
and wilt no eSori baTlnt been made in the 
put to aaaimilalc thia teteroHBaona maaa of 
people Into our inatitutiona by education or 
otherwiie, a reatrictivc meainre of thia char- 
ajter waa eaaential to protect the intereata of 
lh» American OoTammant. With an oimoat 
unreatrieted immigration from sTery «oun- 
try in the world, aone of whieh malntainod 



Iwhtther 



[n addition to ihli, the blatorr of 
rhan written will contain nn. ™,>. 
id that i 



thia wi 

propaganda which emanated from the im- 
perial Qermsn goyemment and apraad by 
lia agent! and amiaaariei in Brery part of 
the worid and which Inraded the depart- 

n,.v,t. „( — - — ament. No mora 

>e pointed to than 



at ri king ill net rs' 
-' rafly c 






riedTon 



- "il t?a"ST°o''- 
eaey of thoaa ^eaauroa which gin to the 
inditidual tha wideat latitude in eipraaaloa 
of ipeech and to act. and lU entire reoord 
h*B been one of oonaiatency and penlateni 
effort that thia freedom abonid be guaran- 
teed, but the A. T. of L. realUe* that thia 
conn try la engaged Id a desperate conflict 
and that eTery fibre of the national being 
n:ual be eiarciaad to the end that ve may be 
aucceiafnl in onr ondertaklng. The prOTl- 
aioua of the espionage bill aa literally later- 
Dieted provide pnalahmant for thoaa who 
icEOwingly and with full eonacionansas dealre 
to hamper this governoient In the prosecution 
ol the war. It prortdea pBniihment lor 
tLoie who aay or do anything except by 
way of bona Sde and not dlaloyal adiica to 
, with Intent to ob- 
' 1 SUtea of 1 
. [Inlted Btat<__ __ 
tha making ol loans by or to the Cnited 
States, and whoever, whan the United 
Statea la at war, ahail wilfully canaa, or 
attempt to canao, or inoita or attempt to In- 
cite, Inaubordi nation, disloyalty, mutiny, or 
refnsal ol duty. In the military or naval 
forcea of the United Statea, or shall will- 
fully obatmcl or diaconrage or wlllfnlly at- 
tempt to obetmct or diaconrage the recmlt- 
int: OF cnliatment asrrtcB of the United 
^latea There ia alao a prohlbltioo agalnat 
\hoae who aball willfully nttar, print, write, 
or publlih any dialoyal, profane, seiu-rilooa. 

form of the government of the United States, 
or the ConatltutlOD of the United Statea. or 
the military or naval forcea ol tha United 
States, or the ftag of the United SUtes. or 
(he uniform of the Army or Navy of the 
United Statea, or any language intended to 
Itrlng the form of government of the Unttsd 
States, or the OoEBtitntioD of tha United 
Statea. or the militsry or nsval torcei of 
the United States, or the flag of the tTnlted 

cells" of" ita'one™M,"o"sh^ll' iJS"fallT dis' 

Tilay the flsg of any foreign onem- ■— " 

by utterance, writing, printing, [ 



ovGoo»:^Ic 



HISTORY. ENCYCLOPEDIA. REFERENCE BOOK 



Ian (Mm t; 



a, lueitL or adTooit* 

— ,..Joetion (n Ihii conn- 

iry ai any thins or (UiiEi. prodact or prod- 
Dcli, DecMUTr or auuitlal M tha proiaaB 
lion of til* war In which the naitad Slataa 
nay ba SBncad. with Intact br luiih cortall- 
mant t« cnpple or hinder the United Slatea 
iu the pnucntloB ol tha war. or ihall will 
fnllj adToealB, taror. teaeh. defend, or ing- 
gait tha dolDc of anj of the acta or thinga 
in thii aectiDD annmaraled, and whoavar 
ahall br word or ael inpport or fafor the 
canaa of the Qannan empire or Ita alllaa in 
the praaent war or h; word or act oppoaa 
the oauaa of the United Dtalea therein. 

n>( ba)F— (1BI8, p. ^ae) All th* dela- 
«alaa aroie and the Frsaldent aaid: "In 
honor of the Has of the Bapahlie of tha 
United Stalea the dalentea and Tialtor* to 
thia oonTantion lUnd b faaltr and loTalty 
and in Ihe hope of Iti neat leaderahip In 
the aanaa of hunanlt; and freedom. ' ' 

Fna SpmA In War— (JSIT, pp. 93-388) 
Tbt eonlUat ainoil ineoneeiiablr glKantlc, 
which t« being wafed to make (he woild 
Bate far daoKKraoy, la. al the aama time, 
leatlu the efleiener and rrliahilitj of exial- 
ins aamacratle inititutlooa. The aitutlon 
derelepe a nnmbar of moat dilllcalt problama. 
Tbo neeaailtT tor immediate reanlta ereatea 
a aitnatlon In which compniaion aaama to 
hsT* aopertor adTantacea, bnl the malhoda 
and iienelea of autocracy an oDrnplatalr at 
Tkritnae with demociacr. Ita iplrft and at- 
titude of mind are eaaentlallr dlffaraiit. It 
holda that eompnIllDn la not an afflolent 
method: that the heat permanent reanlta 
can DOt be aecnrad withont the conient of 
the people. For the wondarfnl adTantsfea 
and opportiLnltiea whioh democTaflT affOT^, 
■oma penaltlaa are incnirad. The mlatakei 
of democracj reanlt from the ihortoomtnga 

innSdent ezperienca Id the metlioda of 
freedom. The labor moTamant haa alwaji 
eoBtendad that tha t«mad7 la more Irer 
dam — creatar opportunity for ednaational de- 
Tfliopment and exparlenBe. One of the aapa- 
dallr pniilinc problama whloh confront oar 
people today ia that eonnaetad with free- 
dom of the preaa. Wa know that In all 
a^ea freedom af the preta haa been the pal- 
ladium of tree Inatltnlloaa The only en- 
Tlronment in which free InitltutiOD* can be 
maintained la generated through freedom ol 
espraaalon and preaa, Uotrammeled dltena 
■ton ia tha only sate prellnlniry to deter- 
nlnation of policy. All a*p*eti and rata 
tlosa of the propoilliOD ihonld be eonaid 
ned. In national iunei ctbtj (roup and 
prery citlien baa the right to aipreaa his 
TiewB and informatlac by eiercielng hli 



natitntlonal right to freedom 
If he - - - ' - "-'- 



e hii fall 



, peraoDalily and hia — 

repreaaed, thopgh he mnat yi 
"led will of the majority. 

Buffering from ininalica 



allty a 



M^"' 



_■_ The minority cauae ' 

day beeomae the accepted method i 
morrow. Bepre«ion nerer remored 
iBjnatiee or eorreeled an evil. Reel 
eipreaaisn reanlta In eonatricted ment 



' freedom, ther 



e opportan 
liahad agei 



whg apeak or write treaaonable thou^ti bt 
tried by the eourta. We are entering upon 

nation aod nntrammeled thought t 
termoit. If we lake adranlaga of the oppor- 
tniiltlea that will he preaented. Timid ex- 
preaaion and reatricted dlaeuiilan wonid 

a aorry preparation for the new age we 

potering. Thoae who are In heart! and 

mlnda democrat a are apprehenilTe wl 

. _ ___ . ._ „,^ijg ,,_... 

I, yet we noia 

IntelUgeBt In 

meeting thoae neada than antoflracy ha* been. 
HoweTcr. wa recogniia that war aonditlona 
preaent Teiy different problem* than thoae 
of peace. We know that thi* Tory free- 
dom of eipreaalon, which 1* ana of the great 
oppoitnnltlea of a free people, eonitltate* an 
eqnally potential opportunity for the ene- 
mlea of onr eonnlry and our canae. Thoae 
who abnae freedom of the preaa in order to 
endanger the perpetuity of our Bepublie and 

be punlahed a* traltora to the nation. Wa 
bellaTB that thla la the only way in which 
thia problem can be dealt with aafely. To 
attempt to deSne the atandarda which arery 
right-thinking eltiiBn ought to eatabliah to 
guide hia public aipreaalona and publioa- 
liona, would IutoIto a yaiy great danger to 
thia baalc right of tree cltliena It theae 
raatrletlona of free apeech are not Tolun- 
tarily aaanmed by cltllena we hold that they 
ought to ba Tlgoroualy dealt with at law, 
Tha emergency through which onr nation 
ia paaalng pnti (o a teat our baa ioatltn- 
tlona. II deTolTBB upon thoae who advocate 
frtiedom to demonatrate Ita effeetiTenua In 
Ihl* altnatloD which InTOlTaa the eilateaoe 
of Ihe nation. AbDie of the opportnnitle* 
of freedom will Ineiitably endanger the *a- 
rred right. We nrga on all the daty of mak- 
ing only anch niage of the right of frM 
Bag* a* will promote the ganaral wellnn. 
eedom mnat not ba eontnaed with lieanaa. 
(P. S4S) EiecntlTB Oonnell Inalmcted to 
proleat againat rutin ga of the Poatmaatei 
Oraeral in Bnppreaaing newapapera and other 
pnblicatlona on technical gronnda In deflanee 
of the Conalltntion of the tTnlted State*. 

Oodhnit, X. Jnttls— aSlS, p. 811) In 
addreadng the conTantlon. H. Oodhart. 
former prealding officer of the French Oham- 
ber of PFpntleB and a member of a miaalon 
froi " ' ■" ■ 



lepntlea 
Trench 



yon for the hearty welcome you hare glTen 
ma and for intemptlng your work to re- 
eelve the abort meeaage we bring yon from 
Pranae, from onr men. trom ont aoldlara 
and workera. Wherever they are, in the 
tranchea or in the faetorlea, they bare only 
one aim and one oblecl. to win thla war. 
Theae are tha (honghU ol tha rreneh woA- 
man. They know what you ara doing for 
them now and how yon can help them In the 
future. They know the great effort of yoSr 
orKanliation. showing that yon want jnttiee 
and right for t1- ■- — ' •- •* "■— 



r thla 



city calei 
rted by 1 



r will ba 
-kmen In F 






ot only 



(ibyGoot^Ic 



AUBRICAN FBDKRATION OF I.ABOK 



Indiutilal ProlilBDij Bacaoaa of Wu — 
(1V17, p. too) Ths ladoBtilm] problami srls- 
ing through our nktion'g psTtjaipatioD Id the 
irar and tha ag>noi» In oparallon to pre- 
lerra indTKtiial pe«c« and aalahllih an ad>- 



plorsr, whathar prirate or soTernaauIal. and 
tba emploja, ha* onaMd a oondltlon wUeh 
maka it aaianllal that certain condltlana 
and pilnalplea (hall ba elearli kept In mind 
and K*nerall7 aeeapled. If Inatiaa ia to be 
daD« and lerma of amploTmsnl and eondi- 
tlana of labor equitable to tha amployer and 
•mnlav* aatBhIlnhxil certain broad prlnei- 
Ta detarrainln^ what 



ths wi 
Wtal. 1 



■hoald be lliara a 
] be coniidered apart irom 
• ■■ inj. The eiiatinj 



wate rate In aa eatabtiihineat ahould flra( 
be couaidsred bb to iti unity; yvtt it eatab- 
llahfd aa n reHDlt of Joint conference and 

aniployci, or wai it eatabUahed aa a result 
of the oniployer'a indlTldnal eoneeptlOD of 
vhat vages shoold br paid to tboaa in Ma 
enirlor t To vhat dsgrae did tba pro'ioua 
wane rate compare with tboaa in eatablleh- 
Rieota in (he arma district where wa^ea baTa 

ti'oen the emplojer and the employe I How 
did the wage rate adopted throuKh ioinl 
Bgreemaot In tbe dialrict compare with the 
wage ratea In other diatricta where Joint 
wage aEraement siiatedt In the compoal- 



Dcalder 



and e 



odltic 



aationa of terma' of employment 
ma ol labor, it ta aaaential that 
■epreaentation 



J ehanld ba aqualltr 

betweea (he employ en and 1 
Tn the event that a wafe board or com- 
nilrsloa ia to eonalat of an onaqnal number, 
theo a ciTillan ahould aerte aa the odd man. 
One- half of the remaining nomber of thia 
Ixidy ahoDld be (he direct repreaentatlTea of 
the wage earnera. to be notninaled by or- 
gan I aed Ubor. The right to organiie ia 
eaaentlal to the aolution of problema arlaing 
between employer and employe. Employen 
apply thia nght, but in many inataneea thia 
right bai been denied to wage aamais by 
employ era. All agreementa formulated by 
wage boarda or commlelioua ahould contain 
a clauae announcing that the right to organ- 
iao ia Inalienable and (bat proTendon of the 
eierciae of thia right by the employer or 

theae principlea. The nation 'a intereal 
makea It eaaenttal (hat eooparatiOD tbonld 
eiiat In the Induatriea No aSclant eoopers' 
tioE can eiiit except' through organiiatlon. 

can^be'no good will wMboul reeoimition of 
nintual righta. Therefore, the recognition 
of the employea aa a mun having common 
Intereata ia one of the tnndamentHl prerequi- 
altea to cooperation. There can be no true 
efllclency in production without good will. 



■ccored through the appllcatle 
ciplea of democracy, Theae 



I aatabllthment hafe i 



(bat the employer ahould meet Ihoaa who 
may ba aalected by the worken to repre- 
aent them It i« adTlaabte that pnduotlon 
Btionld not ceaae bacauae of an apparent in- 
JuaHce or oT.ralght contains in M award, 
fpf it la ueceaaary to the uatlon^a protec- 
tion aa well aa to the welfare of the trade 
union moroment that there ahould be no 

Indtiilrial Serrlce aecUan — (1818, p. 88) 
Mmkt mst—Ti^Bnt departmaDta dealing with 
a appointed either rapreaenta- 



rrloe i 



cable. 



the beat intereata of 

thair welfare, fail in the aaaential prin- 
ciplea of democracy for whioh the labor 
mOTamenl eontonda. In addition to the ho- 
nianltarlan labor admin iatratlon, there mnit 
of the *i ewe and demanda of 

ice Bsctiona ought to round' 
out their program by agreemoBt* with or- 
gaoliationa of work era affected and by ae- 
— .,..„ .„ .-.,_._ ^j ji,^,^ organiaa- 



workara by thi 

Ir-da atrial utr, 

their 



na and 



pollciaa 






inatitnt 



He following Indujtrlal 
. . .- bare been organiied: Ord- 
nance BnreeD. Quarteimaater Department, 
Signal Oorpa, Oonatruction DiTiaion. The 
<i-j r> ■— inl haa arranged with aer- 

Hen from the Ordnanoe 
department at well aa from the management 
ataffa of mnnillon prodneara will benelU from 
thiB inatmcdon. Another erldenoa of tha 
humanitarian and enlightened attitude of the 
Oidoanee Department ie General Otdan No. 
13. Thia order, although not baring a man- 
datory effect, oontributea (o the ellmlaatioD 
of the commodity theory of labor. It li 

fabliahed In the June laana of the American 
ederationlat, A Tory aimilar order wai li- 
aued by the Quartermaater'a Department 4* 
Circular No, IS. Id the Quartarmaatar'a 

ariia in the manufacture of azmy clotbiu 
haa been appolnled. The Bhlpplng Boar] 
Emergency Fleet Corporation haa an indua- 
tnal aection which dsalB with the adminla- 
trativa aide of labor problema. Thia aec- 
tion dealt with emergency problema before 
other war labor igencle* were created to 
deal with the area era! field. The board 
Iharafore haa dealt aeparataly with iti prob- 



itional trilnloti tumalnCi employ- 
in b^i, iiiuui mananment, etc. 'nie board 
hai arranged for the training of workera in 
allied tradea who are free to come Into ahip- 
bnildicK work. Thoae who thua far hare 
been trained hare aerred prinolpally aa lo- 
gronpa of other tutralnad 
— '- -- 'he induatry expanded 
Fully appreciatiTe 

. .__. . a muat ba dealt with 

n beinga. the Shipping Board 
he conclualou that labor managera 
with tha abipping employe* in aa 
manner and thereby reduce the 
and tba cauaea of dUeoQtent and 
Under the agreement betwees the 
Union and the Shipping Board. 
t training for man who wlah to 



obvGoo<^le 



HISTCnV. BNCYCLOFBDIA, BBTRRBNCB BOOK 



l>«caiiia ■•unu h>T« twan •itabllahad. Hov- 
evar. thit pUn bu mat with dlSonlt;, u 
ortain ablppiag oompaslfla hiT* nfniad to 
euplar tb«a< meo bt«i aKsr thaj harg baan 
tralnad, allbonsb the mamban of tba 8m- 
oian'i Union haTa aikad that pUaea ba mida 
for ttam. Etbo thoncb loma of Iha 
Haman m»7 h*Ta dlBlaut; In Bndlnr am- 
plajtuant. the Sauoan'i Datou la IooUde to 
the fntDTS whan amnbara of additional isa- 
nan vlll be required to man the boita that 
are being bnllt. The gOTammsut hai gbawa 
lla appraotatleD ot the (onetion el orgaalasd 



War Elik— agi8. 



paaeed Joint reeolntl 



inanred. 8i(Ded far Prei 
Istar-Alllad OonTarenci 
p. BBS) Befarred ' ~ 






Pncnm — (ifilB, 

,. .. tlTB Oonaeil pro- 

gtUB adopted by ■ conferanaa of iabor rep- 
reeeBtkttTM tron Balginm. rranoa, Italy sod 
Qreat Britain, decline: "For Amerlea'a 
vorkan and our whole people, the A. F. of 
L. baa formnUted oertan ftrndamental prln- 



dnlea toi 
aftar tba 



reeonatmetloa both dnrli 
war. Wo IhODid 



, _jt be In - ,- 

Institntlona, eondltloai aod temperamani 
cbaraetarlatlcB of the people of E^e Dnitaa 
Stataa. Vt ahonld not be aaked to adapt 
in ita eBtirotj ■Q)' all-enbraelnE pmcrain In 
tba maUns of whlab va wara nnabla to. 
and did not, take put, and wbieh waa pre- 



g friendly relatio; 

workiiuiiieD of America. Tba aaeratary waa 
Inatrnctad te aend a Baltable reply to the 
redarated Union of the Central BailaB ol 
Fraoce. 

(IBSS. p. 18) Indoried an Intumatlonal 
law propoaad by the (OTemmant of Switiar- 
land refnlatinr the honra of labor for work- 
ing people, female and ohlld labor, factory 
inapeetion and other maaanrea for the amall- 
.~.L._ .( eoadltlona of tba laboran of tba 
Esd OongTMe to anaet lawi along 



. IT) Seeratary ot tbe Parlla- 



SS 









IniltatlDn of Bwlu OoTenunent to dacddi 
Dpoa lotamatlonal labor relatiooi. Deoldad 
International Labor Ooncreii be held In " 
poallioD elty in 1893, but aflerwar* "- 

to IBBS. (p. 3S) loTlted John 

_..u Ti a (p gg) i^(„ „( eongratnla- 
-ih iVpographleal Federation. 
^.•I■u. i>. A.a) Preaident reported little 
.oonragetneat tor an Inlemitlonal fcbor 

Preaident reported that be- 

ntatlon at the Braaieli 

II ijaDOr Oongreaa and mlarepre- 
the eharaetar ol the A. F. of L. 
I refnaad to meet la the D. 8. in 
40) XxaoBtlTe Oonnell tnatmatad 
10 aena iratemal delegate to Bngland and 
oorreipoad with other . conntrlea and reqoaat 
tbem to land repraientatlTea to our eougreaj 

to eonveoe on Labor day. ■- "■- ^-' 

Baken' Intamatioaa! Ooi 



(1B91 
Intemi 



18»B. 









■lone 
World') Fair 



-_ ita entirety 
_ _ . __ frlanda bnt who 
poeltlon to eomprehend tbe 



Brltiih Trade Union OoD' 
seapted InrltallOD to attend 

Jotematlooal Labor Oongreai. 

—a l»t«r abandoned. 
BB. p. IB) HllaD. Italy, Inrited A. F. 
to aend repretentatlra to an intema- 
expoaltion and congreaa In that elty. 
latlonal labor eongreia at Zarioh Toted 
■t in London in isee, <p, afl) InTiled 
Bsmi to come to Amerlea and bold 
eloier unity of effort 



' toiler 



of 






eame to U. S. 



tboaa llnea. 

(188T. p. -., ., -. — - 

meotary Oommltlee of Oraat Brltdn ___ 
tratnlated the detennlnatton ot tba IBSfl 

« It np » 

_ w... luTlted eonrentlon 

aend a ddagata to the Interaalignal Trade 
Unhm avariotlau In Loadon In 188S. (p. 
*ai DMBSd wtoer llrit to nnltB the tabor 
liatlona of Anarloa beforo trying to 
with the workiamnen ol Eorope. (o. 
Uedded p i ee en l friendly relation! 

intpeen lat ■- " 

(1888, p. 



I with 

.. IS) Fratemai greetlaga reeelTed 

._j Bociete Proteaalonall dei OnTrlei 

Heohanlelana of Parla. (p. B4) Preaident 
A. 7 of L. Inatraeted to write Britlah Trade 
Union Oongreaa. 

(1889. p. 14) PreildaDt had written two 
letlera to tbe Intaraational Labor Oongreia 
In Peril, (p. IS) U. a. had not reoaiyed 



— labor qneatlon * 

rentiOD. Tbey were ciToa a letter ot greet- 
iBB to take back wftb them to tbe labor 
imionitti of France. 

(1884, p. 31) 70hn Bnru and DaHd 
Qolmea were tiatemal delegatea IM>m Brlt- 
lab Trade Union Oongieai. Tbe A. F. of L. 
aent two delegatea to the next eongnn. 

(18SB. p. 86} Daallned InTltatian to aend 
dalagata to intamatlonal eongreai of loelal- 
iata, aa it wonld be aa soniliteut to reeog- 
nlie the aoelallat party at tbe repnblioan 
and damoeratifl. 

(ISSS, p. 2S) enggeatloni by A. F.' ot L. 
for a bona Ada Intamatlonal eongreaa were 
■nbmitted to aOlliated nnloni by Britlab 
Trade Union Oongraat. Qeneral correipond- 
aacB waa kept ap with labor morementa of 
the world, (p. 53) Fraternal ttsline h-- 
tween cotintriBB irowtng. aa waa arldeBsed 
by the London Tradea Oonnell iadorilng a 
boyeott lerlod by the A. F. of h. (p. 8G> 
BepreaentatlTea of the Mniee Boelala, Parla. 
addreaaad oonTentlon, 

(1S9T, p. 34) Preaident laid It bad been 
the songtant aim to enltlTate moat friendly 
fraternal relatione between worker* of tho 
world. 

(ISBT, p. IT) Cnaonrarad anltlTatlan of 
fraternal feeling and Intereat in the welfare 
ot the wage earnen ot all oonntriaa. 

(IBBS. pp. 80-118) EiaontlTo offlaera ot 
all atmiated international and national 
nnlona were urged to oorreapond with the 



oBoan of their reapaotlye oratta in Great 
Biitain with the riaw of bringlDg them 
Dloier together tor mntual protaetkin and 
trade benallta. 

(ISSB, p. lee) President waa Initmoted 
t(> invite rapreeeatatiToi ot torrign trade 
nniOBB ■ -.■---' ■— 

(IBC. ,. — , — 
elal eompetlttoa bee 
itandtng armlee ol the great powen i 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



AMERICAN ireDERATIONIOF UBOR 



more niAd in ufreidTS wi 
witli s tIsw 01 oii«bIiie i 
o-ai ■nrpJDi maeUae-audc pi 

tagat ot fr«trieid*l war bctw 



bow. It Ij 



.rch uid merchaa 



tannd iritiflCKtlOB tliat va neM the U 
UtBtl dalacmtM from th« Britiah Tra 



_jlagata« 

UdIod OoDfcreaa and altvnd to tham ■ heart; 
valcoma, W* trait that Iha bondi cow «■- 
tabllahad hatwaan the Torkara at the two 
grckl dlTialona ol the ZniUah-ipuklBf peo- 
ple will Dsvar he hroken, but, od the eon- 
tTarr, will ever be more ■(todbIj aanented 
bf time, aad that efforti will he made is 
the near fatoie to extend thoae bonda, on 
etrletlT praitical linae. nntil they ehall in- 
clude the workori of the world. 

{IBOl, p. 30) We are joatlr pnrad o( 
kaTini Inancnrated the eichance ol fra^- 

. r_. _,... o„ oriaDliod Jallow- 

Irilain and Canada- We 
l< Dot far diatani whan 
lii role ahall be more gencrU, end that as 
a entoome we ahall ase n federation or the 
orld. 



the Intanatlonal labor mOTameat ot the 
world under the aoeplcei of the Interna. 
tlonal aecretariat The delegate lo the 1»1I 
conTeation of the Intemalional Secretariat 
waa Inalmcted to urge the paiaage of the 
reaolntion proridtng (Or Iha ^irmatloo at an 
International Federallan of Labor, the pnr- 
poae beinc for the protection and adTanoe- 
ment ot the rigbti, intereata and Jnitiea of 
the waae workera of all coontriee and the 
ettablitbmenl of international fraten^ty 
and lolidarlty: that il ahall ha the porpoie 
of me labor motamenta of all eonntriM to 
proTOot the workera ot one being Indneed to 
eniigrHte to another dnring perioda of Lndae- 



gat delegatei 
nrorkera o' "■ 



(ItOS, p. HIT) lutractod delegate* to the 
1SO0 oonteatton of the Britiih Trade Colon 
Oongraaa alM> to attend the Inlamatlonal 
Beerelarlit. 

■* — ■"''- manaiacinren 

thrVrad'e nnlon moTamentT Alio Totod to 

t reran t atrlke brsaken going to Genoa, 
laly. to take the plaeei of atrlkera la the 

'"(1^10, p. *B) A- V- of L. delegate lo the 



era (be formation ot an iDtematloni 
rratlOD of Labor, and It «M pi 
rogram (or eonalderation In IB 



Tided that aatoDomy of 



ilaeed on the 

Bll. It pro 

the trade onion 



Juntry_ 

_„_„_, ^ „/ baeFe'ln tart or truth 

and malldoni mlareproMnlatloiii wore aent 
broadeaat Ihrotighoot tba world to the trade 
Dnionliti and other orgaalaed workeri of 
(hfaa oonnlrlaa— eent by thf anem ei (I. W. 
W ) of the American trade nnlon more- 
mant— the anpmiaa to the progreia and ane- 
°e« tor th. P'^J«^^^,^''V"w continent 
mn"e"'our" a(Bllallo''n '" the International 
Secretariat we are kept adTteed 



platlon. (p. 314 



Thi 



, we will : 
iDtematii 

A. r. of I 



icelTo 



I which 



tariat 



Selal c 



r dlapnti 



sntrT ahall be rap. 



other ooontrle*, bnt inaamnch aa the woidd. 
be delegate from the eorporal'a guard that 
compoee* the T. W W. profeaaad to inp- 
port Iha pollelai and program of the Ooa- 
ttdCration Ointeala dn 'narall ot Franoe. 
hia pretaniiona ware iiqiported by the lat- 
ter organiiation. Between than he asd Ita 
dalegatea managed to bring up auMeient dli- 
CGiaTon to conaame the Bnllr* Aral da* of 
the ooBferenee. At the ologa of the debate, 
the I. W. W. aapirsnt to a aeal waa rejects. 
all the Totea being against him aieeptlBg 
■ the Conlid'^ ' " " — ■—'- =- 



Trarail. The f 



The 



'Li 



:..3*l: 



in Gtntrala dn 

I the I. W. W. 

a maaterfnl man- 

nm the A ». of L. 

and other qaeetlona 

„„,._ . „ the conforenoe tend* 

to ehow that the true pooitlon of the A. V. 
at L. in the great labor morement of the 
world !■ becoming better known and appre- 
ciated by the rapreaenUllTe* ot labor In 
Europe. Not only ia the aentlmont for a 
unity among the wage workera ot the dif- 
feieot Bonntrica adTaDcIog bnt reeopltion 
i« being made at the polnta on whlob ooll- 
"orily may beoo. --""' ' "- 



^o" L. '-' 



'me 'of^lab 
tion 'of Labor 



ibor diapnli 



actleal. Among the 
I one Introdnoed by 
lelegata propoaing that 
)f t[\ eonntrlea prarent 
ibla the migration of 
• i-nuntry to anothor Id 



propou- 

__ international redera- 

bronght forward by i 



.^aclty. 
lolIBed 



...» !«... -.V, other for an Intaraa- 

tionil Conneai of Labor, Inlrodnced by 
Prance were aent back to aU the national 
bbdiea lor dlacnaalon. It waa voted thai 
ihB iDternalional fleeretariat conld in ei- 
repllODal caaea Initiate a^ wago mMeoiMl 
whore the nnmber of workera engaged waa 
»o great that tba neeeaaary fundi oould not 
be (nmiahad by ellhor a national orgMJaa- 
tion M en International union IntMwrted. 
The labor mOTemeot ot Amarlea aUndi bet- 
ter with the Secretariat repraientatlTe* of 
the European counlrlea than it did two yeara 



(ibyGoOglc 



HISTORY, BHCVCLOPBDIA, RBPBREHCB BOOK 



■D Anaricui d<Ut*U, 
aqualit)', tus to face 1 
b«rv of th» cOTtfomuM. n mi; 
lake yean lo dlubnia tli* mine 
■ B are aetii ■ - 



aa plainly pnl br 
apflakinff upon an 
Ith tka othar mani- 



ihei 






sir prejudlcaa arafnit onr moTement. aa 
•g vBi it Blpoaad to mlirapTaaentatlon br 
m in Ibii cenntz? vho tbtb IrylnE to dl- 



BipBTiBDCB 



appli- 






a poliolaa. With 

I, it haa b«come elaar to tha rap- 
reaaniaiiTB men ol labor in all eoontrlei 
tbat each conntrj haa ita pecnllar problenu, 
nhteh mnat be worlisd ont by Iti own wnrk- 
era by tlie methoda they deem mi 
cabls and adTantacsona. Tha 
■■WorUngmea of all oonntrlaa, c 
not be earriad into aetoal pra~ 

extant of ilmilarlty of OTganliat 

••dSM. Id tndi nalonlam, the poaalblUtleB 
are promiiln( for Inlernallonality in reaped 
to teeofaltlou of anion msmberiblp, In re- 
fTalnina from bUcklaninii, and in financial 
and •Ihar nppoit tn oaae of (reat gtrikai 
aii4 loekonli. Bot polltieklly, no two conn- 
trisa are on the aame plvie. Thera may ba 
a general aeBtlmaiit faTufnt tba emaneipa- 
tlOD of labor BTerywliere fmn Iti diaqnall- 
flcBtleu, an acreament npos numy polnta Id 
an anal/aia of the Injoatlaai ot lodaty aa 
now OTcaniied. and eren cooudod aaaent aa 
to eait^a pruieiplei or maxima lor gnid- 
aoce in formins the better soalely that ii 
eamiDg, bnt to Bx hard and taat rutaa by 
which the wata earaan In ell eonntriee ere 
lo -work In bnildiag tor the tatnie ia an 
impoaiibilily. The Important thinn for 
—'-■Mn trade nnionlita to sondder, in eon- 
I with the iBtaniatioaal SeeretarUt, 



I well I 



other 



, __i anch aa relate to trade union 

work, u broniht np thrench the mobility 
at Uhor made poiaible by today'i maane of 
ir aa luarceated by the ai- 

, inioni of the diiterent conn- 

tri^i. The peoplaa o( all elviliied eoon- 
triM are eominc lo the rBaliiatioB ttiat in 

tTBBdom and hnmanlty. 



trauaportetlon, c 



>. laS) ThB A. F. of L. dell 
atari at bad baau clTen th 
I by tbe EieeiLliTe Oonndl: 



anti-militarlam 





_ federa- 






temalional Irede union eentere no 


* 'V'*' 


cODlned to tbe aeflretaiiea tbereol; 


t. Thftt 


B»ery meana be taken to prevant tbt 




alien ol atrike braaken from one 




to uiotber, whether a itrike ia ii 


11 acta*] 



Ud improrement of the workara; 7 The 
pcblieat^n of an ofleial monthly joumal 
et bnUetio by the Inlornaliooal Secretariat 
or InteraaClonel Federation of Labor in aoT- 
'-•1 lenfnacea, in which ahall be giren the 
... .. ._^. ... .^^^ country, conditiona 

losialatlon and all o" 



of labo 



'■ffecCinc th 



beld in 



A) BO 



fndor 



a the 

1 plan to Bend 
n of I ha Inter* 



cherHter, (OTemlnc boors — — 

„jnien and men in danoeroaa tradea, and 
tor the sbolitioD or rsatrlotlon of the labor 
of children nnder the afO ot ton: ' 



delegeto to the ISia c _ _ _ _ 

national Secratariil and inTite it to hold Ita 
next MBiion In San Tnnclaco in 1916. The 
BBcretery of the SecrataiUt Tialted Che O. B. 
and wae ciTen eiary aaaletanea to snablB 
him to laam tbe indnitriel eondilioni la 

<1S18, p.'as) Nama of International Sec- 
retariat wu chuwed lo the Intarnational 
Federation of Trade Uniona and Toted to 
meet in San Fraueiico in ISie. 

(IBl*. pp. 50-471) Notice rscBlved In 
temational Faderation of Trade Unioaa 
oonld not bo held in 1616 beeaue of tba 
war. TVantr-two eoDDtriBi comprlaed the 
federation; Oraal Britain, Franca, Balcinm, 
The Hetberianda, Denmark, Sweden, Mar- 
way, T4nland, Gennany, Aimlria, Boaala- 
Heraecoiina, Oroatia-StaTonia, Honfary, 
Sorvia, Bonmania, Switiarland, Italy. Spain. 
UnltBd Statea, New Zealand and Britlah 
South Africa. (p. tin) Begrettod Britleli 
fraternal dslantei eonld not attend. 

(1915, p. GR) SieeatiTe Oonndl report 
iodoned: Aa a reanit of war condition*, tbe 
vork of the International Federation of 
Trada Uniona hai bean ilitually anapended. 
Tba intainatlonal cooBiet diampled tha In- 
tereiti and oocnpationt of peacsfnl clTiUia- 
tioa and hai instltnted a war regime. All 
lite and indnitry here been lorced to read' 
Jnat to war oondltloni. Tho ideala and the 
pnrpoaaa of peaea have been replaced by 
inilltntioni and oreaniiatlona to .larre tbe 
pnrpoae* and fnrtheiuioa of war. Aa the 
war hai ent aennder many ot tha ties that 
honnd nation to nation, *o it haa rendered 
Impoiiible tbe (rataroal relationa exlatlng 
between the national tabor moremente of tha 
belligerent eonntriei. Blnee the haadgnar- 
tara ot the National Federation of Trade 
Union* i* in Berlin, th* capital of a eonn- 
try Tirtnally enrroonded by armed force*, it 
baa been difBcnlt for thl* inttmatlonal or- 

Einiaalion to continue it* inirfc or to keep 
tonch throngh eorren>ond«ie* with the 
trade anion eentan ot other eonntrte*. In 
NoTcmbar ot lfil4 Preeldoit I<*gleD et the 
Intemationol Federation annonnced tbat on- 
der the eonditioni the renlar work ol tbe 
organiiation vonld be diacontinnad and the 
(nnda be niod only for the pnrpoia ot main- 
taining the organiiation, and not for the 
Curpoie of propaganda. Thie waa neceeaary 
1 order to praierre tha nenlrallty of the 
labor orgenlialioni. He alia annonncad that 
tho Preeldant of the Duteh Trade Union 
Ornter wonid be the intermedlarr throngh 



.. For leciala- 

1 of labor of 
* trade*, and 
1 of the labor 
ot~ children nnder the age ot tonrteen in any 
calntnl oeevpalles; 8. Fsi aafely appliancea, 
Military eoBdltloD* of labor, honalng reform 



ronld c 

alao decided that the congreaa of tha Inter- 
national federation which tha Zurich Ooa- 
greei decided thonld ba held at Ban FraD- 



Bai the 

inc and 
diilealt. 



The rigid canaotihip In many 



obvGoo<^le 



PBDEKATION OF LABOR 



a aecnre adtqaua 



It practluUj 1 
and comprehsng 



ulble 

a comprehsnslTe iofor- 
m>iiuii lu uEBBT Hj xBKg \B tCQSh with labor 
eondiclona In tlia Tarlona Mnatrioi mnd to 
disouta U17 commoD IntsrMt. In Febraarr 
a BonlartiUM of lomg Uboi rapreaenUtlTM 
of Tranea and Xnflud ira* luld In txia- 



dOD. 



at Franco diiaTOwi 
th< boldlnc of thia 
Tlnra eipTsuad tbi 



_ tha Brltiab rsderatlon of Trada 

.□d the Gaaledaralloa do TraTail 

" ■ ■ 'oaponaibilil; tor 



any ot tha 

_ . , Tho French trade 

vnlon moTemsnt bad been invited Co par- 
llolpate Id that maatiof. bnl not the Britlah 
aa an OTcanliation, The delesataa trora the 
Frenoh oiisnliatlan vera Inatructed to con- 
far dnrlnf thatr ala; in Jiondon with tba 
Britlah Fadarallon In recard to plana for 
tha tntora of Ihs International Fadaratlon 
of Trade Unlona. Aa a raantt at lone and 
aeriooi confaraneaa, W. A. Appleton and 
L. Jonbaui JointlT vrota to Preaident Oom- 
pera. In tbair latter they aaaarted that, 
vhlla there waa no psraonal anlmoilty 
tomrd the people of Germany, yat that all 
praaeat In the conference agraad 



mid nnllify the 



. It 



;arant country. Thay atltad that it wVa 
iTlona that many yeara nnlt elBpio before 
Brlllab. Balrlan and the Frenen workara 



r^:: 



B intenatioaa 

union moiement, and thay anni 
tha intamatloDal oOeo •honld ba 
leaat for the tlma^ la aona oonn... 
aiatrallty vaa gnanntead by lieatT and 
nhyatoiraphy. America waa aonaidarad ideal 
in all raapeets except that It vaa too vidaly 
Biirantad by diatance. Bwitiartand wa* the 
ouV olhar eonntry that aramad to have all 
deainbla eharaetarlatlea, and Barna waa daa- 
ignatad aa tha moat aatlafaotory looatlon. 
IiiagDinch aa Uaaara. Appleton and -Toahaox 
aturaeiated fnlly the gnvity of the aitna- 
tioD and the desirability of aroldlnK dlamem- 
bmnent of tha Intemallonal trade nnlon 
movement, thay r^qneeted FraaldeRt Rom- 
uvra to preaant IblB matter to Hr. Laglen. 
Thay moat earneitly and emphalloally ai- 
aeiled that their raqaeat waa not due to any 
venosal (aeline againat President Lepen, 
bnt Lecanie of their deep anxiety to main- 
tain the aolldarity ef Die ioteniatlonal trade 
(lompera . . ■.-. 



qaeat. 1 



of L. We propoaed alio that a plan ba 
adoptad wblob, in eaae of iotore ware, woold 
■utomatlcally remove tbr heBd<<Darte[B of 
national federation from a belliger- 
■ ( bafore re- 



the inti 
apandanea 



federation troi 

g war hai loade ratal) 
itremely dlfflonll. Mr. 






LeKlai) 



queallon contd 1 



He talt that 

a Intomational 

under (ha azislliic 



reqneat of tbe Franch and Britlah 
itairiea waa In tba form of a renilar 
motion that waa to ba anbmltted to the mam- 
bera of iha international federation, or 
whether the afflUatad orfantaationa that did 
□ol participate In tba London eonfaranoe 
sbcnld baTa a aeparata eontaTenes, How- 
ever, tn the interim, bafore hla letter waa 
raiaiTad. tbe repreaenUllTea ol the Briliafa 
and Franoh moTemanta iaaned a cirenlar to 
the aailated organ iaatiani preaentlof this 
propoaltlon for nanlraliaation of the oflces 
and aflcOTs of the Intsmatlsaal Federation of 
Trade UcloDa. In the offlcial Joamal of tha 
British Qeneral' Federation at Trade Dnlona 
the ccrreapondeoee which that ofloa had 
betwaan Measra. Appleton, Jenhsiix. Latlen, 
Ondageeat and Oonpsra waa published. 
Leiar. Mr Oadaceest of Holland, upon ra- 
nueit ol Mr. Legien, leaned a oircniar pub- 
llabing a fuller Teralon of tha correspond- 
ence. In the Noiember, 1616, isine <rf the 
AmBrtcan Federation i at, Preaident Oompera 
published the entire correapondeiiee be- 
l-»eon him aa the representati*e ol the A. F. 
of L. and the omeera of the trade union 
mmemanta of olhar oonntriea: and betWMn 
the oOlcera of yarions connlrlee. Thia eor- 
reapondenca ia pnbliahed onder the title, 
"Labor'g Inlanatianal Relation*— Aa a Be- 
anil of the Enropean War. Labor'a Book of 
AU Colore." That GOrraepoBdaBaa sbonld 



— . — meet with general 

.i^v' — ". Ur Appleton in wiiting to Mr. 
Ondageect npon (he tubjaot atated that Mr. 
Laglen did not appreciate tha blttenaaa that 
tha war had engendered in Great Britain 
and Franoa, and that It wonld ba oaelaas to 

EalQ triendly reUtli 

menta ot all oonntrteg and , _. 

(ion (hat wonld in the alighteat degree bitai 



we ooald to main* 
th the labor moya- 



in promoting the beat Inlareats of tbe organ. 
lied labor morament the world orar. We 
have bean able (o bold onrialTaa In raadi. 
naaa to be helptnl at inch a time whan an 
inity for eensttoetlTe work abmll be 



anted ■ 



order 



eonfereore In which tbe wh^i 



may be nnlmpalTed and may be powufnl 
lor the canoe of baman rlgbta and damoe- 
racy. We have bean tary earsfnl to aTold 
anything that might be construed ss nnnan- 
tral or in any way hostile to the iDtaraata 
of any gronp ol workers. In Deoembar. 
leid, Mr. Ondegeest of Hotland wrote a 
circular letter to the Tariona trade nnlon 
national centara preaeotlng the tarrlbis Don. 
ditlona that ealated in Balgllun and the 
want and dire neeaealty that had befallen 
tha Belgian people. Thay had no work and 
no way (o maintain themaeW«. The poll 
of Btanation waa Imminent. Mr. Oodemal 
ask^d In behati of theae Belgian toAsts 
contrlbutlana from the trade nnton more. 
man( at tba other natlona A parsanal rap- 
rekontatWe ot the Belginm people brangfat 



obvGoo<^le 



HISTORY, ENCYCLOPEDIA, KBTBRBNCE BOOK 



■Untlatsd tha Mttamsnti ■Ireidr n 
TbU ftppMl for halp tor ths B«i(lui 
era the I. O. ef Iha A. V. of L. dim 



Jar ooaarau 
ton of Trads 



rau ol tlio International Tod- 



Dnioi 



D cononrrent with Ihla 
MnTfnUon. Tbal vaa to haTa bMa tbe Brat 
maating thia orsanliatlon aTar hald outalde 
of XoTopa. For that rsaaon il waa eipaotcd 
that tUi mooting vonld hafa a tarraaoUnt 
InSaaace and canioqnance in aztandlng the 
aplrlt and ralittonthip of fratamallam, and 
In atranctlimilBK and IneraMins tho II* of 
unlonUm thai blnda tograthor tho workinE 
Mopio of all CDontrlea. jBawovw, IVIC 
Ibda amob conditlona oiiatlnc In tbe aliillied 
wcrld u hsTo nado liwoaalbla th» holdlnf 
of tbii labor eoncreaa hva wUob M mash 
waa axiwctod that wonid bo of Inllnita Talna 
JTi pnnnUDC homan walfara and In aatab- 
liahlBC agoncloc wherabT tho workara could 
aocnre Im tbomialroi (Tor Ineroaalns b«no- 
dta and apinrtonltlaa la dluniaCu Iba 
■nblaet of tha aait coniTOM of tho Intor- 
national Fodaralion of Trada U^ODi, Pros- 
Meat Oonpera baa nrged tipon tha ollean 
of tha labor moTamant of othar sovnirtoi 
that tha ipliit of thB Zorlsh dooUratlon 
abonU ha obaerred and that whan tha oILelal 
nncraai ahall be held after tha doaa of tha 
war. il ahonld ba hald In tha United Btataa, 
and at aome tima appraxlnulelr near tha 
tima of the holding of tha conTaatlon of tha 



flea, bj roaiOD of a diiailroni Sre. flood, 
war, or pottilaDee. thar ahall temporarily ra- 
vert to tba bonorarr praaldant, and aa aoon 
aa tha caaaa which rendered It Impoaalbla 
tor tba preaident to parform tha normal 
dutlea of the office no loncer axial, the fue- 
tlona ol the office of prnldant of tha Inter- 
national Federation of Trada Unloni thai I 

. aatomatleallr retert to (ha regularlj aleetad 

s bean preaident." ExacntlTe Oonnoll «n In- 
■■ ■■-'- Btmcted to adiocata holding of the Int 
cODTention after the war in the U. B. (p 
4fl0) Wa note with extreme regret thai 
tba war hai leoiporaril; intarferad with 
the free aiohange of trateraal delegataa from 
tba Brltiah Trade Dnion Oongreaa, bnt ai' 
preia the bopa that normal condllloni will 
aoon permit (he fraa and nntrammelad aier- 
clte of that fratanial aplrlt which will fln- 
allr band togalhar the wortd'a woTkaia, ra- 
gardleaa of birth «r natlonallt;, In one 
common whole, with ana pnrpoaa, a batter 
— '-' and poUt- 



hcnafre and aAaetlTe aiatam that wljl late- 
guard tha nwiasont rofardJeaa of aar 






all clrlliiad eOBntrlea, and al the Intema- 
lional faderation of Trada CnioD* la of par- 
amoDSt inportaDca in ao far aa the aooQomic 
condition of the workera la oencerned. at all 
limM and under all coadlliona, the ■(abll- 
ItT of onr moTvnant here or elaewhcra 
ahonld not be aabieet to (ha dlatnrhing In- 
flnaaeaa and poealbla deatrnotlon bj acj 






-f great alreaa thara l> 

more and greatar nead of workable machin- 
ery and unhampered oScera to aafognard 



■nd atUt better economic, aoolal 

ieal aiiatODce for ell working 

" ' la Inaitrlcabl; 



bound ap < 



> remit which 



of all I 



(1B16, p. ZSS) Motica wai raoolTad b; 
tba EiaenllTe Connoll that the ipacial eon- 
teranca of tha Intamational Federatlos of 
Trade Unloni achodnled to be held in 
Berne, BwltierUnd, to "conaldar Inaidanta 
that appeared to mean tba breaking op of 
iha organliatian, " bad been canceled, (p. 
25T) Tbil EiacBtiTa Oonncll report waa 
adopted; "Wa onght to call tha attention 
of tha dalagatea (o the action at tha AmoT' 
lean Federation of Labor epproTlDg the 
proDoaal aabmitted by tha Padaration 9an- 
erafa dn TraTalla of Frinea to mora tha 
intamational oflea to Bwitiarland. Tha 
American Federation of Labor than anbmit- 
ted that in tha aTont of war betwaan groapa 



DDtriaa tha 






of which 



1 beat i 



Under the praaeot Uwa of the Trada Union 
Centera and (he International Fedaratltm of 
Trade Uniona, there li bo law Boilbla 
enoogh to meat an emargenOT which might 
ba eaued by an; of (ha toragolng eataa- 
tropbea. The next delagata to tla Oongreaa 
of tha Federated Trade Uniona la hereby 
Inatmeled to offer * motion oraatini an 
hODorarj Preaident who tball perform under 
eiienmelaneea atatad haralnatter all of the 
foBstiou and aaeaaaarr datiee of (he preai- 
dant of the Intamational Paderatlon of 
Trada Ualou, to wit: If tha preaident of 
- . -^ . _.^ — ^^^ ^j ^^^ 

■leroiilnf ud 



are aftllatad with tha Intamational Fador- 
atlon of Trada Uniona tha head^narttaa 
ahonld be automatically nfutrtllaad and (he 
alTalra of (ha International labor mOToment 
praleeted againit tha charge or tha appear- 
ance of partlaanihip. The American bbor 
moiomant baa lafnaad to conaider or to ang 
geat an]' othar Intamational propoaltlon eon. 
earned witb the labor matter* dniing tha 
war. The propoaltlon conaiderad hj the 
Pblladalphia and Ban FraucUco ccnTontioni 
waa to give tba workera an opporlnnltx to 
find a meana for preaentlng the Inunenae 
bsman interaata alfacted bj intematloaal re- 
lation* al the Uiae when, after tba war, 
alep* wore being taken for recooatrnetion 
and for giTisg dirootlon, tone and pnrpoae 
(0 fvtan deralopmant. We have been ap- 
palled br the human laltering, the phTileal 
and mental agonr and tba loaa and waate 
of human lite In lb* Enropaan war and we 
prneitir dealre to preTont tha reonrrence of 
aneb a horror. That pnrpoao cannot ba 



:complUI 
ralatlona 



"intanutionil Federation 
: prerantad troa i 



tha 



ormal fnnetlona of hi* ot- 



dltlOB. There ciiita a Tarna maaa of cna- 
tou known a* Jstamatlonal law and tha ba- 
ginnlnga of Intemational mOTSUtr. Bow' 
ever, there baa been little or no eflNt to 
organia* thla don^n for peace and (or eon- 
BtmotlTa work. Pahlla opinion baa been 
edacaled far in adTanoe of the denlo^Bant 
of agenelee thmngh which It Bait spante- 



t;Goo»:^Ic 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OP LABOR 



Tin important iUnt i> to take itepi In the 
right dliaotion, whan p<m brlnf* ojipar- 
tnnlty. Thii thoQcht haa f- — ' 



mindi of hnmaDltarian 
« TDom hat« banded tonChar ana larmu- 
laled daflnlta profnuna. Tn order tbat the 
waga-varken of Aneriea maj tte raadr to 



tarlosa testatlva annaatlDna and te datar- 
miue npen a daflnile program promoting 
labor'a Inlareati. Tha rarlona propouU far 
tha organiiatlon of international reUtloni 
dlaeloaa that the Beld and iti problem! are 
analDgoHB to thoie of relatione bet«eeii Indi- 
*IduaTi — a domala tbat ia nov aritematlcaU; 
regalated by tha gOTammeotB of tha Tarioni 
atatsi. Some of tha aama prineiplea will ap- 

«1> to the larger domain bat ween nationa. 
r« anbmlt that there onght to be a toIod- 
1. a iaagne (or peace to 
dIfflcoUTee, and to take 
(fort, to dl- 



adjnat diepntes 



lepntes and d 
iiIto in cosa 



Tith highe. 



nallr . 






(ainini 



tenarallr dlge'nued that it It not necaaaarr 
at thia time for Da to oonaider Ita pnrpoaaa 
and Innctiona HowaTer, !t hai beaa gen- 
erally conceded that arbitration bat an ei- 
eerdingly important llald of aerrlee within 
definite Ilmltationa. Arbitration coa bs af- 
fective only in the adjnatment of dlCar- 
accaa, and thui la limited to Jsaliclable 
mattera. We anggeat, therefore, that il ia 
not aoitad to adfoat dlflonltiea that are 
moat likely to threaten paaca between conn- 
trtea, and il oannot deal eonatmctlroly 



aally all civjliied i 
aa the United Slataa and Oanada, perau- 
nenl conrta have been aaUbliahed to adjadi- 
«ate difforencea. To apply thia prlualple to 
world ralatlona would neoaaaltata a perma- 
nent agenoy, to which voold be anbralttad 
all ]atticiabla diffarancaa arlaing between 
(Ignatory nation* and not toaoeptlble of 
other adJsBtment. Would not a peimauent 
world Jndlcial tribunal, eompoaad ol jniiltt 
and thoae familiar with international law, 
with juriadletlon orar Judicial qnaatlona con- 
aamlng mambeTt of the leana. be a nttiag 
agenoy to paitorm thia worki In interna- 
tional. Judicial and jntticiable mattera there 
are a targe nnmber of problema aniceptlbla 
to mediation and admin latralife action. 



] Inl 



a of an entirely 
economic iaanea 
a tha daily life 



In cloaa toaeh with Indaat 
urclal forcaa 

- lal ati 

;ha pei, 

the daitlny o 
-a, needa and 

guDiaalon joiirnaiuta, 'pubiTclttiT 



teianllata, profaaaional i 
faira, wage-oarnart— tboai 
with the heart of the nati 
work, whether aa organ iaai 



rough Ihair 



nta neceaaary for the atillaatlt 
raaonreea. Pun dameol ally, v 
creation of Ibii eommiaaioi 



moeratlitflg the 



sty of Intareata arialng ba- 
:e for tba ornniaation of 
rcaa of dIplomaeyT By 
commiaaion and appoint - 



and file of nation a and their varied Inter- 
aita, tha light ol publicity would be tnmad 
upon aeoiet diplomacy and iti ageott would 
be rendered mora reaponaive to the will of 
the people Old atyle diplomacy here failed. 
The traditional diplomat regarded hia aarr- 
Ice aa an art detached from the crude 
Btmggle for an oiiatenca and waa unmindful 
or ignorant of tha human Interaata Involved 
in maehinatlona of diplomacy. Diplomacy 
mual be made more open, mora honeat, more 
effeotiva U mx otTiUtaiion la not to be 
biougbt Into qiteatlau and Jeopardy. Vs 
anggeal eonalderalion of meana to make 
the purpoae of tha Iieagae (or Faaee alfao- 
tive. WODld not thoae natioaa that band 
tUemaelvea logelher Id a league for paaoa 
noed to agree upon meana for aeeurlag 
compliance with ragulatlona and for the uae 
of (ores agalnat a aignatory nation which 
might go to war or engage In hoatiUtlea 
againat another member of the league with- 
— . >. — ,__ — ■— jitted jt, grlevancea Inthe 



economio and military 

■urtDi o( aignatory nationa oouid be diraot- 
ed agalatt tba offeodlng nation. In order 
to render intemaliDnal law mora tangible 
and batter adapted to the problema with 
which it muBt deal would it not be well to 
provide for conferencea of nationa to meat 
ai definite timea to toirmnlate and codify 
International law? The anggeitlont which 
we Bobmit are to be conaidared aa a gau- 
sral ioaudation for organlaatlon for paaoa 
between nationa. and would help ta.Arert 
minaceaaary wara. We do not deelare tbat 
il would alwliah war — but by mediating the 
canaea of war. war beeomea leaa probable. 
We anbmlt (or eonai deration whethar each 

aeparale agenclea tor compnialon, with. (ha 

aary authority to determine mattara of a 
dlttinctlvely national characterT OollMtlve 
sctioa fay a league of nationa ought not to 
dictate the litoltation or the regolatlon of 
military and naval equipment, but It ean 
properly prevent the ose of aucb lonie lor 
national aggrandliemeut and for aiplolta- 
tion of the small oonntrlea. We deplore 
mllitariam, but the fight againat mlUtarlam 
muat sltlmalely be made by the citiient of 
the difFetent aatioDa. Xetabllahing methoda 
and agenclea which render diaplay of mlll- 
lary nnd naval power no longsr etFactlTe la 
the practical and direct way to aboliah 
rivalry between nationa in standing annloa 
and naval equipment. The way to prevent 
war is to organlta tor peace. .Tlie work- 
ing people of all countriaa - are vitally Id- 
tereated in tha malDtenaoce of world paaoa. 
We feel that In addition to expreaalng onr 



0bvGoO<^lc 



HISTORY. ENCYCLOFEDU, SB7SRENCB I 



dsaira we ouctat lo <:<Aiad«r MnitmctTs 
incnitlona Ws srs Itttvly eanieloiu Ihit 
inttllutioni and rapilatlos* iloo* ua sol 



■uiHeteiit, ThFR4 



I ■tfulri. 



The 



. , -ontiibntad muoh to 

th« will far pemea and jnitlee, and moit do 
llwlr pari In (be daTalopmanl at the acenciea 
b/ whloh their will can be eipraaaad/' (p. 
3B«) Th« EiaenliTs Oooacll was author- 
iacd to continne Iti effort! In behalf ol an 
iBlernatlanal labor conference after tho war, 
with InatTDctioDB to bare the A. F. of L. 
ivraaaatad. ia (bat confereiu*. No one 
fiKL foretell what erentualltj nar ooonr In 
th» war; perfaapa it mar <Dd bofore our 
lOlT conTentiDD. Thwefore, tb« EvacnUre 
Oonnctl ousht to b< In ■ podtlOD to take 
action to eatrr out labor'* pupoaa and to 
protect jta iDtereata. 

(IBIT, p. 59) Report of Eieevtlva Coan- 
cil Indoned: Tbere hai been prarlieallT no 
conatmetiia dcTelapmsDt >iae« the r<pott 
to tho Baltimore Contention on the anhject 
at Intornatlonal peace retationa. A* waa 
reported lo that conTentlon. thara waa, at 
that tine, nnder iwnildaration a mMting ol 
tba International Taderatton of Trade 
Unlona to be held In Beraa, Swllierland. 
aoma t(ua In Daeanber, ISIS. Tba aothoi^ 
liad rapraaantatlTe of the rariooa trade 

naien cai "' — * — ■" "-'- ' 

and tba 
the Tear 






avlTa thU 



to plac 



felt ke. 



I conatantly broadon- 

for fraadom — pooplo 
heir dallj Ufa. Tba 
natea, one of the old- 
il/ their reaponalbilltT 
il of the " ■ 



■inca onr jeclarstlon of freedom in ITTI. 
No claie of citlieni reloleed more deeply In 
the newl; eatabliabed freedom of Boaela and 
fall more keenl; thalr obUgratlon to aaalat 



the Ruaaian i 



oula thvi 



— ■ of the dalacatei 

ti tbia eoaTeation aa wall aa for tba aaalat- 
anea of esmmlttaea daalinf with thia par- 
tlcnlmr anbject, the correapovdenea npon 
Ihla matter, ai welt aa span all other mat- 
tan alaetiof Intematlonal labor ralatiooa, 
ia pabUabed in the MOTember, ISIT, Amer- 
ieaa raderationlat. Tba annonncemeDt of 
the otorthrow el daapotlam In Boaala and 
the aatabllahmant of fOTemmental eontrol 
b; tba people li one of the eneonraginc re- 
■sit* of the terrible Soropean sonHldl. The 
cbaase In Rniala from deapotlam to oppar- 
timllr for freedom orealed a altnatlon that 
waa eitremelr critical. The adTDcatea of 
traedom in Rniila had had little practical 
•nxnleBea and onlj opporttultr for tbeor- 
iaiiiK. Tbe ardeal adTOCaCe* of human free- 
dom were now made reapoaalbla tor putting 

tiee. Since Iba OTarlhraw ol Oiardom oama 
in the midat of tbe Enropean war tba Bna- 
■Un people fonnd themaelvea confronted bj 
two pcantle problem*, either ot wbleb waa 
enoncb to teat tba mettto and abllltr ot 
anr nation wall dlaeipliaed and well 
--"---" '- •-' --•——- The7 



Tbe enforced abdication of the 
•jiar waa followed br a ptOTltlanal cOTem- 
mast, which made the fotlowius declaration 
of principlea aa the baala of an appeal tor 
anpport: "Tba new cabinet will bau <ta 
uolioj on tbe following principlea: 
t ,,._ , ._ j._ ^ p^ 

Of terrarin 
lan oSenae*. 3. 
B ppeaa ; freedom 

.__ , . j« and Btrikea. with the 

•atesikiD of tbaaa Ubertlea to mllitarr of- 
flclala, within the llmlta admitted b/ mill- 
larr r«nlrameiita. S. Abolition ot all ao- 
elaJ, rallflMU and national realrietiona. 4. 
To proceed toTtbwith to tba preparation and 
conTOoatloa of a eonatltullanal aaaemblT. 
baaed on unlTOTil intfrue, wblch will eatab- 
llth a (OTemmeDtal recTme S. The asbatl- 
tutlon of the potloa b; a national mlUtia 
wiih chlefa to be elected uid reaponitbla t* 
the goTernment. 6. Oommnnal electlosa to 
be baaed on nnlTaraal raCraf*. T. Tbe 
troopa which participated in tbe raTBlation- 
arj raoTcment will sM be dliarmed bnt will 
remain tn Patcograd. 8. Wblle malntalalag 
atrlct mllitarr dlaoipllna for troopi on ictlTa 
aerrlec. it la daalrable to abrogate for aol- 
diai* all reatilettwii In tbe enJoTmant of 
Boelal rlgbti aeeordad other oittiena. The 

8Kilalonal goTenunent deslrea to add that 
; hai DO intention to proflt b:r the cifenm- 
stsncei of tbe war to delar the raallaatlon 
of the maaanra* of reform aboTe man- 
liosed." Tbe Ruaaian rcTOlutlon waa. In 
a large degree, the reault of the asplratloaa 
and the eftorla of Ruaala'a workera. It waa. 
ttarrefore, partloularl; fitting that an eiprea- 
lion of the feeling of Amerlca'a workera 
■ '■ " ->DTeTBd to Ihoae in charge of the 



lotloDar 



I the I 






antlona, aa 



had to daTclop methoda i 
eairjlDg on tbe war agal 
Enntpeaa powera and alao to darlae buu h- 
tabliih immediate proTialonal goTcnimeatal 
agenda* and lo develop pamaneat conitltu- 
t&nal iuatitntktn*. All who bad tbe beat 
■ * - ■ ■ art ware kaenlf ap- 

__ Ian people, in tbelr 

_ . tablith freedom and their 

natnral dealra that ererr reatige of doa- 

Btlam within the eountrr ahosld be *bal- 
Mi, might be IT *- —• ■■ — "■ — 



: agenclaa for 

t the central 



r ts achler* tb*a* 



direct coDBtruetiie davalopmenta. the 
ealdent ol the 0nited State* deteralnad 
aead a counniaaloo of apeclal enTora to 
) Ruaaian gOTcmment Tbla oommlaalon 
.a entnuted with tbe reaponaibllity of 
QTeTlng to the people and the rcTOlatlon- 
r geremDient of Rnaala a meaaage of good 
II, hope, encouragement and lapport, and 
erlog aervice and the diperienoe and tbe 
itboda of America (a utabllehlng and 
[Eg free iaatltatlona. The Ruaaian rcTO- 
lonarr goTemment repretent* the will of 
I maaaea ot the BnaiUn people. That the 



obvGoOi^lc 



AlilBRICAM PBDBRATION OP LABOR 



AmericBD eDnuuiuIon ihoold ncclTe th« foll- 
Mt KinfldaiKia and tnut of tha raiolutloD*i7 
Hgulaa tafsiTimenI there ni ippolntad 

Amarleau workers and adTDoktea of hnnun 
fcaadem. la appolsUnx tba sommiaalon. 
preaEdent Wilaon lalaetad, amoag othara, 
Jamaa Dnoean. Fint Vlas-PrHldiBt of Iha 
American Fedaratlon of Labor and Pnaldaal 
«( tbe Oranita Oattera' Intanatlonal Aito- 
clatiDn of Amerloa. Ur. DoneaD waa tbe 
Brat reprneDtatWa ot ornniaad labor arar 
appolDled on a dlplomatlo mlailon ot tba 



_di(ri 



United Btataa. 
tbs'holdini of li ' 



Pram 



ten, amonK which (he moat Important were 
tha continnance of the International Tad- 
erntioB of Trade Unlooa, the publication of 
tbi Weekly Newa Sarrlce ot the Intaraa- 
tlooal Secretariat, and the procram adopted 
br the Leeda Oonterenea. which met in 
Kngland In Jal7. 191H. The Laeda profraia 
waa a declaration fonDolated br rapreasnta- 
tWea of the labor mOTementa of tha allied 
coontrlM. It cantalna propoaala, which it 
waa aasKMted labor on(nt to aeak to hare 
incorparated in tha paaoa treaty that ahall 
be drawn ap at the oloae ol the war. 

(IfilT, p. 460) We hold and deolara 
thai no moTameiit can praperly function, 
recardleat of whether It b« economic, aodal 
or political, In the abaenoa of free apMch, 
free praaa and tha oonatitntional rigfata of 
tho people to axarclae (elf-goTemment, 
After all, democrao; la the Itrat anentlal In 
the llTea of the people* of all nations. No 
moTsment of any natnre can properly fnno- 
lion withont freedom of action and lelf-Eor- 
emment, which are laaeparably asaoeiated 
with d«iWoney. Tha traJa onion movemanl, 
flret In Importance In the economle field, is 
neceaaarily dependant '" " ' - . - 

orcanlc form ot rot 
no real trade anion _ 
nor can there be in an] 
ig burdened with antocraoy. Upon 
fnndamentals raat the anacaiafaT achiaTa- 
menta of hDman rlsbta, frredom and libvty, 
economic aoelal and political Itutloe. We 
declare that liad there been a trade union 
mOTeneat In Bnaala It vonid have bad a 
(tabillilne force and a far-reaahini bnaS- 
eent efToet in the criala now resting ao hesT- 
il< npoc the Rnaalan people. The Baaaian 
people tiafe llTed tor oentntriea In on- "' 
the moat bmtaliaed antocraolea that 
aver diairacad tha page* of history i 
ware denied the rieht of aelf-joremmi 

the rtght to con(T»(at« tf '" 

political pnrpoaaa, "- " 



, .,. y aoonomic o 

I rlffht to attain ai 



1 laok ot eipari 



ra, but a power ratbar to ai- 
ry into ctFect the dsnocrat- 
1 will of the majority of the 



aprinc it waa 



the same appeal la made to the orBanliftJ 
workera of all naliona. The reaolnttan waa 
referred to the labor peace delefatea when 
■elected. 

Labor Waaton to Oraat Britain nnd 
Franc* — (191S. p. 188) The report of th* 
mission to Great Britain and France waa In 
part as followa: 

"The memberi of the misalon began the 
work which lay before them by eontsnins 
with President Oompaia in Washington 
.-A '■•"■.elTlng bla final adyiee. From the 
^--B of the American Pedsmtlon of 
membars of the mite ion pra. 
New York Oity Before saillnc, 
' Oaird mat the delegation at a 
I a repreaentatiTe of the British 
" aboard ah^, the 



beadquar 
Labor the 






■ of the n 



ihlp, the m< 

. ,._ for dally a._ 

aiona at which they discnsaed the ptob- 
lema before them and more thoranghly fa- 
mil Uriied thenualTea with the omdal nc- 
orda of the Amsriean Federation ot Labor 
relaliT* to its war alma and poUclea, and 
the tnggaatlona which they had recelTed 
fram President Oompara. Two ineldenta 
gkTe excltament to the Toyage. The ihip 
paasad throuift an axceptionally asTere 
storm, and on the taat morning was aab- 
tectad to a gnmbarlne attack, tha torpedo 

Easaing abont eight teat from the ablp'i 
D* and bittini th* atam of tha eraiasr, 
which at that tine foimed a part of the 
naral conToy. FortnnateW th* damage done 
-was Inmidant lo sink tba battlad^ and 
two well-placad depth bombs, diacbarged by 
one of the destroyer*. In all probability aaut 
(he ■Dbmarine to the port wBere it pioparly 
belongad. After landing at a port aome- 
wharo la Kngland, the party waa taken to 
a large city to paaa tho night and raat, but a 
Zeppelin raid, the Arst which had yisltsd 
thia elty tor two years, made rest Imp**; 
Bible. Shortly afterwards tha party fonnd 
tbamielTca In London, where the ddafaUoh 
immediately placed thamaalTaa In tonoh with 
the repraaantallTea of tba Qanaral Fsdns- 
tlon of Trade Cniona and th* Britiah Trad* 
Union Oong ~ "' " '~'' "" "■ 



, ._ itrlei for 

Woodrow Wilaon. "■ 
great sallafsetlon I 



Toraatly felt in thoae eoi 



•" praiae and the a 
."*■ tlon and confide 



note tha 

™,. .jaderahip whioh onr Pr«i- 

ident occnploa. WkaraTer the mlasion went 
" '—lai th* aam* ranerona msaawa ot 
and tba same high degrsa of admlra- 
ind confidanea eipreaied. Ko matter 
In what differing induatrial or political eii- 
eles we found onraeli** (bora waa (he arae 
pntouLd admiration for blm. . ISPn^Uo 
meetings ererywhere mention of Praaldmit 
Wilson's name and hla war alms alvaya 
bronrtt iorth a jpontaneous and prolongod 
demon Btratlon. The actions and ntterane** 
ol President WUaon bsTO ImmaaauraWy 
heartened tha people of the oounlrlos ol 
our allies and hare inspired them to a lofty 
and abiding faith in tho trtnmph of democ- 
racy I( 1* to President Wilson that mll- 
llona of our brothers soroas tha *m look 
with confidanea aa the great leader who will 
bring the '"•■l.<l.*^,,P?™.i'^H^ .VJl*^ 



bartarian plane that a 



0bvGoO<^lc 



BNCVCLOPEOIA. SHPBRBNCE BOOK 



■trtklnfly charaeteriisd 

Into tha oonlUct. In on- 

the TsiiBDi iMtloiii of the labor 



of (h« * 



whiah all afTMd in ■apiwrl 
: aat forth by Pralldaol fril- 
-' *■- "-- ' , F. of L, No 



mattsr what othar . 

qUMUoni conearoini the war, all winii 
cua (o^har on thli iMlst. It U Fraaidant 
Wilaon'a lalarpcetatioii of Iha war and hia 
declaration of ita pnipoaaa that hiYa mads 
it in nalltf amoni all paople what Samnel 
Oorapara » gTiphlcallT tarmad it, 'a era- 
aada tor hnman freedam.' Tha laadan of 
tha Brlliah and Traneh Tiada Dnion nove- 
immta.JiaTing been Informed by Pratldent 

-. '"'LZ 

>ng«inBDtI bad ti 

acea at vhioh the tepreaentatiTSa of It 
lOTemenl in the reapectiTe coaolriea won! 
e preaent. The e«nf crenel whieh wei 
aid proTed of tba ulmoit valne, for th( 
BTa the opportunity for an oi change > 
piniona, nawpolnta and policiea whic 



(he anipieea of an Impartiat oomntlttaa,' and 
wOBld a eat repraaantatlTaa from the Can- 
tra) Poven, Aa an eaaential condition, all 
arganlaationa daaiiing to be repraaented 
innild be called npon to atate In praelM 
laima Utrouch a pablle deelaration thair 
eonfonnitj with the prtnelplea of 'no an- 
neiatlDDa or pvnitiTc indemnltiaa, and the 
right of all people* to lelt-detoiinlnation, ' 
and that they were workins with all th^ 
pnver to obtain from theli fOTernnaata tha 

olplea hontatlT and onreaerr 

liana to be dealt with at a 

conference Fnrtharmore. the memorandom 

provided ibat aach eonfeicoDca 'proTida an 

opportnnitj for the delegatea from the re- 

maho a fall and frank atatemant of theii 
preaest poiltioa and fntnra Intenlionc. ud 
lal acreement to arrange 
'~~ ~ apead/ and dem- 



iraa poaaibla for the mlaeton to clearl; and 
ddnftalr Hate tha Bttltnda and poUej of 
the AoerleaB Federalfon of Labor npon tha 
qoaatlos of «ar alma, and what vaa aqnall; 
■a important, flTe the muanc which hmit 
promplad American trad< 
theae policiea which have ■ 
llnenecd the program of t 
the allied natlona. Theae . .. .__ _.__ 

C*Ta oa the inralnable prirllaie of meeting 
(he leader* In Qreat Britain and France and 
receiTing from their line « concrete atate- 
ment of the palielei wblob thcj had adopted, 
and tha reaeoDi and eondltiona npon whleh 
■beee were bleed. In both conntrlee we 
found nothinc but the heartieat approTal of 
the war aima adopted hj the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, coupled with the otl-ra- 
pealed aaaertion that OUT brother* in tha 
aQiad countrici had been greatly heartened 
bx the poiilion wUcb the American trade 
oalon moiemcut had taken. They had 
looked to America for aaaiatanea in formu' 
Uting aomid poUslaa and their eipeeta- 
tione had been teneroniljr fulfllled, Dpoo 
bnt one pa1IC7 vaa there ■ marked dlter- 
gence of opinion, and npon Ihia there hinged 
a qneation of the mo*C rital ioportanaa. The 
Blackpool ConTention of the Britiah Trade 
Union Congreta, in 1917, adopted a ratolu- 
tion which provided for the oalling of a 
conference to conalder peace teme. at which 
■ ■ i workara from all of 



the waning conni 
FobrnaiT, IBlg, 



I tatei 



of Qreat Britain. 

'- Serbia. Beania- 

I Soath Africa 

anee adopted a 



Pranoe, Belpna, Ital;, 
neraegoiine. RoDtnan'- " 
were preaenl. This 

ceited iy thoae preient aa a gnide for the 
worker* in tbe nation* which were repr*' 
amted. One teetion of thl* memorandum 

Sroiided for the calling o< an International 
ongraa* of Labor ind Sociiliat orginiia- 
lloBl for thl -. - - > . .— 



r world peace. 



rs-':; 



■nd in the 
eantarence 



peace.' It wai appuant .. . 
n of onr miaaion thM there was 



— -- -, .._ the 

leaden in both Qreat Brilaln *nd France ae 
lo the iaterpretallon and conatmolion to 
be placed upon the latter portion of tha lon- 
teoce quoted. To aome il meant that the 
delegate* at auch an international eonfar- 
ence wonld adopt reaolutione or formulate 
policiea or programt of a deSnite and all 
embracing character; hj olhen it waa in- 
terpreted to mean that anch a conference 
wonld not be permitted to proceed further 
than an exchange of oplnlona. In fact, one 
leading lignre moat prominently onnnectod 
in Great Biilain with the project of an in- 
laured ni in the moat 



hSTil 



ongreia g 



haTing it take an; action 

* the delegatea. Thi 



way fa 






ment* were made before a Joint a< 

tbe parliamentary commiltae of the Britiah 
Trade Union Oongreaa and the EieentlTe 
OoDiiaittee ot the Labor Party, and were not 
challeaged b; any one preaant. It ia poe- 
aible thet there are leader* In Great Britain 
who are of tbe opinion tbat auoh a conter- 
ecce ahonid adopt a program more or leat 
binding npon the reapectiTe mOTementa, and 
There are a goodly nnmbei- who eiprea* the 
moat Tigorou* opjtoiltion to any conference 
at which repreeentatlTea of the worker* from 



millliry nutchina 

Allied Oonferenei 

orandnm and today giro mpport 

thoQghl thai an internationi ' — 






inference 

further than :_ . 

leader* in thit country ai- 
inion that it wonld be folly 
to hold it nnlaaa binding action wa* taken. 
At tbe eonferencea held in both l 
there were prominent leader* who i 
informed a* that it w*b the Intenl 
make the qaalKlcationa for a aaat in 



nal a 



1 IroiD the C 



■„Goo»^Ic 



AUERICAN FEDB&ATIOH OF LABOR 



to thi 



— — — the board. In th» 

It of a tlB Tots. vheo tht board li lo 
itltntod, (hi dacltion ihall be nlsRad 

"- -'--' -• the Conneil of National 

panon ai ha dibt do*- 

toraadnin ahall In no 

proeadnra 



ntj asrre aa a prec«di . _ _ 

1b (oranunant planti ondar the War or 
Stvj Dapartmenti. The pUnti wbera 
anoh oonitmetloa 1« baing cairiad oo iball 
ba gaomphlHlIj dlitiletad b7 tha board. 
In aaoh dUtriid, tha contraotor* tn wboaa 
plantt anch oonalniDtlan la bains caniad 
on, and tha rapraaeDtatlTai of laoh Intar- 
natlDnal labor orcanliatloaa aa have mam- 
bara angand In anch predaetlon oi eon- 
■tractloD ui anch planta, and aa are (■- 
leeted tor the purpoaa hj tha labor mam- 
bar of tha boud. aball ba called npon. 
ander eondllloni to ba laid down bj it, 
to aCTsa upon a perun or persona who 
ahall sot nnder the dlreotlon of the board 
aa examiner or axaminan In aaeh dialrlot. 
If the board doe* not aaeeead in haTlni 
'aotad, then the board 



haU br a 



ahall I 



■nbjeei 



inlm. 



It 



and h 



>U naa anch i 
I vara In font 



plant on July IB, IBIT, 

tlona aa obtained on aald dalaa in ineh 
planta. Oonaldaration ihall be giwtn b7 
the board to any elrennitancea whaterer 
arialng altar anob warta, honri or oon- 
dlttona were eatabllahad. and vblch may 
»««ai (• call l«r ehancoa Iq watea, hoan 



aehlaiinc ai 



tha United Stalea Shipping Board 
Kmergenej riaat Oorporatlon to report 
promptly to the board any dlipute with 
referenoe to vatea, boora or condltlona 
of labor which ha ii nnabla to adjnji 
iatlataotorlly to the prinelpala eonaerned; 
bnt the board will take eoEnlaance of anoh 
dlapnte whan Information concerning it 
eomaa from any aoorca whataoaTer. Ba- 
ton tha district ofleer aball refer anch 
dfapnta to tha board, he aball eonfar with 
the local apokeaaen or repraaantallToa of 
inah erafta as are inToWed In inoh dU- 
pnle, or with aoeh anthorlsad heada of 
any local labor orfanisatlona intaraited 
therein aa may bo dealtnatad by tha labor 
mantbar of the board, or on thali reqnast 
with tha national head or haaJi of annh 
orgaDiiatlon or orgaDtiatloni 

their dnly anthorlied rapras' , .. 

representatlTei. When It appears to tba 
board that (Deb dispnte can not be so ad- 
Joated, It will promptly aand an eximlaer 
lor aald district to anch plant to bring 
abont mutnally aatlafaotory adJnatmCBt, 
tha tanni of which aball. If Ihey receive 
the apprOTsl of the examiner, be In a ra- 

Srt snbmltted by him to tha board for 
ratidcatlon. If the examiner dcei not 
aneoeed in bringing abont snob adlnat- 
mSDt. ha (hall In his report to tha board 
recommend tenns of adjnatment. The 
board, after dne conalderatlon and sneh 
InTaatlgatlon aa may aeem neeesaary, ahall 
decide the qnaatlaoa at iiane. Aa baats 
standarda with rafarenca to each plant 
where inch canatmctlon ia belnt canned 



or condltloni. The board ihall keep Itaalf 
folly informed aa to the relation between 
liying eoata In the several diitrlcta. and 
their comparison between prograaaiva pa- 
rioda of time. The deelalona of the board 
ahall, nnder propar oouditlDnsi ba retro- 
aetlTB, In wMoh caaa aceonntlng looh as 
may ba proper ahall ba made In acoord- 
anee vlth tha directions of the board. 
The deciilODB of the board will, in so far 
u thia mamoiandnm may be capable of 
h remit, be final and binding 
i; bnt at any time alter ali 
montha have elapsed folIowlaK inch rsti- 
fled agreement or any Bach final deeiilon 
by tha board on any qneation as to wages, 
bonrs or oonditlODs in any plant, laeh 
gnestlon may ba reopened for adjustment 
npon tha reqaest of the majority of the 
craft or crafts at such plant affected by 

The Shipping Bciid entered into an seree- 
ment which wonid enable It to secure the 

amr to oiTer lo ttese workers Indocem^ati 
to remain in their calling, end to bring back 
others who had left the calling, aud to at- 
tract American cltlieni of worth to accept 
aerrlee on board ihipt. A inncient anpply 
of aeamen U IndlspeuBabla te the merchant 
veaaela of onr oonntry. and the Shlpstne 
Board felt that the only bails npon whleh 
they could Tightly expect ineb s inpply wax 
by auDiing fair conditions of work anl 

deritandlng had been reachecl In a eonfer- 

organliatlons on Hay S, ISIT. At a son- 
ference bald In Waahlngton on Angnat tt. 
at whlob were praaent aix rapreaentstlTea of 
the ahlpownara. six tepraaantatlTea of the 
seafaring employ ea, a representative each 
from the Department of Oommeree, the De- 
partment of Labor, and the Shipping Board, 
the fallDwing memorsndnm wss adopted: 
"The repreasnlatlvss of the steamship 
lines and of tha organlied seamen agreed 
with the Shipping Board that aome action 
ought to be taken looking to an laoresae 
in tha nnmbar of seamen in order to fiu*- 
Blah men for the TMaels trading to Sng- 
land and France carrying lappUaa and 
to yat eoDllnue an nnlntermpled coaat- 

, __e Shipping Boar_ 

ths organised seaman tentatively agreed 
to cooperate for tha attainment of tUa 
and in the following manner: Snbitan- 
tially all the steamship lines wIU agree 
to pay the following wagr: Ballon aad 
"-' *"" ^-"- ^ — "-- — ' TS, (SO 



t wstar 



I, |a.'i 



per month; boatiwain*. )T0 per ntonlh: 
earpenlars, ITS par month; overtime pay 
for oargo work GO cents, for ahlp worli 
40 cents pel hanr. Bonna going to the 
war lone BO par eant of the wagea, wajcei 
and bonoa to eontlnne nntll crew arrive 
back In the United Statea; (100 com- 
pensation for loss of effeets caused by 
war conditions. The scale of wages and 
henna for eooki and atewards at praaent 
la fane ba maintained and eontlnued dnr- 
ing tha eontinnanee of this agreement. 
That a certain nnmbar of boys determined 
by tha nnmbar of nan carried a 



•■ployed in addition t 



tbe nsnal i 



obvGoOi^lc 



HISTORY. BNCVCLOPBDU. REFBRSNCE BOOE 



thai ■ munbar ol ordlsuy iMmsii will 
h* emplDTad In proportion to tb« kbls «u- 
BMn euTlsd, takinc ai ta ImtincB a rm- 
■ai DOW earnicB alghl msD m deok will 
earry ilx abla aaamen, two ordlaarr aoa- 
man and two boja. aueli boja aad ordl- 
■UU7 leamen Is haTS ampla opportnoity to 
learn the work nriallj damandad of abla 
■aameiD. That tha rapraaaotatiTaa of the 
onaniaad aouani ahall hare aceata to 
ud ba pennlttad on docka and Tsaaeli 
daring reaaonabla honn. Tha rapreienta- 
Utsa of tho laanea tanlatlTclj afraa to 
join with tbo lUtiowner* in an appeal to 

. — lojad an ihcra to coma 

That tha twniu and 
arlalnf from tba war 



back !• tha 

athar eonditi 

(ball tanninata with tba 

wacaa aat iliali rMnaia _. 

>ke end that wa^ai be atabUtiad 



t tba 



with the t 



> teach I 



aahip I 



■ raliflad 



tha Imi7( and ordlnarr 

Tha nvDOTar' — 

bj tha ornnlai. .. .__ ... 

fwanea. The BlilpplBt Board alao antered 
Into tha following unement with tba Lonc- 



._. ! aaeemen 

J IntanaAmal i 

"ror tba adjnatmant 

■acaa. honn and eondiliona of labor in 
tha loadlnf and nnloadins of Taaaala. 
than ahall bo mated a Katloaal Adinat- 
Bont Oommlaaia^ located in Waahincton, 
D, O^ eomf^laoa aa followa: Ona Bam- 
bar Dooinaled by tba Shipplnf board; 
•■a Dontnatad br tba SaeraUrj of War; 

a aominatad by tba iBtaraatloiuI Zjong- 




fMwa, ami ta act oolj i 



• dhlndac 



f tba Oanefl at 



NatSanal Pa*e»i. to raw aaa a l earrlmn an- 
offad In uo aa fb a tnOa. and ta ad 0^7 
tn eaaaa tsralTlBt aaaatwlaa tradot Tha 



In eaaaa IsralTlDf aaaatwlaa tr 
aden aeala of wa^aa, hoan and 



iroTldad an acraamant can not be raaehed 



hjth 



than 



"IV 



and tha union. 4>>Dald«ra- 
lid data 



now on ahore mar ba Indoead 



atanaaa. If waj, arUing 

of Anfut 1, or after tba „ _ 

new aoale of wacea, boon and eondltiona, 
which mar raiiiilra jiartlenlar adTaniwi In 
wasaa or ebaniaa In other itindarda. In 
all caaaa work ihall continne nnintarrapt- 
edir pendlnf tha tetion of any local eom- 
mlialon or tba daeialon of the Natlooal 
Adjutmant CommiaBlon. All adjatlmanlt 
of waiea, bonri and condltlona made br 
the National Commlaaion ahall be biodiac 
00 all partlee. Tba commiHlon (ball 
adopt rnlai ot procednre and ahall eon- 
atme tbo meaning ot Ible agreement and 
any mling made br it Iberennder." 
Vor roan the leather workeri have bean 
itmgglJDg to aecnre Jut tarma and eondi- 

lona on eontract work lor the gOT ' 

The following agreemer' ~'- 



1 the 
1917; 



I tared Into 
...a and am- 
laathar goo da 



Clorea and amplorera i 
iduatri*-, Septemba- 2 , 

"1. Thara ahall be craawu ■ nBbiuuBi 
Hamwa and Saddlerr Adjnatment Com- 
miaaloa baralnattar refnrad to aa ''the 
cominlBaion/' eompoaad of foai^ mamban 
o( which two memiMn (hall be appointed 
br tha Seetetarr of War to repraaent the 
pnbllo; ona mambar by the manafaetnren 
algnatorr haralo. and ent member br thi- 
United Laathar Worken' International 
Union One of the membara of ChU com- 
mlaaion appointed by tba aecretarr of 
War abaU ba deilgnatad br Wm aa ahalr- 
man Each member Inelndiag the chair- 
man ahall be entitled to ona *ota^ and a 
maioritr «ote ihall fOTorn in all eaaea. 
S. Tha eommiaalon ahall adjnat all dlf- 
faraneaa now ailating or that may hare- 
after arlaa between tba contractor! and 
amplaraa engaged In tba prodnetlon of 
artieiaa ander agraamant to which the 
UnitM StatM la a party, twilad^g 
wagw, hoon and coodttira* of labor. Tha 
eommlarion may adopt nlaa. ragnlatlona 
aad BOthoda of procadara In ordar to 
carry tbla agra—ent inta eCaet aad all 
daciaiona or Bd]a*tmenta made by B 
ahall ba binding opon and eoapllad wttb 
by tha contradora atgnslorr bardo. who 
bare csntncta with tbe United Stalaa, and 
alao by the operatlTea. mnbara ol tha 
United Leather Workera, Intarsatlonal 
Ualra rapraaoBtad in tha eucntion ot,^ 
■gnaMBt by tbrtr i™W«"- ■■ /^ 
aaja—iinl aball bo in tall forea and af- 
fect (or thadunthM of tha praaant war. 
4. Tha paitlaa harata amerally agna 
that doing tha war there (hall ba aa is- 
taaTwpttan of work nnan wUeb Ihay ara 
angacad in tba eariybt an' ' ' 
(o wheh tha Unhad Stalaa 
In tha event that any ehaaaaa 
aada ar approrad by 



paatr. ». 




ovGoo»:^Ic 



AUERICAN FBDBRATION OF LABOR 



> comUtDttd bnl 



18 pruel] 



euTTinK oat work nndsr '■ eoDtrxit 
whiak thB United Stitei U ■ putj Ihi 
rvorira (h* uma Tmtm of compaiumtion 
th* muabsn of th« United Leathor War 
«T(' IntamMloiul UdIob." 
Then vuioo* ifTMDant 
■ bulnnlBK ol tba dm«iu. 
Tclitiani b«t<ra«B worken anc*!*! 
vkT work and tha fOTenuuant. ThaM re- 
maiua jtm tha bioad flatd at the pradnelion 
of ■nppllas aad miuiltloDa. A^raamanla fof 
djnatmant ol labor rtlatiooa upon thU 
T work mnst ho baiad upon tha 
.inelplea amboditd In tha apeamsnta 
■iiiBur conaaaimattd accepting aa batio 
itandarda anlOD oonditiona of honra and 
work alrBadj aatabllihad. toeathar with pro- 
tialoni for maatlns hichar waga* uacaaaarj 
to mMt Incraaalng coata of Urine. It la onr 
hopa that airMmanla Bonrlni thla Import- 
ant nnaral flald will aoon ba ontarsd into 
bj tha fOTemnant and tha organiialloDa ol 
tha workara aeneamed. (p. si.) In accord 
with tha poliej' adopted by tha Baltimore 
OonTentlon that wa^eaman ihonld hava 
repraientBtiTea on all ROTemmant boarda, 
eoBunltteaa, and asmielaB daaling with mat- 
terri whiob ooncem wB(e-«arnera an effort 
haa bean made bj tha arganlnd labor more- 
mant t* tmnm propo rapraaantaUon — 
agenalf ' — ' '■* '-*— — — ^ i 



I dafanaa work. Bap- 



of the atata aod boa! .. 

Ing with Ibe national eevncll. One of the 
lint war meaaniae which Tilallr eoucem 
wac«-aarnara waa the eelcctlTe oonaerlptlon 
act. To aaa that Ihia law waa admlnlatered 
without diicriminatlon and prajndice waa at 
Tital eonearn to thorn. The Piaaident o< 
the A. r. of L. praianted to the War Da- 
parbnenl that lepreaantatlTei of waia-eam- 
an ataonld be appointed on the IMatrtet Ex- 
emption BOarda which had appellate Jnila- 
dletloB orer all exannpUon oaaaa and dlreel 
Jmiidlotlan orar Indbatrlal oaaaa. Thaaa 
IHatriat Boarda ware to conalat ot S poraona. 
FiaaldeDt Gompara waa lakad to inbmlt tba 
name of one waKe-eamar for membeiahtp 
apon each board. RepreiantatlTo labor 
nan in each (lata were aaked to aand namaa 
which were aabmltled to the War Depart- 
ment. Uoon prarticallr evrrr lUatrlot Ki- 
emplion Board tbera Ii a repraaentatlTo of 
wate-earnora. trcm time to tlma thara 
hare been eona; 



oooperat- 



1 deal I 






r thla 1 






eiea deuli 



ropreaantatioB, Than 
on tha moit Importan 

Vaval Holld>r — (ISIB. P- 8SB) Indoiaed 
anggeetion of Britlah govamment that alt 
poweta eoMr naral eonatmetiou (or a apa- 
elflc period, thersb/ putting a eheok on mad 
rival^ in iDaraaalng national armament. 
Urged the labor mOTemanI of Gexmany and 
the Garman goTemment for faTOrable con- 
'— anif aetlon, alao to orge tko U. a. to 



ling with 



mant (or Intemathnial paaea and disarm- 

(1014. pp. «B-4T1} Aa iiutnoted. tha 
proeldBiit of the A. F. of L. wrete tha prea- 
Idant ol the International Federation of 
Ttade Unlona adrlalng him of the eetlon on 
a "naTal holidar" and reqaiatlni that it 
b« forwarded lo tba rarlooa afllllated na- 



of Oeni , , 

Duion ba would not ba allowed to forward 
•oeh a docnmaot to tha offeeri ot the na- 
tional trade anion oenten ot the different 
eonntriea. He ataled that In Oermanr tha 
dUfaraaee between political and economla 
orfanlntiana waa eaiafnllj diatlngnJahed, 
and that diicnaalon of the A. T. of L. rea- 
ointion wonld entail eanaeqnanoea limiting 
their actiTltloa. He alio eaid It wonid be 
tncipadiant to oircnlate the manlfetto 
through the madlom of the Internatloca] fed- 
arallon. Howeier, the International offloe 
wai hclptol in haling the maniteito trana- 
lated Into aetarml different langnagea and 
forwarded to A. F. of L, headqnarteri. The 
trinalatlosi were aent out from tha A. T. 
of L. headqnartari with tha exhortation that 
tha Katlonal Oentara take action ilmllar to 
tha deelaratloa of the BeaUle OonTentlon 
Bepllaa to the eommoDieatlon were receWed 
from Trance, Denmark, Qreat Britain. Ani- 
tria, Sweden, HoUand. South Africa, ana 
Switaorland. Tha Federation of Soath 
Africa did not andorae the iMoluticn. Tha 
lal labor moTamonti c 



■timalatiog with their own i 
publie aentlment that will not tolerate waate 
ot lite, and br catabliahlDE International re- 
btiona, nndw^andlng and ^enolea that 
will conatltnte an Inanpemble barrier to 
polieiea ot force and deatmotion. With hu- 
manliBtion, education, cultivation , tha ea- 
tabllahment of the rule ot reaaon, oocaaiona 
for wan and wan themielTei will oeaia. 
Tb» working people, the maaiea ot the 
world'a population, can and wara If ther bnt 
bare the independonee to think and to cire 
Ibeli cenTlellona raalltr br daring to do. 



■nliation 

1 haa m 

ftndlng It naeeuirr to dea 

Indifldnala eepantelr. the gOTomment baa 
had the adTantage ot maehinerr that either 
dlieetl7 or Indirectly extendi to workara of 
aTorr trade and eelllnf. The gOTcmmant 
haa entered Into contraeta and agreementa 
with labor orgaDliatloni aa the reiponalble 
repreaantatlTea ot workeri and haa la two 
important doolarallona raeogntaed the right 
of workers to belong to tha orgaulaatiou of 
their trade. The Direotor' Oaneial ot Bail- 
Toada iieued on Febraary 31, 191B. Order 
No 8. which contained the following eeo' 
tlon; "So dlaerimlnaUon wfU bO made In 
the emploTmanl, tttentlon or eoadltton ol 
employment of employee beeanao Of mem- 
berahlp or oon-memberihip In labor organ- 
laationa." Thla order haa made it poeilbia 
for the anployee ot tba great traaiportallon 
aganolH of tha country to unite for mutual 
baneSt and tor the battar adTanoamant of 

Faaea, BttamatlOIMl — [1B87, p. 18) A 
member ot the Britlah FariiameDt addreaiad 
the aouTontlan. laying M out ot every $S 

Said Id taxea In Oreat Britain ware tor war 
abta and urged the A. T. of L. to naa It* 
tnflnanoe with Oongreai to trami 
tration treaty between the tw 



• Ea^tih 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



mSTORY. BNCYCIAPBDU, SBFBRBNCS BOOE 



lOS 



intftnutlc 



natlOBa. (p. SI) DMltred foi 
— . — ibI ■rbltnUon. 

.1S0T. pp. B4-4T) EiMBtirs Oonnell In 
■tnotad to liiTeatls>l« offorli of Qrut 
BritalB to mccto ui ubitntlon trtatj pnt 
▼idiu toi utndKlon »1 allofod tMmitn 
"polTUoal mod irtharwiis." (p. M) Drno 
U. B. Banrnto to rafoet trutr of vuioKstloa 
witk Hswallan Iibuidi boeiu* It would bt 
tantuiioBiil to . the kdmlulon of a ila*>. 
■tit*, tha TiprMMiMttlTO of whlah would 
work and TOtO for the uilavaBianl of labor 
Sanarallr. 

(18M. p. le) iDtaroatiODal alllancM 
are brokca, traatlia ar« -oftao trampled na- 
dar foot IhiWDKb aordld or ambitloiu 
■ativac; but If Ina workara of oar oavntrT, 
aa wall aa tho workan at (ka elTlIlied 
world, would or^aalio in tho trado viiloiik 
and will It ao, » power arolTod ont of the 
bimln of the aannlni or aTarielona can In- 
volTo aa in liloadr atrifo- 

(1900. p. 118) W* ar« vnoh cTattOod to 
•aa BO nanj arldonoM of tba finrth of In- 
tamatlonal aoUdartt? and oaanaaa of pupoaa 
of the lahor aoronaat of tba wnid, mi 
(Ml aaaarad tkat, with the crowtk of trade 
nalanlam in all eonntilaa and anonr all 
racea. ths workara will be la» and laaa In- 
~ aih othar in tha Interact af 




o( tha olTlUwd 

»f trade „., 

of tha IdontltT of 



I aal—deJ. We _. 

caiaouBBaMa •( (be Intarantlonal Oonrt •( 
ArMttatian at Tto Hafna. Mar we not an- 
leitain the liepe that ila baalcn *-* — 
Biaj be art«nJe< and auke for 
paaea? We tbmcb1>* ""' "- 



Intaraatlonal oon- 

brinf abont a craat- 

lentltT of the ^tar- 

laat IntoTsatlonal Hlnan' 

-Tn'a Concraaa, and tba 

inaai, and othera, have 

OBTS alnadr had, a 

The flnanolal aid of 

our anthruilto minora 

r Ainarlcan 

, - Uh h" 

that aid which la now b . 

iItbo b7 the OicaTmakBrB of onr eonnlty to 
their itrikinr^ fellow erattiimfln In Xa^and, 



. ...A Bpirit and 
._, ._ __ ierhiiDd BiBoac Ine work- 
on of tha world. BepraacntatlTai of onr 
KTBmaent haTo nasottatad traatlta with 
• rapreaentBtltaa of BBTeral Enmpean 
Ci^anunenla, hj the terma of which dli- 
pntaa, whleh oan not ha BBttlad b* dlplo- 
maer- inar ba datarmined br arbitrBllon 
nihar than tba arbttraDiaBl of the awcrd. 
Wo ball wltb koan sraliacatlon thia forward 
alap of bananil;, and wb ahall cItb to tha 



VedaratlOTi of Iiabor Ban aiert and e 
flnsoee tt can wield, (p. IS^) ~ ' 
priselple of arUtradon batwean naiiena ana 
refaned propoaad treattaa with rrane^ Ger- 
many, £nv1and, Ifaxlee and othar powera to 
the XXBcntiTe Conneil tor conaidantloB and 
■Dpport If fsuia iatiifaetory. 

(IVOS, pp. 20-18B] Mmj wa not look 
forward to tha time, have wa not the rlcht 
to hopat that all othar meua taibnft the 
ware-aamBs of tha wuld will ba ae thoi^ 
OVflilr iTrfawliad. and will nndantand their 
iDtaraata and their rlahta n wall, that ther 
win rafnaa to par^T IhrmaalTaa to be ai^ 
id agalnat (Mr brother wvrknan of an- 

maeUnaUana a 

teat or c. 








aataUU 



in lia a* pawaafal to men of O 

I iatamatlMul peaea uant to t_ 

redtratlen of Labor aaeoW the a;_. 

ind paaaBM fn HawaU, amt amed 

I tetamBSan to fro* OAa. Tha 

- -rasn a>4 0««ny mat^tmOr 

• tfea praraatiM a( the r itm tf f 



oyGoQt^Ie 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 



thTMtsDBd boitilftlei bMween the [woplea ol 
tbaii npwtln eooiitrie*. The Interchsnce 
of bitantil dsle^tH between tha orcmniied 
labor maTcment of Tarlou conntriai, raprs- 
■■Dlinx >• thsjr do the unbiiiadon from and 
to the parllunente of labor, the manjr other 
meaoe emplojed to eld sod eBcoorac* tha 
wan-aamen at tho vorld, ell h*Te tended 
■nd ere teadioc towd tha better ondar- 
■tending ao eaeentisl to Intaniatlonal peeea 
end hiunaB progreit. 

(IBOB, p. 208) A. 7. of L. oell* on 
UBloni to Inanire of their ooncri 
ther bava Joined the erbitTation 
Ooncreai and will do all in tbair 
■ecnre the ipproTal of oar «T 
the leaommendatlona of the lute 
urjr nnlon resardini the 8e«ind uagna 
Conferenee: A fenaral arbitretion traatr; 
Immnnitr of prlTate prapaTtr at aee In time 
ot war; proportional limitation ol anna- 
mental a ataled World Ateemblri Impartial 
iDTeitlfattoD and report to the woiid of 
cenaea of war between two nationa twfore 
hoatUltiee can ba daelared. Alio that (he 
Pieeldant of the U, 8. be reipeetfnllT le- 
queated to nae hla infloeDve tor the aceapt- 

(ISOT. pp. 2«-a06) Thinking and lib- 
ert7-loTlng and peace-loTlns men the world 
oiei haTe been keenly and peinfollr diaap- 
solnled It the meager reanlti of tha COD- 
ference at The Eagne in the intareata of in- 
tematloaal peaoe. Uenklnd had a right to 
eipeet lomeithing ot a mora tangible ohar- 
aeter tending toward the abolition of inter- 
national slaaghter. The toUen tba world 
DTer are primaril7 Inlereated la alerting in- 
tarnationa^ BOnfllel. for Iher form the meai 
of men whi) fall is battle or who bear the 
bordena whish war anlaila. International 
peeoe it nanally diatnrbed b7 thoae having a 
aordid pnrpoae. The nplUttlng work of 
progreai and ciTlliiatlon li Intermpted and 
retarded when international peaea la dla- 
lurbed. liOng rerloda elapie after a war 
betere the eonatmetlTe work In the iater- 
eitt of haminltjr end clTiliiation aan be 
reanmed. Deiplte the fellnra of the oon- 
greee to fniail the eipectationi ot the peaee 
and hnmanitr-loviDg men of the world, the 
duty dOTDWea spon the organlied labor 

on an edneational prap«»nda that ahall 

kind. Labor will atrlye to peranade the 
gcTemmenta of the world to establish nnl- 



oontribnla mora than all else to the »- 
thronamont ot nniveraal peaee among the 
peoplaa ol the nallone of the earth. 

(l»Oe. pp. 11-31T) The eplrit of inter- 
national emity and nnlTaraal peaoe is u 
aeeompliiliment toward which the hearts of 
bnmanttarians Team. There are none who 
biTs so potent an interest snd wlio are 
more assldnonsly deroting their efforta to- 
ward Its lehleTement than are the men of ^ 
labor of all ooantrlea. The eonatant eier- 
eiae ot onr loSuenFe to avoid ware will 

tham if the Intelligent, aemeet efforts 

of the tollen are eoneentreted tbe alTlliied 
The Interchange of fraternal 

the world haa 1i . 

to a better nndentan 
of ell toward the com 
brotherhood. 



beat eoDceptloD of homen Ufa tbe 
union morement tram Ita lucaptloa haa neen 
opposed to war. and the A. 7, of L. emphat- 
icallT reaOrme its declamlions for tha sat- 
tlement of ell intamationBl dilTeTenee by 
arbitration. 

(IBIB, pp. sa-saa) Perhaps nothing 
tends to remoTe diasenalona mora than Jo 

a^mpathetle Dnderataod— . 

of ioteresta. The worklngmen ot all eonn 



nGJ.*of''o 

itnggle. Whateter of progress ther have 
made. whateTer of advantage they have 
gilnad, whateTer of indlTldnal freedom they 
have won — have all been the reaalt of bard, 
pereiatent endsevor again at wrong, opprea- 
aion, and powerful intareata. They know 
that the dead weight of tha woild'i bnrdani 
both In indiutry and npon the battleflald 
have aver fallen npon the loilari, tha bnr- 
den-bearera of the world. Thay know that 
too often wars hsve been entered upon 
Ilgbtly for the aggrandlaemeot of apecial In* 
(areata rather than lor iuatiee end hunai- 
ily. It !b not lack ot love of conntry which 
prompts tbe toilers to proteat againat Inter- 
national fratricide, they love their father- 
land, home and jnallce, bnt thay are nn- 
willing to be exploited or killed for tbe pre- 






will I 



D their handa 



again! 



-t their 



Intel 



tlonal wsr, and that 

(bey will not haaitale to eiett it. We are 
flrmly convlBoed that if a growing tendency 
toward international fraternity among the 
workera of all countriaa is manifeated Vhr 
more general recognition of tbe identity of 
Interests of tbe toilers is Qstsbllahed the 
world over: the more general mntaal ae- 
ceptanoe ot each olhar'a nnlon traveliDK 
csids aa e passport in the internstionsl 
trade nnlona ot all eounirlea la extended; 
the iutarehsnge ot fraternal delegates, the 
ambaaaadora of good will at the conven- 
1 congrasaea of nrganiied 1 



nntinnad 



set I eel methoda 



workera that thay 



lema, and has facilltal. 


d the eiecotlon 


system of the in'temat! 


^conatantly^g^. 






T caVda'^U "ano 


Inflnence that la qnietly 


snd snroly crea 




the workera of 


Ian da. The convanlion 


of 1905 gave 




with the inlsi 


tlonal and national office 


re of this and o 


counlriea wilt regard to 


eatabllshing Ih. 


temational eichaage of 





0bvGoO<^lc 



HISTORV. SNCTCLOPBDIA, RBFERENCB BOOK 



pniDota sordlkl r*l*tioo> betwMs the loiui- 
Mm polltieallT, lad will (Its (DbtlaDM to 
lh« eoBcapt dI fntmitj. In ucord with 
tUt ooDTlBtiini. labor orcknliatloni the 
world OTiT haTfl eoiniiilttxl themaolTM to 
Ik* foUej of Inttnutianal pease— ^us 
witk lUBor and Initlee In lotnuatlonal pol- 
itfa ai well ai l> btdutiT. With tho pror- 
TOM «f stTUiutlon, the eoDMntntlon ot io- 
d«ti7 and rommaree aboat itmI Qttlanal 
— • — — -■ "— datelopment of world mai- 



arlea no lontar diterminc the aeope or the 
orianUatloB of eoonorale Intereati. PoUt- 
ieal enitama which develop oat of and re- 
flect Honomle eondftlou, haTi manUflitad 
the luna tendeBcr. All national, eoonomlo, 
and polltleal iimei are Infected with world 
Intereat. It ia gapecUlly Bttlnf, than, that 
oTKanliad labor haartllj andorte the efforta 
of (he rapreemtatlTea of our oopntrf In an- 
deaToiiog to leenrs worldwide eo-oparstlon 
bt * mavemaiit tor IntviiBtioaal paeee. Soch 
a noTement narke n epochal deralopmant 
ia the woitd'a eoltore, ■ widanlnf of nea*i 



noea and hanaBltarlan Inatlneta, with 

which the AmericBD Federation of Labor 
Waa eret bean Id moat hearty aoeord and hM 
done meh to pranota. TUa hlalorr of sir- 
niiation and proma* la the hlatorr of the 
aabatltnUon of law and orderly pRwednre 
far Tjolanea and war, llodam Uw li nc 
tlsBBl In character. The State Isatltnted 
nnlatlon* and maehlniirT br whlah th* 
ri^ta of (he people ara leenrad and aafe- 
fnarded. Dnrlnc thU period of national da- 
Telopmaat, tha l0T*ltr, the patrlotiam, and 
the lore of tha people wara eeuteied span 
■atloSBl InetltBtiona. When the national 
law and ■OTammeut bad reached a point 
which iDisred peace and order within the 
■lata, the thootbta and Idealt of man wld- 
eaed to larfer aipaeta and noblar 
—BOW haaiaBltr 1* plaeed abore anr tutlon. 
There hai darelopad that vUeh haa been 
tailed the tnUrnafloBal nind, and Mandai^a 
tl iBtamattonal moralltT are belac trolved. 
a babll ^ mind Cor wbleh the OhaaoeUor of 
^■Und haa ao aptly oaed tb* word Bltt- 
ilrhhalt. The hUtory of the •>—"""——' 
of International Inetltntloni tor ■ 



Hee and peace between B 



r ctrlfe and anc 



natloni will, like do- 

_ __ of dmilar Inatltntloni within a 
BBtlon. be tha Witory of C --— ^■■- 
of law and orderly ptoeednn. 
war. How qnlchly and nraly i.q.» •.».»- 
Honary daralopBent will take place will de- 

GBd apOB lb* deralopmant of the aplrlt of 
manlty between natloni and the aicend- 
nsy of Blltllehkeit. Aa haa baas moat 
tenly aaid: Tha mattera In dUpntc betwafn 
natlona are nothinc, the Fplrit which doali 
with thorn la ererythlBt," Tha orcanlied 
labor morement baa been a mJchty faetor in 
creattBS and atlmnlatlsi tha iplUt of hn- 
man aympathy and nnaeritandinc between 
natlona. which li the' baali for mntnal rwd 
wflC and li now ready to andorte and aid 
erery moTonient for International Jnatloa and 
oiderly adjtutment of problama and dUBcnl- 
tlea The fnture eaami to aianre aome 
world tadwatlen that abaU reallie oni Ideal* 
and protect an huaanltr. 



tnpeadotu c 
ilona tha r 



Declaration 
nflict la 



iklDl 
rorlS 



roe and interchance have bean diampted. 
Enrope Ttlaea plaeed npon the Intaraiti 
id pnrpoiai of hnman aotlTlty have been 

A «.* — ... (^^, thonght and 

centered npon the 

., .-.-Ideation of b 

. coanted ot inSnita 

. un Hiu VI progrcaa, darelopmant, and work 
wai that each indlrtdnal mirbt have Ute 
mora abundantly. IndefatliBble mlnda have 
forced nndaratandlni of tha unknown that 
human life might be protected and eon- 
■erred, and tbit all the hreec and reaonrca* 
'* **" — ilrerec might be put under the eon- 
ba Till ol man Hearta that ware 
ih lore and noderatandlng at tha 
t end aa,.<r«tlonii that Ha In aiary 
bi ',0 hrln^ beauty and Joy Into 
r all. Over all the world 
_- -. ._- _._ of that treat Ideal— the 
fallowablp of men. Bat tince tbe oataclyam 
that broasht war betwaan natlona, tlL tha 
aklll, the Inrentlona, the knowladca of cir- 
Illiatlon bare been perrattad to pnrpoiea of 



ursed. Before thi 

effort of olTllIiatlon 

derelopmant and the glorlflcatlou of hi 
life. One Ufa wi" ' -•■-'■ 



Irol of II 



tbe ooBunon life o 



daetrnetion of b 

tha prodnctt of 



a life and daTaatatlon of 



pUdtly the command of tha general. They 
are tarnU for tha moet perfect (una and 
deatmsUTa ammunition buuan minda hare 
Inrented. Tbinga are rained for their Ilte- 
deatroylng power. Gnna are worth mora 
"■ na ralna of military petition la 



lately aaerUsed to enda of war. Tet tbli 
war with iU larrldc tol< of hnman llvet It 
the pioduet of artiflelt) eondltlont and poll- 
det and la repugnant to the thouht and 
political progreat ot tha age. The big 
thlnga of Ufa and cMIUatlon are intema- 
tlonal. But to tar we hare made little e^ 
fort or pmgreei la providing aganalea for 

'-lug rntamatlonal relatione to mala 

-^ ..Me and Juatlea. We realiia Intellea- 
tually that paaoa and Jntlles abould obtain 
among nathma, but we bava not yet Inatl- 
tnted pennaaant meant adaqnato la make 
tbal ooBvietlon a reality. For ytara peace 
eocietlei aad organitatlont have preaented 
argnmentt for peaoct have adimtad ptaoe 
reaolutlona. and have declared tor vuiont 
ialamattonal tentlmentt, but (hey have made 
llttl* effort to give (bee* vltloni raalKy la 
ih> nnoliatlDn of toclfty and the relatloni 
liana. Bnt the war hai ihown that 
war nan not be atopped by ptper raaoln- 
tioBt and that war can not pot an end to 
ftielf. Wan will eeate only when toolaly 
It ooBvlneed that hnman Ufa la really 
tterad and when aoelcty etltbllthe* ageudaa, 
irlaraatlonal aa well aa nttlonal, for nro- 
laetlng Uvea. We profett to believe 



naUenable rlghU 



I life, liberty 



I ad I vt dual. Indnatry It condnctad 
npon tbe inppoaltlon that human Ufa la 
cheap. Proflti are held to be the nltimate 
end of bnainett. Therefore butlBait man- 
agan muat gal proflta and In furthering tha 
retting aacrlflce tha worknt In the proeaat. 
Employer! cold-bloodedly ealcnlate In money 
termt tha ralatlre eipenalvaDaia ot machin- 
ery and worken; ot the eight-hour day and 
the twalvc-honr day; ot child labor and 
adnlt labor: ot compentitlon for toat ot life 
and limb and preventlTo maamret. In coal 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



AMERICAN FHDERATIOK OF LABOR 



I ind In tnniportiit! 



. ... a jet dDmimitioE. __ , 

.9 nthlaulj pr«T>lli in Indiulry. Ooniidar 
(hs atatUtlei of induitrlil iBiiiduiti, injurlae 
and dsithi. In harmony with thli waate 
of hnmaa life In Indnitrr li vaate at human 
■■' ■ -"-- 1 to decide political li- 

■ "^— -wt realln the 
■mlttlnf each 



■hmjld be onlj an inatramentalfo of the 
peoiile instead of domlnatiDe and actuUiiK 
thalf llTu. This teiTiao war mutt vipa onl 



wondeiitul 
IndiTldsal .. 
hla irork with 



iMlbillllw In ] 



11/e In 

permit.. _ __ 

. abllitlea and _. 

id mind and body, than 
I Bppraclate the aaDctltj ot IMng 
ahall not dare to hamper daralop- 
meat In an; war- Whan thfa ideal beeomas 
a part of onr dallr thlnUnf and doloc and 
VDi-klar then feDov-bainca irlU not be 
TObbad of that vbloh no on* lui tke power 
to raatore— life. Tha eatabllahmaat of tble 
' leu of _ Ilia Im_ a problem 

>iiat we lie ahoeked at the waate of homan 
life bnt that w« have not yat adjuatad anr- 
■elTea to thli partlonlar kind ot waate — 
WHte In war. Wa mnat raajlaa tha awfdl n- 
apanalbllltjF for the loaa of human lite op- 
poHQBlty with olearnaa* and with onder- 
aMndInf o( the maanlns of that waate tliet 
notbfav will praTont obt pnttint an and to 
all preTentable waate. when oonTlotloD la 
■DBoiaptlr oompaUtnc practical raanlta will 
follow. Edoeatlon and acltatlon ai« naaea- 
aai7 to create that eoiiTlctlon. Thoae who 
wliti to ebollah war mnat loae no opporttinitr 
to Implant the ethlea of hnmanltj, to make 
tha aaeredneaa of human Ufa a part of the 
thought and aetloa of tha nationa. Tha 
power to declare war mnat be put In tha 
bandi of the people or thalr shoian lapra- 

aantiment and a BOUTfetlon for peace tEere 
mult be acenclea astabllahed for the main- 
tananae of peaoetnl ralatlona amOBC nationa 
and tor deitllnff with IntematloBal iaaaoa. 
Hllitariim and oompatltire armanent mnat 
be abollalied and trlbnnala tor awarding 
Jaatiea and ae^-'— '~ ~* — '-- ■•-'-- 



to polltlea; 



_ . Thoie moat 

tereated ■hoald lead in the danandi 
world federation and tha rate 



aillgea of the old 
L balonga t " 
] that the 



icept that the ii_ 
or go*emment. We 
ictplea should applT 



L be reptaead br diplomatic 
eaponeibla to the people of 



parlaliam on tha part 



omraandation In onr rt^iort to the Balllmoi 
Ooofantlon tot tha organisation of intemi 

tionai relatloni. Bdaline <"*■ •<-" 

aaarehy haa InTllad imr""-"- 

of strong goramment* a , 

portnnity and oceaalon for war. lUlltarlam 
Sad* its JnatiCcatlon In latamatlenal an- 
arch; and can ba aboUahed onlr whan iater- 
natlonal retatlona are organised. There is 
no element In all nations mere concerned 
in the achieramant of conditloni making for 
permanent peace betvean nationa than the 
working people, who conslitnte the majorltj 
of erarr nation. 'Working people haie 
neter been properly represented in diplo- 
matic affairs. The future mnat ba con- 
atmctad upon broader lines than the past. 
We Iniist, therefore, that tha gOTemment 
of the Caltad Btatea prorida adaqnato and 



the planlpotentlariea aent to the Peace I 
greaa, and urge upon the labor moTem 
of other conntrlei to take Ilka action, 
urge tha adoption of the following decl 
tlona aa the baala upon which peace e 
ba uegotlatad: 

1. The combination of the tree pee 
of the world in a common coTpnant 



2. GoTemmenti derire their Juat power 
(mm the eonaent of tha gOTemad. 

S, No polilleal or ecDUOmla restrictions 



neU 



and \ 



for 



Tha working people of all 

lands bear the bmnt of war. Ttin do the 
fighting, pay tha war taxea, suffer moat 
from the dlaorgaBlsatlon ot Indnatrj and 
commerce' which reanlta from war. 

(191T. pp. KS-aGl) BeoommandaUona of 
Xiacntlre Oounoll endorsed: It li an tm- 
pentiie dat;r from which there la uo eaeape 
that waga-aamera aa well as all other citi- 

ment In Ito rlghteona effort to defend prln- 
ciplei of hntnanlt; and to establlah damoc- 
racr in international relations. Beeanse we 
daiire permanent peace It ie onr duty to 
flght and sacrlSce until these pnrposes can 
be aehie*ed. When natlooa can send repre- 



..,— - .J the rights 

men. women, and children 
nationa rather than the gov- 



*. No isdamnitfes nr repriaalt baaed 
upon Tindletlva pnrpoaea or deliberate de- 
«ire to Injure, but to right manifest 
wponga. 

6. Becognitlon ol the right* of email 
natloui and of the priaclpla "No people 
must ba forced under soTeretgnly nnder 
which it does not with to llva." 

8. No territorial changes or adjoatmanl 
of power eicapt in fortheranae of the 
welfare of tha people* affected and in 
furtherance of world peace. 

In addltloo to these basic principle* 
which are baaed npon declaratlona of onr 
Frealdnnt of these United States, there 
ehonld be Incorporated in the tirsty thai 
ehal] constitute the guide of nations In 
the new period ind conditions into which 
we cuter at the cloae of the war the fol- 
lowing deolarationa, fundamental to the 
best Interests of all nallona and Tital Im- 

1. No article or commodity ahall b* 
ahlpped or dallTored in international com- 
merce In the production of which children 
under tha age of 16 haT* been employed or 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



mSTORV, BNCYCLOTBmA. RBFBRBNCE- BOOK 



9. It ihall bs decl*rad OM tba buia 
DorkdiT in Indiulry ond wmmereii ibiU 
not eicsad rfiflit loor». 

B. IsTDluitarr aerrltiLda (ball net ulit 
ezcHit u ■ paaUbiiient fnr erlm* wharrof 
tM piMy Bhill b«T( bwa duly oooTleted. 

*. E*t«bll«hiniuil of m»l br Jorj- 
Tba war hai •w«pt away tb? ante-bsllnm 
wnld ud ia» Mndared nntiqnitBd and nae- 
Ittt uuiT InatltatloDB. Otlien have bTDkBn 
down nsdar tba dlSlealtiea uid piobltma of 
war noada. Wo aan benoflt from our aiperl- 
•ucaa by rstainma that ubicb h»a damon- 
itnt^ it» oOeleiiBT "' -■—'-- "•- 






Uiuir of tba problo 

rsconatraotton e>D not bd worknJ onl 
Inc tha war whlla fMlinj 
tba eomlDS of peae* will 
tilnde of mind on U 

uatlon and opporlaniuaa wnicn i"-^" — " 
bring will ba nrltbont prwiadant. It 1< ol 
earasunmt importanea tbat Labor aball ba 
fre« and snvnbarramd In halplng to ahapo 
tba prtneiplat and aganolai tor Iha hitn». 
Wa BmnMt tluiralora all pr«Indloe and pai- 
tiaan nblt san bait b« allminatad by raeon- 
atrnctlni Intaraatlanal labor relation* and 
Ibu brfcf to BOW pToblnu wd a now ara, 
actlTitr ud eo-oporatlon uhanpM«d and 
anperrattod by tormer allUnaM or old 
fenda. The baai* of reeonitroetion ahonld 
b« the trad* nnloa marementa o( the Tariooa 
oountrtM. We reeommand that an Intoma- 
tlpnal labor confOMnca o( repreaentatiT«a of 
the trad* onion mOTomenU of all oonntrlea 
be bald at the (una time and plaea a* the 
World Peaca Oonjraa. that Labor may bo 
In toneh with plans nndw eonaidBratlon and 
may haye the beneflt of InformaKon and 
eonnial oI thoaa participating in tha Oon- 

^™* OonTontion added (p. *51) thaaa doc- 
Urationa: In addition to the paus term; 
which the EieeutlTB Oonncil raeommended 
tha (oUewinj proposal ahoold be iBoorpor- 
ated: Tha Bovernmenti of the rariona^- 
tioDi ihall Bxehange labor rBpreaaDlativea. 
Bceordinf to them the aame "'borlty and 
honor tbat U gl*en to any ""•^^jJjP'^'^ 
aiehanca eon ' ' ''' 



ilal r 



1 be widanad t 



of peaee. Both, howi 

.entaf and aiait- 

LS proper and oppi 
orld '- — ■-' — 



tbt . ,, 

world war in which ■ 






t the c 



Thia la a 
oatlona ara 






ernmaat did not ..„. 

not, In the Ugbt of prsient aTonca. oall a 
peace aonferenca or arbitrarily noma Inflai- 
Ible peaoe termi. Sneli * reaponaibUity 
reati upon onr goTomraant and ia a prerosa- ' 
tiTe and reepoDtibillty It ehonld firtt »- 
Biune and axerclaB. We cononr In the an- 
Hon of the Bzesutlre OoanEil In refulns to 
ba lad into a prematore peace conferBDC.e, 
whsther Bmanatlns from Sannany or orlg- 
Inatlng with l" "-' "- — — "-- 



imit Ihat thia 



ataada out. atova all othere. in thi. unpra 
eedenlBd world war ie that labor Ij ■ b"!. 
force in producing the "■tef'»l« "' '^^",',1 
t..n and i. co^^«^^ wi«. .11 ,otb«-^ «.b..^ 

labor ehonld be glTon Ihli mentei 
I, hot no other iintrla poliey wooli 



g it I 



1 ita 



liona Jndgmant In rafnaing to partieipate or 
>eoomlng InTolrod in any eobamea of thia 
" ■— Oondition- -- ----'-- ■ 



. day a 



1 that which appaala to o 



judgment today w proper fnndeiBental 
peaea tarma may be ebangad Dior night. 
Sonolno demoeraey, tha great iaane now In 
war, had no lodgment In tha mind* and 
hearte of tboeo who started tbla war: 
oelthar WM it an appreciable iiine nnlll 
made ao my onr antranca Into the war. 
Other BOOBd prinelplei may dcTolop, which 
we ahonld Ilka later to make one of the 
baaio ptinoiplei npon which peace ehonld be 
deolared. 
When 



ba a 



s timi 



id place whfn and i 
vanqnishsd aa we" 

iuallty. In order that t! 



e the 



r labor 



fully 



the 



trade nnlon 
•d. Whan 



nar ba 

„ ^hleTad , 

extend tlie Maternal hand of trade union 
iDWihip to the ornntiad workera In all 
oonntrlea now at war, or wiU do ao mora 
OisaTtily than will the Amorlcan Federation 
of labor. 

The Ban Piancieco OanTention of the 
American Fsderation of Labor in adopting 
a part of the report of the Oommittoo od 
International Labor Belallont, Inatmcted 
the EieontlTo Council to call a labor pease 
oanferenee of all natlona at the time and 
place the peace conference Is held by tha 
belligerent natlona, and aothorlaed the Ei- 
Oonnell to aand two delegatea, one 
._ _i._,. V. .1. n — i^an, oi the 
Thia action 



ate In thia coe 
p. 53) Raaffl 
1 1917. We I 
.am of world j 
of the Dnitad 



lated by t 
■ in hia I 
I, 1818. T 



attitude 



"m^aan labor nor the AueriOM GoTorn- 



ol people. Simple, poljtica 



Impllea an in- 

Jor labor bnt, 

eonnlry ai well. Sdthor 



I'd problema of a atrong commercial people, 
correiponding derolopment had been tak' 
g place In relatloni between natlona before 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



AMERICAN FBDBHATION OP LABOR 



thii ODtbruk ef tke war. The iodnitriil mi 
cpmniercUl Htu of all nttloni had bosn 
elomelj bonad tog«tber Ibroofh world oriao- 
Uation of markad, fiaaocei. t;itsii» of com- 
nnDlcatlona and eichango, aad aganolei for 
Ibe atlmalalioD and diumnjaatlon of Infor- 
■nalion, tbs iDtdeqaaoj ot tben eibtinr In- 
tsnatianal afanola for deallnE wltb Intar 
natloaal alTairi, wai fnll; demonatrated. Id- 
tsrnatioaal anarcbj eraataa tbe opportunity 
■or acEraBiIoD on tba part of gtrong re- 
aooreafnl natlona laekUig an outlet for nn- 
implojad energy and eiceai of prodnction. 



n at hod 



tsblial 



Dciaa 
I asgreaaoi 



milltaHem manlfaeta itealf and oao'be alim- 
lnal«d oniT whan the field of International 
ralatioBi li jnally organlxad. Tbla work of 
org»nUation will clear 1; deTOlre npon • 
Icasne of nationa. Allhonfh ita work will 
be franiht with far-reaehlns coaaeqneneea 
■acb a laa^e oan be tmated to Inititnte 
■ nd method* tt It ia 
ana In eharasUr and 
, -J«t diploraatlt ■ ■ 

word, where' (he hamaa aide of life" ia fnllj 
neofslied and rapreaented. Diplomatic rep 
raantallTee at natlona oncht to ba resipon- 
■Ibla to a Tapreaentatlvs agenar in thalr 

ETenunanl and ihonld ba raaalTed either 
. the parlUmant of tha coontiy to wblch 
thej are aecredited or by a npTaaantatlte 
et tbe peopl* dlrMtljr reaponilbia to them. 
tfndar the opponnnitiei craatad b/ a leacne 
ot nations aduvate acenciei gonld ba aetab- 
liphed for dealInK with all Jnitlalabla qaai' 
tlona. An admlnlatratlTe body compoiad 
of reprseentatiTea of the principal nDapt 
eonetitiitlns national InterMta ihonld \e ea- 
tebllahed to deal with practical problemi la 
a conatmctlTe wj and thai avert altnatloaa 
that miiht othanrlae remit In Injoatlca and 
war. Wa have already a mora or leat in- 
definite maaa of coatome known ai intema- 
tlona! law. The preaeul law doea not fnr- 
-'-■^ adeqnata Mandarda 



onal ralattoB*. 
! practical i 



I law I 



affeetlTe 






feraneei of repreientBllTei of the Tarlona 

{ooplea to reiiie, modify, and extend aitat- 
le rajmlatlona. Aa the reenlt of experlenoa. 



j the besloQins 



it the war, tbara liaa 

_ total laek ot atfeetlTe 
foreaa among tbe peopl aa 



all tbe conntriea to make foT the oaaln- 
lance of international peaoa and U ' 
.jia time lecnre International jnitlea. ... 
I onlgiowth of tho war, new ixoderitaad- 






a at n 






the 



.-. , .[ rlfhl and .. 

]iiitlee and an Ineranaed detannlnatlon to 
■ecnre and thereafter maintain tba peace 
ol the world fonnded apoo a blaher morale 
of the peoptea of the world. There can be 
po qnattlon at to the final ontcome ot tbli 
world stmi^gle, Antocracy, mllitarlna, and 
Ita most daniteroDa gopporting weapon, ir- 
mponiible dlplomaar, matt parlib. Democ- 

denes between govemmenti and peoplea 
nmat be aelabUahed and trinmpb. Tfaem !■ 
no donht but ont of (he preaant war the 
moral! and (be condnct of the BOTemmenti 
ol (be world mnit be npon a M(haT moral 
plana, and (bat tUa fa«( wUI make (oward 



the eatabllahment and miintennee ot Inter- 
national ralatlona whieh ifaall lafenard the 
pooplat ot (he world In the enjoyment of a 

5i™ ;* Md re-aeaertln, former deelar- 
allone of prlnciplei concern Ing tarma of 
F™'' ^ , "l"? '"^ »«••" reiterate a 
:°™"._?'^',»"''''.?j '^t tha tarma of 



primarily rea(B wi(h 



ion, th 
alilng 



■ent, I 



tioi 



batoTer we may "8«y'ln"lhu"'"oon 
It purely an eipreaalon of onr thoDilite 
w. ^l^"- ." V! " •'l'l»o'T charac- 
We can not retrain from aaaartlnc that 
— JndgDient and belief no jnit nor 
-— -™ be obtalnod by nefotla- 



luting pea<._ 

tiona until yictory 

verae i» horrified over ine precipitation of 
' 7M ""'. °" •■* **■■ "''I''" i"''* on fire, 
and Ibera It no quaellon ia our minda aa to 
I_^the war. and the tbon hidden. 



mint aili tie govern mant. 



bn( now public, 
imperlaliadc and 

auch »• will BBfegnaid. and'proroei frHdom 
and Jnilica, that la not predioatad upon 
democracy and th* righu of (ha people ta 
aelf-gOTemment, We owe il to ounrlvea. 
to our country, and to ou Allla*. and U 
the peoplei of bll eiTiliaad eountrtea, to in- 
Biet nnon a peace that ihali ba grounded 
ufon the triumph ot onr oauap, demoeracy 
and Jnitiea. 

Porto BlM Labor In War— flSlT. n. 
lSS-aT2) April 6, I91T, Jnit a tow dan 
before Can(TMi drtlared war (ha free Pad- 
eratlon of Wornnnnea publlahed a mani- 

fea(o as to Id position tp •>■- — ■ 

imonc other things aald: 



tha same anthnsiaim aa any other oliM. 
With thii eonaapt of indnatrial Justice in 
rind which onfht to ba (ha rlgh( Utlag la 



h ought t 

which eo 






t Intel llgent u well ■ 



the workera are to be stimulated In timet 
of nadanal psiil in order to offer their aerr- 
ice, this obligation of gonranty mua( be si 
muHanaoualy neeompanied with the aMeaiaii 

esentation and authority to guard acainal 

- - - would dare (ake adTan(aga of (bit 
>fiU foi 



auch _. . ._._ 

crisis to make large peeunlaiT . 
tliamselTsi perhaps acquired only at tha 
of the peoples' blood. Warfare mnst 
sarre as an argnmenl to Increaae Inhuman 
eiploKation and to give to tha oommarslel 
cleaaea opportunity to eat rich tt the ex- 
penae of (he poor and the dlScnltlea which 
war Is bound to bring about. The workert 
have already aofiTered eonslderable Injuatlo 
in Ihia country eren In (Imes of peace, and 
it goat without taylng that they know thaii 
BilTeringi will be mnch greater under ws< 
condleiona it the prlvilegee are to eontinut 
with eiclusiTB power." Porto Bico. da 
ipile the fact that 1( la neither an organliat 
territory nor a atsta of the American Cnloi 
has oontribnted mora than la.nnn imm 
with which to earrr 



i of this island can i 






obvGoo<^le 



ENCYCLOPEDIA. REFERENCE BOOK 



HI 



tlaia >D7 reaponilbllitT or ahow Dtiua vh> 
■.Mm U« ImDOilni milltiTj iBrriee on evan 
dtiian al ths oalion ihould not b« cinied 
onl. Tha fonduneril*! pnrpM* o[ this Im 
it (o MtsblUb the iDTfoltte rifbts of ba 
lun Und. Tha A. F. of L. in Porto Rlea 
pvTBuant to tha recant Uilltarr OomnnUorr 
fttTTioa bu adopt sd meuures tendine to 
cmia tbe latboiitieB to include aome ot Ibt 
vorkera on all military examption boarda 
ia ordsr that ths rich and laflnentlal altliant 
may contilbnta their Jnit ahare ot tha ra 

rnilbllitiaa ot the hani. and to aee thai 
lawa are (triotlj oonplisd vilh by tbi. 
rith and poor allha. Tha natlaual labor pa 
titian li a* toUowi: Oompoliory and per- 
aoaal military lerrlea of the rich and tha 
poor In the aame armiaa, bnt at the aame 
time tha foroafol aerrlce of accamnlatad 
waalth and calna aztiaoted from label tor 
tha idimsdiata, complato and pannanant pro' 
tHttOD ot all the familiaa and all tha man 
affected by thia compalaoTT aarrlea and who 
are alio a component part ot the annlaa of 
the nation. 

PiottMii; Tsxai On— (IBIB. p. 23B) Id- 
doraad policy of Preiident Wllaon to ra- 
alriet loana and to lerj texea on war proflli. 
awollac incomes and on land values to an 
sitant that darioc the war will proTide br 
taxation at leaal 60 per cent of the aipaadf- 



tbemaalTaa to eoaditlona unfamiliar lo the 
majoritj of cltiians ot our country. War 
ia a traced;, ersn thongh the object aonsht 
by thii mesaa ii meritorlona. It means the 
Ibu ot Uvea ot untold Choasandi of onr 
people; it tnrbuIsDtly diaarraniea home life 
and actlTitiea. When tha war cloaes there 

pie pioblems, tha magnitude of which can 
not as yet be even approximated, bnt thajr 
will ba coaitanaiTB with the magnilada of 






l>B-8ia) This report 
Oonncil was endoraad: Tbla 
war. War neada of tht 



(lOlT, 



tha 



i,f.'. 



which falls to contribute or maintain thi 
nattonal Ufa or git^ impatns to tha momen 
- - t this crsat machine ia either slowlni 



food supplies, flnanci] 



■sariea of civil a 



of din 

placed. _ 

Balda and tba moblliintion ot 
woman to do thair part In the ci 
trial scbeme of preparinji and e 
the nation's flEhtlng msehlna Is 
tiaOitoiminK the arts of peace Inl 
war. In the baaic industries, thi 
for greatly increaied production 
traling vast bodiea ot men and 



employed In the proeacntlon 
1. bnt all alementa ot soeiaty 
compelled to accommodate 



BUtiealions In order thst we may lead In 
aolVlng the problaraa which will daTalop 
-'-- ■ been declsrad and 

mies snd tha racoa- 

No qneatioa eTSr 

unposed "upon 'tr such'West rasponsibllilles 
or aasumed such trafflandous proportion. By 
the lifhl which has been ilTcn ni- in tha 
past WB hsTs aehlaTed buccsse, and by that 
same token wa roaat this problem, ImmanBe 
tbough It ia, with a teeling of aasnranae tbBt 
onr efTorta will be rewarded by stilt fraater 
success tbsn thst achieTed in the past. Tha 
aheady chanced relatiooahlp between work- 
ers and employers, as well aa between tha 
toilers and oxir tovarnment, eien though we 
have jOBt anterad the conflict, betokens still 
furlhar changes when thia war shall hsTo 
b«en conclDded, Tbe people ot this nstioa 
welded together by the SBcrlflrei of war, 
will emerge from it pnrged of msny of it« 
wsakneaces and with a new concept of hu- 
man rights and asplrstlonB. Our organlied 
l^tor mOTament, with ita couatructlTe pro- 
gram can. If giteu the hearty support of all 
men and women of tabor, make Its inSusncs 
the most potent tsetor in the coming reeon- 
stmclion. The broad road ot opportunity 
lies open before ns. hod. if wa continua In 
Che amployoiant cf tha proTen JustiBad pel- 
loiea ot onr mofamani, the entire body of 
the workers wltl travel that road which 
lenda to a field ot still greater opportanlliss. 
The probema of this hour require our earn- 
est conalderstlon and attention, but the 
problems which will soon confront us in 
providing again at a veritable cataclysm 
which win, unless wisely averted, occur in 
the traasitiOD troni a wsr to a peace toot- 



]uire 



■iely which v 



antly t 



1 better life. In considering the 
of tha future It Is ot material s 

in Oreal Bnlsln. These plana 1 



. thosu .__ 



who hsv 






ractlcally 



Almoal by t 

ture along much broader lines than eilated 
In pre-war times. Their thinking has been 
unhsmpered by laatltotlaat and prlnelplea 
existing before the war and ahows tba Bex- 
ibiltty and tieadom that are tha tnaTitabla 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



AMERICAN FEDBRATION OP LABOR 



rMalt ol aipsrisncs la meetioc ( 
■nd problema Id totill; Dew coDdidi 
gi(*ntio iMli upon which tbs 



ilicd aod the ■ 



lied ■ oorTHpoDdlng 

LID in th« thaa(hu 

The UDdsrlying 



will BoucIonilT DT onaoniclaiulT permiists 
plBDi for aTerr ralation of llfa. rnttTnit; 
and matnal so-opantlon growlag ont of the 
world (trufls TOT demoenwj In which the 
thonght* ot mea are eoneeatrated npon the 
effort to deatroy polltleal djnutlsa and to 
eitabliah sOTSrumant tor the people and bj 
the people an inCTltablj carried OTer into 
all relations of lite. Correapondini to lh<-- 

polllleal jhan(w there hai hean ' 

deTelopmsDt maklnj: for desDer«i 
nosic reetioDi. There hu been 

(Ion ot the principle that those 

la the work of prodactlan ongbt to haie a 
TDice In managemanl of thoic things con- 
camtng their InterasU and welfare. There 
has bean recofnitlon for the thoaght that 
liidnatrlal diafnuehUeiaent la la nnjoit a* 

SDlitlcal dlsfranehieement. In both Qreat 
rltalD and in tbe Dnlled BCtlea tbe war 
for world democrscr ba* letnlted In more 
complsla lecDinition a[ the rights of men 

■of hnman welfare. Borne time an the BOr. 
«nimeiit of Qreat Brltaio was diatDrbad bT 

■eTldenen of In doj trial unreat, and appoint, 
ed a eonnniasiao known H the WUtlay 
CDmmlsalon to inqoire Into causes sad to 
niaka a report with reeoramendatlona. The 
ccramlulon eonaistad of atslasmen, eoono- 
Diista, labor repreeantatiTea- and tnehnlclam. 
The flnal report which 



parallel 
J in eco- 



■ ell.V 



of the 



I, the; 



.mend 



laoted from the memberi ot the conndl 
(one from each (Ida of (ha eauolt). 

(S) A ebainnaD ohoien bj the ooondl 
from Independent periooa ontalda tba ID' 



daternilna or, falilsK acraament, by I 

The tallowlni proposals are to be oonild- 
eted by the Hational Indnitiial Ooonolls: 

(a) That district connolli, reprasenta- 
tiTc Df the trade nnlona »ai af the am. 
ployers' aaaooiatioD In the indnitry, 
abonld be crested, or deteloped ont of the 
eiiating: maehlnerT tor nepitlation in the 
Tirlona trades. 

(b) That works commllteea, repreten- 
tatiTa at the maoatement and ot the 
workers employed, shonld ba Initltuted in 
paTtlrolar works to act in olone co-opera. 
tion with tbe diatriot and national ma. 

The principle npou which the oommitteo 
propose! to seinile co-operation is by grant. 
Ing to workpeople a greater share in eon- 
alderitlon of mattera alTeotinK their indna- 
try. The tsnctiona which are aoneated for 



I mm tbe point of 

■- - - a that 

sat ot 

a Tiew to proTiding 
the policy oatllned 
that the goTeroment 



■honld propose witboot delay to the varioti- 
•saoclatloni ot amployers snd employed the 
foimatiou ot Joint Standing Indoatrlal 
Conneila in the aeTeral indtutiiaa, where 
thoy do not already exist, eompo'e^ "' "P- 
rtsentatlTai ot employers and employed, re- 
gard being giTan to the Tariooa iHllona o( 
the Industry end the varlDas olaisas of labor 
engaged. Tbe committee aanestad the 
metbode for tbe appointment of ■ ebalrman 
or chairmen of the Genorsl Indoatrial Oonn. 

(1} A chairman tor aaoh aide ot the 
eonnitU. . 

(2) A chairman and ylce-ebairman ae- 



1 Ooonoili . 



ennmerated sa tol- 



I with problem) ot eitabllahlng per. 

msnently irapraved relations hat ween em. 
ployed sad employers. In the report the 
eommittee m» that it ia Tltal that the oo- 
oparation et all else sea eatablltbad daring 
the war shonld continue attar tbe war, espe- 
cially that CO. operation eoneeraed io reie- 
tloni between employer* and employed. 
They reeommend to this end the estsbllsb- 
■nant for each industry at an organisation, 
representstite of employers and workars to 
tiBTe as its obiect tbe regular eansideratiDn 
of matters affecting the I ""' "" 



(1) The batter ntUiiatloa of tbe prae- 
tisal knowladg* and experience at the 
workpeople. 

(3) Ifeans for securing to the work- 

BBopIe a greatsT thire la and respmslbll. 
,y for the determination and obsanaucs 
of the oondltiona onder which their work 

(8) Tbe settlement of the general prln- 
elples gaTarnlng the conditions at employ' 
ment, Inelnding the method! of fixing, pay- 
ing, and readjoettng wages. haTtng regard 
to tba Deed for leeuiing to the workpea. 
pie * ehare In the Increaied pro!perity of 
tba indnetry. 

(4) The eatablishment ol regular math, 
ods of negotiation far Issues arising be- 



_„- emplojinent, without 'undue re- 

smetloo npon change ot ooenpatlon or 

employer. 

(fi) Hethoda ot fixing and adjusting 
earnings,, piecework pricea, etc., snd of 
dealing with the many dlffloultlea whieh 
arise with regard to tbe method and 
amount ot payment apart from the Bxlng 
ot general stsndsrd rates, which are 
already ooTered by paragraph (B). 

(T) Technical education and training. 

<8) Indnstrlal research and the toll 
ntUleation of it« lesulta. 

[0) The proTlelon of facilities tor the 
foil consideration and ntillssllon ot In- 
tentions and Improvement designed by 
workpeople, and tor tbe adequate safe- 
guarding of tbe rlghta ot the deslgneia of 

{10) ImproTsmonta of pracesaea, ma- 
chinery and organisation and apprt^rlate 
qneatlont relating to mananment and the 
examination of industrial experiments, 
with apecial reference to co-operation ia 



of ensuring to the workpeo- 



obvGoo<^le 



HISTCU17. BNCYCXOPSDIA. RBPERBI4CE BOOK 



Tka raiMtrt doMa villi Ilia tollowiBC: 
"It mmy ba dealrftbls to itati hart onr 
eoiuidoTBd opinion that mn OBBaBtlAl eon- 
dition of aMnrfn^ a pflrmanut ImpTQTii- 
Dunt in thB TalatloD* bctwMn amplnyan 
and •mploj'ed I* thut tbart ibonld bt 
■duBntB orvuiliatloa on th« part ol both 
emploraiB and workpeopls. llie plupoaaU 
ontllDwl tor jDlDt co-opfralloD thmaghoat 
tlia gererml bidiutrlaa dcpand for thalr 
nittanata Boeoaw upon thara bains avch 
orfanltatlon on batli aldaa: aod aneb ar- 
....._...._ ._ .i._ ..| p„,jj. 



tf aotlTaly oBTTiad 

tlunisbt It «all to Tttn 

•atloai or of trine e 






torn maklnc 

tiirdto I 

partnanhip. or partleuar ajataaa oi 

mgea. ale. It vonld ba ImpTaotieable tor 

mandAtlona an avoh mattan, haYtnff ra- 
pml to tbe Tarring eonditloni io diffar- 
ant tradaa. We arc conTinced. moreoTar, 
that a pannaaaat ImproTement In lbs rela- 
lisna Sdlwaan emplajera audi amplofad 
mnat ba fonnded npon lomathlnB othar 
... _», . . . J 1^ jj^^j 



aion about and a^natment of thoia paita 
ef Indnatr/ by nieh thay are moat af- 
laetad. The achamaa rsenmmendad in thia 
raport ara Intandad not maroly for tha 
traatomt of iodutrlM prohlanu when 
thay haTa baooma aoata, hnl alao, and 
mora aapaaiallj, to pTerant thair baoon- 
ln( aonta. Wa ballata that ranlar naat- 
is(a to dlisnu Indnitrlal qBaatloDa. apart 
fr«a and prior to anj dlHaransaa with 
racard Id tham that may ha*a bacnn to 
eanaa frletlon, will matariallj radnaa tha 
nninbar of oeaaalona on *hifli. in tht 
Tiair of althat aoiplojOTa or amplorod, It 
la niaaaiarr to aontamplata rsaonraa to a 
■toppa^o M VDlfc." 

Of ao froat inportanca did tha Brltlah 
labor moToaant conaldar thia raport of tha 
WhittCT OommlaaloD tliat thaj aet aaida ana 
dar of tha Trada Union Ooncraaa to con- 
aldar tha raport. Attar thorongh diacnialon 
tha Oon(reaa ratarrad tha mattar to tba 
Farlianiantarr Committaa with anthorltr to 
oall ■ apKial maallne of tha British Trada 
Union OoDcraaa, If Ibar dasmad that oonna 
adTaBtacaoa*. Since tba Whltlaj Oommla- 
aim, BDOthar propoMl ha* baan mida vblsh 
Iwara tha alfnatnra ol mora th&n fortr Tall- 
knoim Imluaaa niaii and nnlTaraltx prafaa- 
aora and of a atlU larsar nnmbar of offloara 
of trado aHOclationi. Thoaa whs ontJlnad 
the aehgne atata Ihat It la pnt forward aa 
tha prutloal ontcoma of all tha anlhoritatlTe 
tUK^^lona that ban bean made dnrlnf tha 

lart three jeara, (or "-- "- 

paHod of indoatTlaa : 



the reeooatmotion 



trade 

need of indnitrlal 
toriai tar that la i 

tha tlnaa It will l_ 

eonaidarabl; the efforta I 



1 the followlnf Itaaa: 



eada of 
dorelop indnA- 



(2) A sreater Atgna of eo-oparatlos 
bttwean mannfactiirar. 

eapltal and the a' 



(G) Kdoaation 

I Eaeb indoatrj to I 



STBij trade to prai 
I toreicn campetltioi 



t bT the GoTamment 
tr— — -"' 

It ia contended That the matter sail not 
be latt to chance, and that aome national 
achame la neceaaarr whloh aliall enaure 
the aeenrlnc of theae ohjeota. II ii thare- 

(a)That a' national orsaniiatios. on 
llaaa eiuh aa thott tunaited br the 
Whitlt7 report, thonld be eatabUahad. 
wldeh will retain all the itarllng qnali- 
tiee of OUT praaant indlTidnallttla ayatem 
and add to tham the neeaaaarj ordered 
forea to enaiue (reatar tetlrity. 

<b) That anoh an organitatlon will need 
to provide lor tha rapreeaotation of all 
olaaaee ol pertont entmfed in a pTon ia- 

<o) That tndiutrT thonld, tberefore, be 
nntrasthlaad, and arerr man and womi 
■ rar and a — '— ' -■ 



emplorar a 



1 amplorad, fireti a 

ba eSaetivalr reallied. 

(d) Hat ararj eltltan ihonld hare the 
richt to realatar wltb aoma approTod 
trade aaaoeiatlon or trade union, and thna 
an indoalrlal or Toeatlonal rofittar prop- 
erly olaaaifled would be prodoaed. 

(a) That trade eonoEllt ahonid be 
alaeted in each indtitry from the trade 
and tba trade nnlona. Snob 



(t) 1 



whole of thair leapactlTa 

1 gntatlont ea between the 

-jd a rl*en trade thonld be 

delecated to the oonncil of that trada who 
would ha*a powen to deal with them. 

(C) That ontetiona of ontpnt, ednea- 
tlon, trade telioola, anieBtiflo reeearoh, ex- 
port, wagei, proEta, merketa. tarifft, eto., 
■honid bi teltlid Id etoh trade by tha 
ooanoil of tbat trade, and national fnnda 
apent apon theaa matlera diepenaod 
throDgb the trada eonnalla. 

nully, the monUaato pnta forward nn- 
der ail heedingt b echsme for Indnetrtal 
raeODitrnctlon. It it mneated Ihat tha 
beala n( tha teheme ahoDld bt a Toea- 
tloBal franohlte, whloh wonld make poa- 
alble tha orianliatloD of eaeh trade aepa' 
ratal; aider a trade ooanell eompoted of 
capital and labor, and the deeeDtrallaa- 
tlon of B tarse proportion of nBlional 
work BOW attempted by Goremment de- 
partmenti. The aorammanl. it la pro- 
poiad. ahonid eatabllab a department to 
promote or enoenras* trade, and the Brat 



obvGoo<^le 



AMERICAN FEDBRATION OF I.ABOR 



fanctiOD of thlB depuimeot thoold be to 
omt* raprMsnttUT* trade eounclU la 
ST017 trade. It ihonld be iwiited br in 
idriiMir]' eoDsdl, eotuiitlng of thg sub- 
men el ill tho tradr aannrllg, ind ibcnld 
comprUe ipaBlkl deputmenti lor export 
ud tulSs, ladnitrlal and iilmtlfis re- 
■•areh. Eommereiil sdacBllos. Uitlitlci 
and flnanoa, irelfua, and exhibition* and 
adTartlainr. 

OaBorallf the aokanie InTolTci the aa- 
tabliahment of a complete new aTatam of 
trade soTanuaent eompacsble to oar ei- 
latlns ejiitani of loesl gOTanunenl. vith a 
ninlitry at the head vltb po 



] tboae 



the Loci 



QoTfl 









imparable 



, ... it reootnliea the eaaan- 

tial prlnelplei that IndaaCiial Intaraata 
ihonld be grotipad by tradaa aod not by 
toaalitle*. 

In our own sonnbr, aa well u in Great 
Britain, employnient problami, which are a 
Tltal part of prodnetlon la war luppUea, 
haTe been aeste and di&cnit. At the beiin- 
nint of the war Qieal Britain bad what ia 

thon^h inadaqnate, helped in the work of re- 
diatnbntlon of workari ao ai to proTlde thr 
neeeainrjr number of workera when and 
a naedad. In October, 1S16. 



(Change 



tlon of tb* chengad eoopc of their work. 
Recently other cheniae have been made by 
the Minlatry of Labor. The chanfei were 
deaerlbed In a memoraDdum iaaaed by that 
department. The mamonndnm atatea (bat 
under condition* of modem Indnatry an ef- 
Bciant ayetem of employment eichangea are 



for organiiinE the man power of the nation 
during war. The ininiatry has introduced 
iDto the offlciat maohinery of the eichangea 
a tonn of local organiiatlon. Local adTla- 



miniater, these i 






ie«. In a 



Ukini 



1 regalar demands for workera in tn- 
duitry, will take care of all aoldler* and 
eeilora diachareed from the army and uaTy, 
The rognlar fnnctiona of the employment 
excbanaee will be aupplemented to proTide 
for the problema of demoblKtatlon. In ad- 
dition to diachareed aailora aod loldleri, 
they plan to take care of (he tranaitlon pe- 
riod of Indoatry whan munition workera 

committee will deal with Special problems 
ariaiag oot of employment of women and 
wlli ha»e prepared Ilits_of enilable lodgia 



imitleei 

make provision for the traniportatl 
workera from one place to another. 

The local ad.iaorv commi«ioni pn 
in this Tflfnrm are in response to re 
tion of the tundamanlal neiesslty of » 



will 



cloae eoopentlmi of both smplarera and em- 

ployev. Tbeie local cDnunltteea will become 
a pamuinsnt part of the laaehliitry of tho 
ampioymant exchange*. 

In oar own couotry there la eTldsnt in 
erery kind of war work the necnsity for 
acme national agenrlei for better idjuatinc 
tha inppiy of workeri. Wo are entering a 
period where there must be greater econ- 
omy In the Bie of the man paver of our 
country. We can not evade the tsak of 
intelligent planning for the proper adjoat- 
ment of workera to oppDrtnnities tor re- 
emiloyment. llils mafadjuatment has re- 
anlted la a frequently reyeated complaint 
of aoarcity ol workera. This claim has baen 
relterafad so frequently that It hai bean 
oommonly accepted aa a fact aTon though 



rkers refnaa to accept low wag._ 

poor conditions of work. A oentral, efficient 

plainly neceisary In pivforming Ue gigaDtic 
taak that Is now before tbe Emergency 
Fleet Oorporatiou and in the neeeaaary work 
of production of war aoppilaa. With the 
withdrawal of hnndreda of thouaandi of 
men for military purpoaea there la necea- 
aity lor readjuatmeut in the tndnatrlal 
field. EffectiTe employment agonoies, under 
"-- -ontrol of the Department at Labor, co- 



t£n's"'^'ou' 



I locsl agenclea and aaaoi 
V. ._ , ■lablo -" ■ 



Snch genoiea will alio 

f needed In the traniitlon period 
follow the declaration of peace 
work of domoblHia ■ — 



aiity 



OTlding 



in this country, under redaral control, and 
coordinating ill locsl efforts along tMs line. 
We further reeomtnend that some action be 
taken by this coBTeutlon Inalsting that oar 
gcvemment make sncb plana for demoblliaa- 
tion that men will remain in the employ Dt 
the goTernment nntil they can be provided 
with remunerative employment throogh gov- 
ernment employment agenclea, unless tbey 
■■ — ■ iployment opportunltlea already open 









IQIS, 



liSQ) 



tary contributions, the A. F. ot L. 
men da that liberal oontribationa be 
by all trade unionists and that the c 



ferlng In tbe cause of hnmanity. 

Seamen, War Inauiancs tot — (1S17, 
115-SSB) This amendm< ' 
' suthoriiLng the 



... __. . . of the 

war risk insurance in the Treaanry Depart- 
ineDt: "That whenever it shall appear to 
~ ~ 'etary of the Treasury (hat the effect- 



ing of 



I is deal 



I the c 



) of V 



I in 



gaged in snch 

loas of life or 
personal injury from war risks, ss well as 

enemy of the United States following cap- 
Inre." The main prDvlsiona provided are 
that in esse of desth, permanent disability. 



rkde sball Insure the 
rew of such vessel sg 



obvGoOi^lc 



HISTORY. SNCYCLOPEDIA. RSFESBNCE BOOE 



wUflh prarsnti th« panon tD)nred from 
VnfoTiBiilK •n7 ■nd (Varr Idnd of duty 
partaiBlar to hig occupation, or tha lou of 
both hand!, both armi, botb feet, both ten, 
or both arat, or anr two Ibaraof. (or Iha 

roi'B eirninn or to (wcLtc tlmei the 
BWDthL; enroin^ of (h« injored aa died In 
UiB vticlei for the TOTar*. bat in no caia 
■hall tuoh an unotuit ha more than 16,000 
or iMi than fl.SOO. (Pnblic. No. 20, SSth 
Oon|.) Sioentira Gonnell inatnieted to dtkb 
Ooncreaa to f**--* - -i~(i — 1 ^-— 



___ Board, Kxtt anA I*boi^(lSls. 
p. GS) Tho Shipptni Board SmereeBcr nest 
CoTpontloD and tha War Department had 
to meal tha tnt blr vai problema qnlaklj 
and effactiTd;. ThoM two dWlalona of the 
COTommant antarvd into tho Arat arrMmenta 
with labor oreaniaationi. Shortlj after the 
Bnffalo OonTestlDii, a coatarsDce wtu held 
tn WaahinitoB between the iqjTMentatiTea 
of tlia labor oT^nlaatione eoneemed in abip- 
bnildins and rapteeentatiTet of the Shipping 
Board Smrngtner Fleet Oorporatlou and the 
Narr Dapartment. Aa a Teanlt ot that con- 
ference the following raTiaion of tha than 
•liatlns aEreement waa adopted: 

"When diapntaa ariia coneenlng wasaa, 
honri and conditio na of labor In the enn- 
atmctlon or repair of ablpbnUdlci planti 
or of ahlpa In ■Uprardi. nndar the United 
Statea Shlppinr Board Xmarraney Fleet 
Oorponitkin, or nnder aald Shipping 
Board, or nnder eantraet with lald corpo- 
ration, or with aald board, or if qaaatlona 
•omlng nndar tha jnrlidletton of tha board 
■rlaa with roteroDoe to nieh conatmotlaB 
in a priTato plant in which conatraotlon 
ia alao bobii canted on for the Nary De- 
partBont, and atteiapta r" —-"-■■-- - 



Jointly by the uM corporation and the 
KaT7 DapBTtment, one to reprotent tha 
pnbtie wid to be appointed by tha Freil- 
dent of tha Caited Statea, and ona to 
rapraient labor, to be appainled hy the 
Fraddent of the A. F. of L. It la nn^ir- 
atood, howerer, that thli memoruidnm 
ahall in nowiir aer*a aa a preedpnt for 
proeadnra In gaTomment ptanta nndar tba 
war or Navy Dopartmaatt. eioept ai may 
ba anthoriied by anch dapartiaaBta. The 
plant where inch eonitmctlon ia being 
eartled on ahall ha Eaocraphleally dla- 
trleted by the board. In each dlatrlct, 
the contractora In whaee planta Inch eos- 
■tmsllon li being earried on, and the 
rapreeBntatlTea of inch International la- 
bor organliatloni aa have raambera en- 
gaged in an oh prodaetlon or eonitmetlon 
n ancb planta, and aa are lalactad for 
the enrpoi'i by the labor member of the 
board, ahalt be called npon, nndar condl- 
tiOBB to be laid down by It, to agree npoB 
a parion or periooa who iball act nndar , 
tha direction of the board aa examiner or 
eiamlaera In anch dlatrlct. If the board 
deemi It adTiaabla ttaelf to name an axam- 
fner or examlnera, or If tho repreeenta- 
tlyaa of the eontraetora and of the labor 
organliation do not agree, than the board 



■hal] by nnanlmona aetlon aelact a peraan 
or perioai tor nch poiltlon. The aiami- 
?" "hall ba aahjecl to remoral by the 



It iball be the dntj 
of the Caitad ati _ 
Emergency Fleet Oojporatlc 
promptly to the board, and 



Shipping Board 



lafaci 



b he la 1 



alia 



dlapale with 
or condition* 
to adjnat aal- 



in which i 



idsrds <Th'jTe eucb aonatruc- 

carried on, the board ihall 

e prevailing In the dii- 

._ _ucb plant or planti are 

located, prorlded anch wage rataa haTo 
been ealsbllahed through agroiTnent* ba- 
t*»en employer and employes and are ad- 
mitted to ba eqnitable. Oonaldaratlon ahall 
be given by the board lo any clrcam- 
■tancea irliing after >iirh waicH. ho ore 
or eondltloni were eatabllahad. and which 
may aeem to call for changea In wagea, 
hoan or condltlona. Whard no anch agree- 
ment eiiata, and whara u In the case of 
new Indoitrial dlstrlcta a proper baaia of 
wagfli and condltlona la dlfflcnlt to dstar- 
mine, the board (hall hava the richt to 
pnt Inio effect tbe rataa which were 
■warded iftrr dne Inyeatigatlon and deter- 
mination In other diatricta In which living 
condiltong and coat of living are anbatan- 
tiatly the same. The board ahall keep 
ilaalt fully Informed aa to the relation 
between living ooata in the aeveral dli- 
trleti and their nomparfaon betwaan pro 
grataive peiioda ot time. Tha decldonK 
of tha board ahall. nnder proper condl- 
tlona, ba rstroaetlT^ and it ahall be the 
dnty of the board to make the deolalon 
effective. At any time after ali montha 
have elapaad following anoh ratiaed agree- 
ment or any anoh Inal dedalon by the 
Adjnatmenl Board on any qneation aa to 
iregea, boon or eondltiona [a any plant 
or diatriat, anoh qneatlona may be re- 
opened by the Adjnatment Board for ad- 
Inatmant npon reqneat of the majority of 
the craft or orafta at anch plant affected 
by anch agraemant or deolalon, provided 
It can be abown that thare ha* been a 
general and material Inureaaa in the coat 
of living. Tha dedalona ot tha board will. 



however, that either 
ployei In any dia ' 
to appeal from t 



BderedTy 
t Board ot Bo- 



tha Adjnatment Board t 
view and Appeal to ba maaa np ■< loi- 
Iowa: Three mambera to be named Jointly 
ir the Unitad Statea Shipping Board 
Bnergenay Flaat Oorporatlon and the 
Onited Statea Navy Department, and three 
to he named by tha Prealdent of tha A. F. 
of L. It li hereby atlpnlated and agreed 
that thit memorandum ahall anpenade 
and aland la place of tha 'KemoraDdnm 
for tba AdJoMmant of Wagea, Honra end 
Oondltiona of Labor In Shlpbnlldlng 
Planta,' atgnad Annit 30, IBIT, and thai 
It ahall become affeetlva thla Bth day of 
December, 181T." 

BUpyaid Bmployaa. <h»&ipartatton of— 
(IBIS, p. 108) Amendment to the emergeney 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



AMERICAN PEDBKATION OFIIABOK 



ubipping tDUd proiiBionii In tha Ursaat De- 
fldciic; ApproprUtioa Act of Juns 15, IBIT. 
cmpDwen tha Sbippiac BOHrd to ttke poi- 
setaian ot, laiaa or Buume lOiitrol of mnj 
r p«rt thereof 



to: tbe tranater and i 
r>rd amplojei to end 
Bodal Senlopm«Dt Aftw Wii — iinf. 

pp. 88-889) In lookini f ' "■■ *—- — 

both the ImraediBta and : 

hat tha naf.. 

ill depend larsalT i 

friaciplea which trorkar* ihall dt 
ha baaie for i^Iatli 



I teata it 
pilnclplea 
lloua ba- 



. 88-8891 In lootdnf tomid the tacure. 
_.th the Immed" 
faal keenly that 
velopmant will . 

frinciplea whleh worker* 
ba baaie (or i^la-'-----'- 

dir bnlldlns Iiabc. . .. 

U that (tructura ia to endore t 
moat bn fonndsd upon bed toi;1i 
ot aqnity and democraer in ra 
twwn men. The preaanl war ia xi o^ux- 
crdlnsTT opportanltj (0 determine Ihota 
prlnatpfea. Thia lile and death atmMla ba- 
tweaD tha oationi of tbe world ia s labora- 
lorr whiob ii dlaetoalnK Iba atranarth or 
«««kneai of aTerr aosial reJatiooiblp and 
Inatltntion. War ia (orclUE as back to tha 
eaaentlala of lite. W» la fandamentallj co- 
oparatiTe Mtlon of organic aociat;. The 
praaent war ia on anch a gigantic leale that 
oTerr part of national life la inTolTed. Tfaia 
whole nation ia in the war. The (pirit of 
w»r activity and organiialion ia eisaaUall7 

Aa a war neeeaaltj we are eeeking the prin- 
ciple* whleh will aaanra moat effldenC co- 
operelion, Tbia oo-oparation mnat oome 
from tbe two primary force* ot loelety — 
tbe poaaHaaora at creative labor power and 
eDUtroIlert of capital. Aa tbe antborlied 
repreaentatlToa of ona ot theae torcea neeei- 
lary to co-oparation. we feel It onr duty to 
formnlata certain tondamental prineiplaa 
that oagbt lo luidarlle relations between 
controllers of capital and poaseaaoia of labor 
power. It la fnndameDlal that labor power 
Da considered a* Inieparabl* from the hu- 
man being azereiaiiig ii. Labor ia a bnman 
attribata; it ia the outward manifest stion nf 
tha informing conseionsnaat within- that 
ordtnaBaa the aonrcas o" 
Tbe Bommodity tbi 



physical powei 
luri ui uinor wa* oflciall 
nation when Ooni 



"y 



ilaratloi 



aciad the following 

appioTed by Praaidaoi Wilson Oetobet _,. 
iei4: "The labor of a human being is not 
a oommodily or artiote of commerce." It 
follow! that ainee labor la not a coniTnoditr. 
workers ara hsmaa beings contributing to 
production certain personal Bbllitlea snd 
akill, and tharaJo™ haTe the right to par- 
ticipate In control of indasCry. The man- 
agement prOTldUB materials, plans, egnip- 
ment, and asssroblee the necessary workera. 



nabip ot employar and hanoe d 

nte a "third party" in inParest. Thia 

principle was followed in ealsblishing tha 
National War Labor Board, tbe Railroad 
Board of Adjustment to settle all proiisiona 
of was* lohadnle or agraemanta not ottur- 
wiaa pmmptb adjoitod, and in tbe Appeal 
Board pnxrldad under tbe ahipbufldiDE 
acr««m«nt between the man In the thlp- 
bnildlng tradei and the Shipping Board 
Smargency Fle«t Oorporatlon. In aome 
boarda dealing with mettera of funds oiental 
conseqaenee to labor tba worksra baya been 
giran so repraaantatloa or elae cepreaentation 
Diunarically totally out of keeping with 
their intereat involTed. This aitnation Is 
due to failure to grup tha meaning ot d«no- 
cratio prinelplee, •« well aa fallore to aae 
that the intareata of lahor repmsented tba 
Intsrast* of human balaga, their llyea. wet- 
tare and the future of tbe race. With tha 
present war (despite tba hnnuin gacriflce) 
there baa oome a new appraeiation of the 
impartince of man power and tha yalue of 
human life. Tbti new coneept requlrea 
adequate repMaestation of worker* in the 
control of (hair deatiniea. The demand of 
labor tor Miiial repretentatioti In determlu- 
' ing that part at production which concerns 
tbem Ii tundamiental. Ona of the conalme- 
tiie reaults of deal lug with war problema 
baa been lo disclose the importance of labor 
niMiatement. Man power has became a 
plTotal element. We can sot afford to waat* 
man power tbrDOEb maladjualmont or 
tbrangh failure to elicit tbe full ability of 
any rndlTlduBl. Han power has hithaito 
been treated u one of^ the leaat Taluabla 
el emeu ta contribnting to production and 
hence labor management is practically a new 
thought. Commercial and Industrial eoai' 
paniei bave aonght high-powered man to 
place in chBrge of all daputmenti dealing 

_... .V ...=-. .,,. — „„lori^ wBlinBent. 

en proflu. Bat eTen 



irily high production 

liatry aa welt aa a ao- 
nga which prevent fre- 
pfoyea must determine 









the prise Ipfes 

principle can be deiemined only through i 
telligent and sympathetic understanding 
the Heads of worken and of what conalitut 
fsir dsaiing. There I* stvays a best wi 
ot doing ayarything— tbe beat way of adml 
I •taring labor problema of production ci 
be deterrainBd only through the Informatii 

and eiporir • '-- ■■ '- — 

"' irk 

_ .. ^^loye™, the l 

sldering the aupplementsry InfonDStion of 
repmantstiTes of both parties. Lsbor sd- 
miniatratlon must be eo-operatlTa in method 
and in principle. There ongbt to be in 
charge of alt labor problems o? production, a 



Tntei powe/'f'a'ila,''' 
should seek the cansi 



r when 1a- 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



'. ENCyCLOPEDIA, SBFBBENCE BOOK 



ehksec for > utmt vilhoat dapriTtng i>n>- 
doetlon of thoia «f gnaMat abililT. Thers 
hM bean tome procrui toirard tbla end 
line* th* wu batin throDEli Ibe effort! o( 
tbs Sblppbir Board and (fie OrdiiaDcs De- 
wtmant. TW» iodlostea -wbat mnst become 
an accaptwl eaitom In all productloo. The 
folloviDE tnudBmanUli malt be tbe bufa 
for all jnit labor polielBt: Thoio eonlnbnt- 
lu to prodoetion abonid hais a part In Ita 
control. A low tnniDTar whlcb la adran- 
tocwu to IndutiT bM an aQBal U oat (raat- 
ar Tallin to workan — «o them ft meana eon- 
tlnnou amploTBwit, a atabia Inooma. ETarr 
workar liu a riahi to be Ijn«i from all 
•Toldabta nneaiialntlsa at enplayment — 
both from thoiO aiiiing tbranfh poor labor 
adminittration and from miamaDaruiiaDt in 
pndDCtlan and tlu affaeta ot apaenlatlon In 
raw matoriata or Onlabed pmdiuita. Tba 



, all woTkara, akillad 

Ulhid. We bare maintained 

that tbora aro no worken -wbollj nnakUled 
and tbe diatinatlon batwaon waia-aameri la 
one of dacraa 0117. Tba ■o-eaUiid nnakllled 

dnatrr. Low aeonomle itaudarda can not 
nTeraU amoni (haaa warkari wltbont lojary 
to all. Wa maintain, tharafora, jneraaaed 
•Sorta nnat ba mada to orcaalie tbeaa and 
all workan In order tbat tiara maj be B»- 
tabllihed maakinerj for ielf-bettarmant and 
tbat tha workara mar take t*^*^ rlghtfnl 
plane in datarminlni ttneatlona of lile and 
work. Brerj worker Baa a fnU rlcbt to a 
Jo at portion ot tbe waaltb wblob 6a balpa 

ts areata, a fnll riKbt '- "-■ "' •■'■ •"" 

an opportnnit7 for bl.. . 

' that of any aitliao, a fnll rl|:ht .. 

Joat aafafnard ahall ba affordad _ — 

hia pbraieat aafatj, tor hit haattb and 
comfort wbila at work. iTerr worker hai 
tba right to eompanaation tor pkjiieal in- 

prodnotion. Brary workar who hai treen In- 
Jnrad or dlaabled In Indnatrj baa the addi- 
tional rJeht to opportnnltiea for rababilita- 
tlon in order tbat be nay raeaiie tba nacea- 
aarr aaaiatanea or traininK to enable bim to 
be aelf-aoatainlnc. Betterment for wage- 



all 






iia through e 






upon the eontrol tbi. 

reaponelbfRlT*' I^'a right of "ioVkera'w ' 
share in tbe ranlta ot locreaaxng prodnctta: 
which make* poaalble tbeii adTancement Bn< 
reprodnotion under proper conditions, msHn 
greater iotereat In Increailag oatpnt. W 
ballaTa tbat in all largo permanent ahopa. 
_...._ Brrangenent ahonld ba proiide 
/: nrat, a oommittae of tha worbet 

J regularly meat with tha ahop mar 

aremaat to eonfcr oyer mattaia of prodm 
lion; and wbarabj; Second, ancli commii 
tee conid eanr, beyond the foreman an 
tbo ■Bpuintendent to tba eenaral 
or to the preaidant, any important 
anee wbleh tbe workera may haTs wit 
eivneaa to wane, honra and DDnditios 
ii tDndamental for eiBcleney in prod 
that the caaentlal* ot team work 1>e 
atood and foUowad by all. Tbara mi 
opportOBlly for Interconnn and eichai 
Tiawpointa between workera and msT 
It la this machinery t< 



a predicated 



rganiaation 



_ ud Sanora' Oompaamtlos — 
3na of thn moat conaplononB 
d by the Oommittae on Labor 
' and Sailora' Oonpenaation 



igraementa. Time la no other 
ing abont oo-operatlon tor pro- 

by organliation ot workers. 

" 'darly lyatem "tor 
ich ooneem Labor 
. - and adlnatmenta 
.-., ^„ ...KunL •»•• fnrthar iha beat ister- 
asta ot all eonaemed. Employen and work- - 
en mnat talk oTer matter* ot mnlnal Inlar- 
qata and reaob andaratandtnga. In praaent 
large aeala indnitry thli aan be dona only 
by vae at tha rapreaentatlTe ayalem or what 
la eommonly oatlad eoUeeliva bargaining 
which Ii the foundation ot all effaollTe. Juat 
labor admlnlitratloa. 

Boldlan 
(1817. p. ... 

la tha Soldieri . ,.. 

Tietlalallon. In the flrat mHllng k. 

Eieeatlre Committee ot the Oemmittea on 
Labor, companiatioo to ba paid to aoldlan 
and aallon and the problem ot taking ean 
ot tbelr famillH were diaonasod. Later, 
tbnragh Hr. Oompars, Iha nutter was pre- 
aantad to the Coundl ot Hatioral Defenae 
with tbe snggaatlon tbat the Committee on 
Lalor be autborlied to take np the whole 
aubleet-mattei and to draft appropriate legia- 
latlon. The auggaatlon waa approred by tha 
Oouncil of National nafonse. Ur. Gorapere 
appointed .'udga Jnllan W. Ifark aa culr- 
man of the commiltoe to draft the loglala' 
tion. Thia commillee reported to the Kieon- 
live Committee ot the Committee on Labor 
tbe moat comprpbeniiTe l«gialatlon of this 
cbaraOer ctbt drafted. Jndga Uiek and 
h]> cobmittee iflFrwardi ooopeTated with 
the committee appointed by tbe Treaaury 
Department to InTeatigate tba n "" " '" 






(sllora and to make 

Aa a result ot 

drawn by .' ' 



.oiferenee "the Wll, _ ., ._ 

Hack, was adopted as tba report ot . 

Treaaury Committee and in thia form waa 
aimrOTsd by tbe Council ot National Da- 
and the PraBld^nt of the United Btatas. 



bill thns 



The milltar 



In inlat ration 



aatlon and iniuri 
of the Burean ot 
waa aaUblished a. ._ 

Srat, to prOTlde inani 



__ _.__ Ida the work 

rar RUk Inanranee. which 
tbe beginning of tbo war. 



'■»; 



: familiea from that 



charity. It previdea for a trneiona contribu- 
tion by tba government to tha wife and the 
children of all enlisted men dnring the pe- 
riod that tbe bosband and father la flgbting 
tor hia country, but It does not abaoWe him 
trtm hia primary- duty of contcibnting In 
proportion to bis pay to their . aupport. 
Every man wilh wife or child must giVe at 
least (15 a month; if hia pay eicseda tao 

to oue-balf his pay, prOTided the government 
ftcelf contributea more than (hat. Tbe gov 
nniment adda monthly from tS for a aingte 
orphan child, op to (50 for a wife »od 
ave children. While a man doea not have to 
■ 1 anything to otber dependt — ■^- 



opportunity of worker 



fx; 



onthlv .. 
■. elater 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



AMERICAN FEDERATION < 



etUd, ftnd In tlial arant tlu nTHiuiMt will 
Iwlp BloBf. Th. hlghut Brnoont. hoimar. 
tbit tha (OTanuneDt add! la •GO a noDtb. 
J. ' ?!" biMioniea diaablad or dlaa in tha 
Itna of dntr, ha and Ua tunilr an Bo laonr 
flTes a cTBtDltona paniion, bu tbav in 
glTon oompsnaatlon, bi ana1of7 to the oon- 
puaaHou glTan to miking nan In tha 

ttlj dfaibfill, oompanaatron iU(<ra Irom 
that proTldad In any olhar law. It Mkai 
tha Jrailj' u tha unit that U aarrlnc tha 



., — — „ aarrlnx tha 

not tha IndlTldnal nun. II Itaaa 
the aUe of tha tam- 
Vhlle a UiUUj dla- 



Uj from ttsa _ _ 

■Mod baehaloT will gat $to 
"■? *lth ■ wlfa and fonr ohlldren liiil gat 
176 a month. Twaotr doltan la addad If ■ 
nnrae or attandant la reqnlred; »10 more If 
■ man haa a dupandant wldowsd mothar; bnl 
w ha loaaa both feet, both handa. both ejaa, 
or baoomaa totallj blind, ot halpleialr bod- 
ridden, he gaU |100 a month timditu of 
whather h« la marrlad or not. In aaae of 
nta death raanltlng from Injnriia or dlaeaaa 
reoalTad In tba llna of duty, tha widow and 
■hlldran and widowed mother get anma rang- 
ing from iao to fTd a month, according to 
tha Ilia o( tha famllj. And no dlatlnotlon 
la made batwoaa a priTata and tha hlriieat 
SS.*™-. ?°' ""• ¥"■' »•* faatnra of thla 
bill, tha faatnra that marki It aa tha moat 
prograaiive aooial laglalMlan of usj aonn- 
i^ In tba war, la the Inaoranee artlcla 
Kan who go Inte tha war oan not prataot 
ir.amaolTSB bj Inannnoe baaanao pr1<rata 
eompanlea oernaarilr ehuge a prohibltlTa 
rata. Cndrr thli [aw the antiia people baai 
tha war riah. Th» gorammant ii aolllng 
biniranca to tfap man at peace time ratoa; 
hot more than thli. It it not even eharging 
what priTate coirpaniaB charge la paaae 
timet; It mta off all that thej add tor ei- 
paoaaa. And thla It done beoaoiia tho tot- 
animant. In the flnt piteo, baa onlj the 
axpante of admlnlatntion and none of tha 
other expcnaaa tbat pri*Bla oompanlea haTc, 
and, In tha laeond place, bectnte It waa 
beUarad right and Inat that tba entire pes' 
pie thonld l>ear tha eoat of admlnlalenag 
thla branoh of the asrrloa- And aa the onljr 
■analbia kind of Inanranca fot a man to tahe 
when, at In thoia oaaaa, ha It abont to go 
iFto an •xtra-haiardooi emplerment for a 
■hort tima, la the ebaapeat iwaalbla Inanr- 
anee, the goTaniment li offering only that — 
a TBarlj renewable term iDanranea that 
aoati a man of 29 abont fB per (honaand 
annnally. But at that Und of Intnrasea 
■oata more each year and wonid be a te> 
ribla bnrden If (be man reached Did age. 

'" '" 'nga it Into one 

iitlng tomowbat 
permanent thing, 



liaarr form 
nch better . 



wttUn Btc reara after tho , _ 

' ' anee, hawsTer, will alto bo la- 



net ntaa wlthonl i 



I np 



their 



nlnda 



promptly whether they want the Intni 

or not. They are given fonr montha' time, 
and any man, priTate or oflcw, can lake 
from 11,000 to flO.OOO worth of It. The 
iDAnranoa la wlaaly gnarded. It can not 
he attlgnod; It oan not be taken by ored- 
llora either of the Inaored or of the baneA- 
elary; It li payable only to certain reli- 
UTet — wife, ohUd. grandeblld. pannt, 
brother or tlator; and when It lalla dne it 
wU' not be paid ont In • lamp nn, bat In 



nilt In tl 



tald installmenta. That meant tbat on a 
110,000 Lntnranoa poUoy, the family wUI 
get »S7.eO a month "^tor 20 yeara. And te 
fif°?i,.°"^r?^ '",' C8"i«i»nt bti thrown 
In thla additional proriaioD, that It a man 
boeomat totally and parmnnently dlaabled 
thue monthly paymenta will begin and they 
will oentlnua dnring hit entire Ufe, eren 
though ha llTta man than 20 yeara. 

Boldlea* and BaUora* BahnUlitatlon— 
(1B18, p. BBS) EiecntlTe Oonnell Initmotod 
to appoint a oosunltlae whoae dnty It thai] 
''V*S„t'".^'«"' iuTattlgale the problem of 
rabtbilttatlon and to take auoh atapa and 
iroa in Oongraii aa will 
I of t commlttlan which 
.. — ....■ v.™.,o of tha preparation for 
tho re-entry into Indnttry of the aoldieit 
and lallora now defending tha eonntry'i lib- 
ertlet, and the raloeatlan and protection of 
the elTllIant now engaged in war Indnttrlea 
vhota pieaant owmeallon will be terml- 
natad with the eeaaaUon of tha war. A bill 
Introdneed In the Senate proridaa (or rooa- 
tional rehabilitation and return to ciril em- 
ployment of dlaabled pertoni ditchargad 
from tha military aerrico of the D. 8. and 
for other porpoioa. A companion hill waa 
preaanted in the Houe. Thii meaanra la 
a corollary of tha war ritk Inmrnnoo meaa- 
ure and ronnda ont ■ banefloent and hnmanl- 
taritn policy to be adopted by thla cons- 
try In former wan there hat been left 
In thair tnln a vaat mnltitnde of men who, 
beeanio Of their Inlnriea, ht*e bean Inoapaoi- 
tatad to follow their former Toeatlont. or 
have beeoma dapaodanla npon aodaty. Un- 
der the apnr of modani thongbt and aetion, 
tho welfare of humanity hat beeoma the 
chief aetlTlty of onr intaraat and the meaa- 
urea rafarred to are oalcnlated to rehabUI- 
tata, reedneate, rofll and return to indnttry 
In whaterer capacity iclenee and phyaloal 
tMIity may anggatt for tha dlaabled victim 
of the war. la fact, with tha rehabillUtloB 
meainn enacted into law, oonpled with the 
war riik Inanranca law, onr eonntry will 
have taken nn advanced atep In (he welfare 
of Iti oltlteni. With the paaaage of tbia 
mraann then will reat a Hareoleen taak on 
tha ledoral Board (or Tocattonal Edneatlon 
to perform, for tbeae bllU provide that the 
administration of the raedncatlon, reflttInK 
and retomlng to Indnatry thall be In charge 
of the board mentioned. It It tntmatlnr 
to recall (hat the American raderalli 
Labor for a onmher of yatn ttood tpoajuir 
for activity and nrged the adoption by Oon- 
grraa "iT a Tedenl vocational edneatlonal 
law, and Ita efforU were flnlly crowned with 
anceaaa. Thla board dnring Ita Infanoy tfor 
it haa only been In eiiitence approiimateiy 



'.5 



approiimateiy 
'ork of aiding 



ig ayttoD 

I It now aqnippaa wiio 
dale and an experienced panonnel. It it 
capable to admlnlatar the provltloaa of the 
rthabUitatlon and reedneatlon bllli If they 
tra onaetod into law. The A, F. of L. la 
particnlariy Interatted Jn tha reedneallon 
tnd the reentry of dlaabled toldlen and 
aallort Into indnttry. The menben of onr 
oiganiiatlcnt will have an opportnaity to 
perform an Invalnable aerviee to aociety In 
-Berating with the Vedaral Board for Vo- 
— -' Edneation la carrying on it* work. 






-obvGoo»:^Ic 



'. ENCYCLOPEDIA. REFERENCE BOOK 



119 



In all of the eouniricB ictiTclr entkfsd la 
th* vnMnt nr, work of ■ ilmiliT char- 
■et(r i( balsf pntonned. and in tbois cood- 
triM the DTCsnliatloni of labor ara giTinic 
tlidr bautj inpport and coaparatloa. It 
ii iMihapi nnnaoMurjr to bup«ak the eo- 
oiMnUoD ot the AmaHcan labor moTtmant In 
lUa mat hnmultarian work, tor it eaa b« 
tODMautlT sxpMt«d that in stm? iMallty 
at MT eonstrj wbara oar orsaniialioDi ara 
located, thora tba membera of Ibcae Dnioai 
Tlli EiTe niaterial aaalitanca to the cairjioK 
Mt ^ (Ul neat oalionat bnmaaitariaa work. 
Bq>r«MiitatTTe* of the A. I>. of L. aaaiited 
Id tba framlsK of the btU. and the mambe» 
abip will wltbool doobt aulaC in the eieen- 
tlon of tha law wban It ia placed spoa the 
alalnte booki. Thai thar* may be a elota 
OOOHratloD. Ihf BieeollTa Council ll aotbor- 
lied to eooptrale with tbe Federal Board 
for Toeational Edaoallon in aailitlog In ad- 
mlBtetertof the law when ir ahall have been 
paaaed. Tbe dntr of the bosi reqnlrei that 
•U elaiaaa of eitliena. whether Ouij be am- 
pIsTcra or emptOTei, slTe a foil Keamia of 
■npport and aetfre oeoperatloB In admlnla- 
tcnnf B law which haa ler Ita porpDie tbe 
uaktof ot diaabled aoldlnra and aailora uro- 
dsetlTe mamben ot aoeletf. 



nich eoatracl to reaslnd or (ormlnjle the 

artr tor non-payment of any inflalmeat tall- 
Int due during the period of inch military 
aerriee. eionit by action In a court of com- 
petBnl Jorlidictlon. 

Biddlan, StMu of— (IBIT, p. 4ST) Bac 
relarj of A. F. of L. vaa Inatnicled to ae- 
enre fram each direetly alEliated nnlon ■ 
Hat of all memben enrolled In tbe milltar; 
aarrlee of the United "' - 



TUi biU ia detlfsei 



Itefeta Bm— <1S1T, p. IIB) 
seif to p»ti3ct the rlgbta ol 
It will protect the eqnltiei 



IntAi^t 



In 



eadlnn 



attflo' 



ot War or tbe Secretary of the Nary, 
the caae may bo, is empowered to order i 
allotoieat of the pay of a penon in millta 
aeniee in reaaonabla proportion to dlaehar 

- ■-■ -■ --imiiea 0«. '-* ■• ' ■■ 

,, —J wife, ch 

I of Bneh peraoi 

llM raeeiied a d-ipoalt o 
porcha« prife nnilar ai 
pnrchai* of real or p»n 



S 



ot MMi^ipted men In mortgaged prop 
■tay the atatnte of Umltatlona. and omer- 

._. ^..^ ,,,p intereil of eonecrlpta. The 

1 was the reinit of many Inquir- 
to tbe protection to be atforded 
to conaeripted workman who bad homes 
partly paid for or other Intareata, neb aa 
liAa inanranee prentlnraa, which naoeailtatad 
recniar paymanta. (1918, p. 110) Bill be- 
came a law. Ita aallant proviaiona reitBire 
■B aSdaTit to be Bled In any action eom- 
menead In any coDtt. apeciaeally atating 
whether tha defendant la in the military 
aeTTlea or not. Tbe eontt ia turtber empow- 
ered to ilay tbe aiecntlon of any Jndgment 

Smtahmant ot property, money or debta In 
e handa ot another, whether before or 
after Jndttoent, during the period ot mili- 
tary aerrlce or within aiity dayi thereafter. 
No erictlon or diitreaa ihatt be made dur- 
ing the period of military aerrlce in reapeet 
of any premlaea for which the agreed rent 
deei not exceed fSO per month, occspled 
chieOy for dwelling pnrpoaea by the wife. 
ohlldran or other depandentg of a peraon in 
military lerHea, eieapt upon Ibbtb of court 
graatad upon application 



thaaa mgmberi while they are In tha "arsir 

BtttkM in War, niefU— (191B. p. insi 
When the iDjory to war material bill 
up for action In the Houae. tide 
waa adopted: "Whoever with Inieni hi id' 
jure, interfere with, or obalmet the United 
Slataa or any aHOciate nation in preparing 
for or carrying on the war, aball conapire 
to pte*enl the erection or production of Bueh 
war pramiaea, war mateHal. or war utili- 
tlaa." While the original draft ot the bill 
WM pnobjectlonable, the amendment changed 
III character, aa It eould not be interpreted 
otherwlae than to proTont paaeefnl atrlkea. 
Thli amendment waa then praaant«d and 
adopted: "That nothing herein ahall be eon- 
atrued aa malting It unlawful tor employea 
to agree together to atop work or not to 
enter thereon with the bona flde pnrpoae of 
eecnring batter wagai or condltioua ot em- 
ploymenl," When the bill went to conter- 
eice, tbe A. T. of L. inilited that both 
amendment! ahonld remain In the bill or 
both be eliminated, which would be latiafac- 
tory to the Federation. Finally both amand- 
menta were atrlcken from the bill, and it 
paaaed and waa approTad by the Prealdent. 

Trad* Unlcn ActlTttr In W»T— (IBIS, pp. 
S4-3B9) We note with saliafaction that the 



Britain baa 



with Ore 



B that the worViT 



tight of poaaeBBlon and providing a penalty 
agalnat any peraon who ahall Imovlngly take 
part in any eviction or dlstraaa of Imprison- 



thc anggeation that aludiea of trade union 
aclhity under war conditions ought to he 
made for all coontriei ooneemed. We ear- 
noeUy hope that the woikt-ra of all Kuropean 
coontriea will be abli^ to mBinlain their la- 
bor or^aniiatioiT!. even under atresa of war 
difflcnitiea, and that when peace shall have 
been rf^tored thoy win be In a poaition to 
carry forward Ihetr activities in behalf of 
human rights and human libertle* and a 
feller dcDiocrac}'. 

(1918, p. 278) The British fraternal dole- 

the Preaidonl of the American Federation 



i Inclnding 1885 end aakad that a 

D tbe American Embaaay 

asking that_ pasBporta bo given. A (ew days 



r right of option under later a ciblcgram waa recelTed Mating It 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



AMERICAK PBOBRATIOIT OF L,ABOR 



vu too late tor tba Iratamal ij>f»t«i to 
!•»*• tor tha Unltad Statu and ffrataatldr 
acaiiut tha aetlon of the itmarloan OoTara- 



TtoUma ot Wax SbonU ba Aldad— (IBIS, 

J. sua) Tha liiTopeau wai li daily frowins 
1 axtoDt and bonon, and tha natlani ns- 
tartnnatal7 InTolrad in It an at prsaant 
IKwarleaa to ohaek tha tnr; ot aiiitBal da- 
atTDOtlon and •'holsaala bloodahad. llany 
□■liana In Eniopa an bald in palitlaal anb- 
jutatlon br (ba dinet povan, an dapilTad 
ot tfaa rlBht ot aeU-iorenimant, lismparad 
la tbeir bea, national and ealtual davalop- 
ment, oppnaiad, maltreatad and panaantad, 
and the eiiatonde of anoh oppnaiad natlon- 
and tbalr natnral and lacltlmata 



•:w. 



ilea to llbarata ttanualToa eonatltnta 
tfol aoona ot International atiita and 
war. Borne of the wanlni oatlona ot Xu- 

Xatlll withhold from the Jewiah and 
r Dppraiaed peoplaa tba poUtioal, na- 
tional and bItU rlcbta anJOfed. by othal 
(iltiiena or anbjaota of thoa* eonntrlaa, al- 
thonch the Jewa an makluK nntold aaoii- 
flcaa In ^ooda and hlood for the eonntelaa 
ot their birth or adaption. We daclan that 
the Inteniatlonal moTament of orfantied 
labor. baTtng }iutloe for ita aim, maat give 
Ita bait effoTti to the abolition ot all forma 
of oppraaaioo and diaerlmiDatlan, national, 
racial aa wall aa politleal and Indnatrlal. 
Wa arsa that the OTfniaed workara ot tha 
United 8tataB render moral and material aa- 
slatanca to tha full axteut ot their mean* 
to tholr ■aKariUK tollav-workan, tha ' 

of the war and of po"" -' — "-' 

and indaatrlal injnatic 



tha anthorltj raated In iha Diraetor Gonarnl 
ot Sailioada b; the Frealdont of the United 
Stataa In hla pioolamatlen of Daoember 3S, 

1917, a Railroad Was* Oommiaalen na 
api>ointed. The oonmlaaion waa appointed 
tor the pnrpoa* ot maUna a fonaral InTeatl- 

Stioa ot tha oompenaallon of paraona in 
) r^lraad aerriee; tha ralatiini of ran- 
road wacea to wacaa In other Indaatrlaa; 
the conditloB* remaatlni wagaa In the dlt- 
taront parta of tha eouitrr. and tha ape- 
clal emeixanoj req^eoting waiaa wUeh ai- 
lata owlnf to the war relation between dit- 
tarent elaiaaa ot raOroad labor. The oom- 
mitiion commenced a leriaa el beariua in 
th« Interior Bnildint. I" WaaUncton, O. 0., 
on Jannarr 38, 1918. with rapraaentatlTea of 
the Order of Balhnsd Teletraphan aa the 
initial part . of the proeeedlnse. All olaaeea 
ot raltroal labor wore eTantaally heard, and 
the hearlnca oroupled ^ period ot men 
than two montha. Tha rammiaalott made 
a report to the Dlrertor Oenanl of lUn- 
Toadi on April BO. 1018. and on Uajr 9fi, 

1918, Director Oennral HcAdoo lined On- 
eral Ordsr. No. 37. flilnir tha wacea of 
rallnad 101010™ . Tha order applies to 
the omplorea of 184 railroadi named In the 
order, and. In addition, to aneh roada, "all 
trnnlnal, nnlon itatloiL and awitchlnf eom- 
panlaa. all or a majorltr ot whoaa atooh la 
owned h7 railroadB named." The order 
■tatei fnrtbar that mob other rallroada ae 
aa' ba retatnod (n federal control on Jnly 
1. 1918. will ba added to tha Hit. and that 
the Pallman Co., whoaa atattia ia now being 
oonaldered. will alio be added If declalon 



aball be reached to retain the Pnllnan Oo. 
nndar federal eontrol. The additional artl- 
Blea which deal with sooaral principlaa of 
pohor and adnlniatratlon are: Bnlea Gov- 
erning Oonditlona of Smplajment — Baaie 
Elght^Henr Dot— The principle ot tke baaic 
rifht-hoor dar ia hanby leeogniied. Whira 
employea are paid npon a dalir or nOBthlr 
DBiia. the new conqrenaatlon hmaln eatab- 
liihed will applr to the number of bonra 
which bare herelefore eonalltated the actual 
dar a work. Tor exampla. where an aetnal 
dar'i work baa been 10 honre, the new com- 
ponaation wiU oorer the 8 baale honre and 
a boon OTartlma. Additional oiartime will 
be paid pn rata. Pay for Orortlme— Tbla 
order ihall not affect nny existing acree- 
loenta or practice! for tha payment of higher 
ntee of pay for time worked In eicaaa ot 
■07 ataodard day, Timn worked In eieeei 
S'l.'^'J.^'"."'''"'"^ I*'' hanhy oatab- 
Dahed will, when there ii. no eilitlne agree- 
raant or praatlos more favoniLle to the 
■mpToya, be paid on a pn rata baaii ae 
ludioated In aacllon (al of thli artlole. 
no Bednetlon In Total Incnaae — Pending 
conildantlon by the Hoard of Railroad 
Wagaa and Worktog Oonditlona hereinafter 

trOTldsa tor, no redncttor in the aotnd 
onn opiiatitnling a day'i work ahall oper. 
alo to dapriTO any employe, raid by tha day 
or moBlh, of tba total inrreaeo In pay 
gnnted bun by tbli order. 
_.?■'!"•"'■ '" ^"'='' Tim,— Each raUroad 
will. In paymenti made Bo 'mployra on and 
after Jane 1, 1918. Inslode theae Increaaee 
ihenin. Ai promptly ai ponlble. the 
■Boonnt due In book pay from January 1. 
1918. In aeoordance with the prarlnlon of 
Ifila order, will be computed and payment 
made to mployea eepirataly fnm the ngo- 
ar monthly paymanta, ao that employai will 
know the exact amonnt of three back pay- 
menta. Beeognliing the clerical woit nee- 
eaury to maki theae compntatlom for back 
par and the probable delay before tha entire 
period can be eOTarad, each mosUi, begin- 
ning with Jannary, ihall be eompnlad aa 
soon aa praetieable and, a* loon aa oom- 
pletad, payment ehall ba made. 



employe^ 

hwAthfal . 

enacted for the goremment of their amploy- 

they do the 



iptormen 

lyed, their working oonditlona mnat be 
'-'-■ —' flttad to tbalr neadi. TI ■ 

.he goTemmant of their 1 ,._, 

t mnat bo obaerred and their pay. when 



1918, colored men 

men ahall be paidtte lama rates ot wagaa 
ai are paid whlta man In the aame oapao- 
itiea. Back pay for period Jannary 1, 191B. 
to Hay 81, 1918. wUI be baled only tipon 
the Inereaiaa praTided In ArMalo H ot thla 
order for aaeb poaltlons. Back paymenta 
will not apply to the fnithar increaaed rata 
made atraetlTe by this article. Board of 
Bailraad Wane and Working Oonditlona — 
Then la bantiy ereated a Board of Satlioad 
Wagei and Working Oonditlona which iball 
at onoa eatabllab an oSoe at Washington. 
D. O., and meet tor organliatlou and elect 
a obalrman and Tie* ebalrmaa. one ot whom 
ahall preiide at meetlngi ot tha board. It 
■hall be tba dnty of tha board to hear and 
Inyeatigate mattara preaented by railroad 
employe* or their repreieDtatlTe* affecting: 



0bvGoO<^lc 



HISTORY, BNCYCLOPBDU. RSPBRSNCB BOOK 



loeauIitlM ■■ to VUM ud worUiis eondi- 
tion* vhsthw M to IndJTldiitt •mploiu ar 
duiM of •mploTM; oondltlon* nrWag fnna 
eompatttlDD with atsplajM In othn Indni- 
triaa: toIm tod votUiir oondltbni for tha 
sSTUkl cluiM of (mplorM, ttthai tor tbe 
coentrj ■■ ■ wholg or for dlflaranC parti 
of tha ematTj. The board ihall alio hair 
and iDvartltato othar nattara aflsctlni 
vacaa and eondltloni of flmplojsiuil rj 
'P^.*" " *' "" I>I>«tor aanaral. It 
■hall ba aDlalr aa adTtiorr bodr and (hall 
anbiolt Ita rMOmmandatloiia to tha Dlraitor 
Qanaral lor hla dslamdnatlon. 
^I^terprBlaflona o( ^Thla Order — Ballwar 
anthorliad bj 



. 18 to 



per- 



-eorpmated Into aiiallac .».„„„„ „„ 
™ ■«TarKl rallroada, uit ahonld dlffarencea 
ariaa hatweaa the manafement aod tha em- 

Cloyaa of an; of the ra" 
■•orporatlen, aueh qaea 
ahall be doclded hj the Railwa: 
Adjmtmant Ho. 1, whan properlr i 
aiibjMt ,Blwaja to review by the Diioatcw 
Qaneral." In addition to tha foraloini 
otBar qnaatloai arlalnr *■ *^ '^' i-4„a *_ 
>)ipUcBlion of thii vAv 



I of dliferenoa 
'— y Board of 



> the Intant g 



■ppUcBlion of thii ^«r Id raipoet to tko prooeaa of toma 
olaaa** of anpIOTaa within the aoan of uto rapraaoitatl' 
Railway Board of Adjnatnoit No. 1, ahaU Olerka, ICalntani 



HTTloe. Amoiaa'a aafaty, Amsriea'a Ideala, 
Anertoa'a lichla ara at ataka. Damoaney 
and libarty thranthont the world depend 
npon Ameriea'a Talor, Amerlea'a atrenjth, 
Amerlaa'a flKhlfn( power. Wa can win and 
loTe tha world from deapotiam and bond4(> 
only It we poll tonthar. Wa oan not pul 
apul without dJtolilnc thn train. Lat n* 
SO forward with analuliablt pnrpoaa to do 
DDT part anparlatlTaly. Then wa ahall nt» 
Amarlca, reatora peace to a dUtmetod world, 
and fain (or ourielvea tha coTated dlit^ne- 
tioii and joat reward of palrlotlo aarrlee 
ngbly dona." 

Boarda of Adjastmact — 7or Ihe pnrpoaa 
of adjnatlng dlapotai between anployea and 
rallroade not dlnBtly oonaeetod with ware 
ratea and honra of aertiee. Boarda of Ad- 
jnatmant are belse toimed and *n asraa- 
nant waa reached between tha regional dl- 
racioia. rrpreac MinE the rallroida in thiilr 
reapeellTo Tagioua, and the chief exanitlTaa 
of tha' railroad umthnhooda. and thla w.-l 
ba kiiown aa Boikrd of Adlnatment No. 1. 
Adjnatment Board Ko. S ia now In procoaa 
of formation, and it ia axpeotod that thla 
board will adjnat matlaia eoncernlns the 
railroad abop tradaa. Inolndinc elaetrieal 
workaia. AdjiitttueBt Board ITo. S la la (he 
>n»eaa of tomation, and thla board will 
tha Talaj 



t aubmlttod i 



aoeh boaidl wbleh board 



.1 Iho DlTMtor „„ 

tboHty may ba eouferrad __ __, .„„„, 
Ballway Board of Adjnatmant haraatter ... 
Btad. DeclalomB ahall not ba nnderad by 
raoh boarda until after approTal by the 
IMrwitor Seneral. Prior to the eraatlon of 
addftkmal Ballway Board* of Adjnatmant to 

4«al with qnhatlnnH «• tA «h> l*.*«.« ..- — 

plieatioo of 



Olerka, ' ICalntanano* of Way Employea. 

"-'•-'- -nd Slfnal Malntrinan, The 

of adjnatmant ^ "' 



BwltehmL-, _., — 

thraa boarda of adjnatmant will aoier all 

the recnlar labor orcanliatlona eonnaatad 

any additional wllli ^a railroad ■orriae. The Bailroad 
*- Wafa OommUaion, menUoned In the_torefi 



r claaa of employea, noh qnealloni, with 
_t>*et to tneh enployea, ahall he praaanted 
I the Dtraetor of tha Dirlaton of Laba 






AdmlnlatratioB 



TTnlted BUtaa Bahivad ' 
Waahinctan. D. O. 

One of the moit important and far-reaah- 
inc Drdera laanad by the Dlrastor Qanaral of 
Rallroada la Order Jto. B, dated rabmary 
21. IBIS. Baetlon E of that ardar raada aa 
foHowa: "No dlaoilmlnatlon will be mada 
in tha omplojmant, ratantfon, or oondltlona 

' lant of anployea baaanae of mam- 

nanmambanhlp In labor orfanl- 

■attoBB. Tha fOreramaot now balDg In con- 
trol of the TaHnada. tha oSoara and em- 
ploye! of the Tarioni sompanlea no longer 
aerra a priTala Intereat. Ail now aerre the 
(ovemmnit and the pnblie Intereat only. I 
want the offlear* and employe) to rat the 
Iplrit of thla new ara. Supreme deration 
to eonntry, an Inrlndbie determination to 
perfarm the ImperBtlTa dntiaa of tha bonr 
whUa the life, of tha Datlon la Inparillad by 



lnR,"aftw Blint'itB rBport~vTth tbe'Dlra^ 
Qanaral had oompleted ita labor. 

' and Ita Oaoaas— (1910, p. S84) We 

azpraaalona and daelarBtlona of 
lona of the Amerlean red- 
Labor on the qneitlana of 

.. -. . JB canaaa aa f ollowa : Back 

of all wara of oonqnait ia the aplrit 
of bnttality, (reed and conmer^aliam snd 
bach ol all reroInUonary ware for redreaa 
of wTonsa ia tha aplrit of Indapandanca. lib- 
erty, Jnatlca and demooraoy. We declare 
againat the tonier under ul aire 
and In the eaaond Inataaca we have m 
of eandamsaUon, and that yonr eoi 
feela tha A. 7. of L. thn>n(h thla 



baniBpor" 



tha beat intaraata of all oni 

tellow-worhera Tacardlaaa of wl 
tloae of onr 



lied 



< antaconlan; oonild«ie& 

— — , , -intoal halptBlneaa, not 

fndcbif parformanea: hiat oonalderatlon, 
not arbtlrary dlaracard of eaoh other' a 
Tichto and faellnia; a One diaelpllna baaed 
on matoat reapect aod aympatby: and aa 
aameat deelra to aerre the creat publle 
fsHhfBlly and sflelently. Thla la tha new 
■pfarit .... - - 



rallty 

, .. ... -_-( 

iDd expreai that fratanal epui 

itorld-wida lympatby and kindly regard for 
the welfare of onr tallow- workart r^ard- 
leii of where located or of naltoBallty. 
While woTda cbd not eipreai the horror wt 
feel oyer the terrible oonfllat now devaatit- 
iBf Enrope and by which ao many human 
aonli ara being dropped into tha Tortci ot 
eternity, we expreaa the Jndgiaant that nn- 
leni a lar«r maaau« of human liberty, )u9* 
tioe and deraoeraoy ahall oome to the toll- 
InK mataea. the fneUfnl taerlScc haa been 
and will be In tbIb. Let aa here ezpreia 
tba hope that, while recretting tha eilitenee 
of the world war, slaea It haa been inaun- 
nitod, ita end win nabar In an era which 
ahall wltneaa the aatabliihmmt of a better 
undamtandlng ot laboi'a Tiewrwint and bat- 
tor eoonomlo, aoclal and politleBl condltloBa 
tor bU the workera, aBd flDally that from 



obvGoo<^le 



AMEKJCAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 



the uhH et dntruettoD anil the e*ni>(« ot 
couflict thsrs dull be mtrged ■ ntir spirit, 
■ naw eonngc and lb a d«termiD«tiOB upon 
iho pnrt at libor te oblsin sad held ■ fuller 
denocTtcT ihich ihall ■■feEuird, protect 
ud ndTiiDre the libertlai and mBtarial in- 
tereeU ot the mu>iie<. WUle elTlliiitloa hii 
wiDdored fu trooi the IdHU of bnmaaitf 
and a bmtaliilnc madneai i» temporarllr 
ecthTane'l In thin war, we are neilhar peial- 

the Jodpnent that flnt the war eftunol and 
will not croeh the hopes and aapltnliooe and 
actlTitiei ot otf-anlied labor, and lh«t aeo- 
ondlf tha trade anion moTemeat will ba a 
potenttsl foroB tn eilabli.hlng and main- 
Mining more peimanent peaee npon a fonc- 
datlon wbleb will moinlalo gnttta Jnatire 
end haman lifaertr and flnallr atind aa ■ 
bulwark of Hrenrth agalnal ware at eon 
qneat waged in the intereat ol coounoroial- 
iim, klDE*, potentates and ao oligarcby ot 
■rrexant ;intooraeT aronnded upon nnance 
and eon 



(1018, pp. lS4-ae3) ExecntlTB Oonncll re- 
ported: '^^Wllh the dailamlion of war by 
OeDEree* on April S, lOlT, tbo laglalative 
dtitlH ot the Amarieac Taderation of Labor 
hare been enonnonelj Incroaaed.^ A great 
meat of iMlalation bai baen introdnoad, 
most of which raqnlred earefnl aeratin; In 
order thai the intareati of labor might be 
■deqnatelT protected from the panage of 
tat leglalatfon which would adTenal; aSeot 
the orBanliationi of labor "- — "•!"- 



I liriDBi 



The characti 
trodnced. If 
riooalT InTBde 



conilderi 
(ed Int. 



e legiilat 



Dald le- 
., al rightB 

of 'the working people of the oonntrr. To 
perform thi> lerrico haa required oonelant 
atlention and Ineeaiant endeaior to protect 
the pichli and intereeta of the workert. 
The obiotratlona are here made with a 
view to nkggeetlng that while thta eoonlrr 
If entaeed Tn the preaenl oonfllel onr effort. 
ehOBia be diTwted more pardonlarlr to great 
■Dd tundamenlal Uinee. While we ainire- 
clite that there BT« maDT Beaded legiala- 
ti>e raforma. jut it t* more eaaantlal that 
the FaderatioD direct Ite attention and ao- 
tidtiei to fnndameDtala. Therefore, with 
that In mind it. la eoaSdent in It* hope that 
the delegatoB to Ihli ooiiTantlon will appra- 
clale the aitnatlon and lire material Milat- 
anee In OBrrjins the inggeatlo-' '- 



a ia poaiible to the Ex* 



authorlied to make adTancea upon etipnlated 
tarma a« ma]' be preacribed, for perloda 
not exceeding flre jean from the lecpeetlT* 
datea ot inch adiancea, to any bank, banker. 



their bond boldicgi and other obligatlona. 
AH idTaneea made are to be eovared b; 
prcmixaorj not a or notea and aecnrad b; 
notea, bondi or other obligatlona. The race 
of intareit ehargad on axr advance i* to 
be not leaa than 1 par eanlDm per aantun In 
eiceai of the rate ot diicount for Dlnetr- 
dty commercial paper prevailing at the timq 



t the diatrlct 1: 



atitui 



I ii located; but 



which the bomwlnK In- 



that whe 



than tho 
average rate reselvahle hj the borrowing 

inHitution — "- " — ' ' '- 

nude dnr 

date of adfaoce, exrept that 
average rate ao receivable b7 the borrowlnf 
iuetititioD ia leaa than aneh rate of dUoonnt 
for niuBly-daT commercial paper. The rate 
of intereat on inoh advance aball ba eqnnl 
to inch rate of dlieoont, while the War 
Finance Ooiporatlon alwaya ratJiios the 
power to lecnre additional lecurlty at any 
time. In addition to the powers already 
Btated. the law provide! for the creation 
of a "Oapital Iianea Committee," ronalst- 
in FT ot lev en mambera to be appointed by 
the Prealdent. whoie praacribed duliei are 
to inveadgate, paia upon and determine 
whether It ia compatible with the national 
inleieat that there ahonld be aold er offered 
for aale or tor enbacrlptlon any laane, ol 
any part of any iaine. of leenritlea here- 
after leaned by any peraou. flrm, corporation 
or aaaoclallon, the total or agBregate pat 
or face valne ot which laane and any other 
■entritlaa leaned by the tame peraon, flnn. 
corporation, or aaaoclation ainea tha paaaan 
of thia act ia in exceaa ot llOO.ooO. In 
other worda, thia law ia a fovemmeata) 
financing plan dealgned to place In the handa 
of the gove: ' "- - - 



t the control ot the 



in the proiaentlon of the war vaat anmi 



oney « 



t the t 



abonid Involve the temporary aettlng Biid< 
of minor matt an which wonid ordlnarll; 
rcoalve (heir attention." 

War Flnanea Ooiponllon — (191B, pp. 100 
3S1) Exeontlve Oonnell Initmctad to itady 
the war Snance corporation law, which pro 
vldea for credlta tor entwprlaea in l^a 
United Btalaa neeeaaary or contribatory ts 
the proaaontlon of tha war and for ether 
pciiioaea. The capital aloek la (600,000,0" 



I eipendltnra made neeeaaary In earry- 

log oat tha war aottvitlea of (he nation. 

War Lahai Boald— (IBIS, p. 67) The ■•- 
tabllahmant ot agenclee and policlea for the 
general Sold ot prodnctlon of monltiona and 
war aoppllea haa been oonalderad aa a whole. 
The thc^ht waa that there onght to be a 



polley an^t to be In oloae 



,_._. „ -_ oDoperatlon with 

panona or agandei r«tponalhle tor pro- 
dnctlon. The outftanding problema wHb 
which the national labor polley woold hav* 
honalng. diatribnlloD and aUi^ 



Dij.zeawGoOgle 



msTOav, BNCYCLOPKDIA, SEFERSNCE BOOK 



Aft<r msoT soQtarauc« (he n^Mar .woi 
teka np with tha AdTliorj OaiiuBfaiioa and 
with th« OoDsell of Kttlooal Dafanie. whlsh 
bodj loftda MKniuBaiiditlaiu to Iha Praal- 
drat of tha Cnlt«d Stata*. Tbli pnicna 
»M ipproTed by tba Prvaldaiil, who ra- 
qnactad tha Baoratur of Labor to nodar- 
tok* tta adnlnlatntlDii ud to ivoTida toi 
tBla pnrpaaa tba following aganolai: 

1. A maaaa of fnraiaUnf an adaqaat* 

■nd 8t»b1a 1110017 'ot labor to irar Indna- 

triea. This will inoliide: 

(a) A wtlifactorj aTiEam at labor ax- 
ah^caa. 

(b) A aaliifaetorr method aod adraioii> 
tratlon ot traiuioE of workera. 

(e) Ad acansj for datannlDlnE prior- 
Itiaa ol labor damand. 

(d) Agenelaa for dltntlOD of ■tilled la- 
■.._ __ — J ,j,j„ needed. 



be agreed upon i_ ,_, 

and wUhonl stoppage of work. Soch ma- 
ehiner; noDld deal with demiadi cod- 
eemin^ wataa, hoon, ahap eondlliou, eta. 
S. Xachloerj for aafecnatdiiif eoadl- 
Hone ot labor in the praductlon of war 
eaientiala. Thia la to Include ludnitrial 
kTdane. aafetT. womao and child Ubor, 

4. Uncblnar? for ufeinaiding coudi- 
tloua of UtIiic, laolndlug hooalnc. trasg- 
portatloo, at«. 

G. ract-citheHnc bodj to aaaemble and 
data, eolleeted through 



ceiMry for ^(ctiTt 



. e. lufi 
whlnh h_.. 
aomid pnbllf 



tha 



Bring I 



■- — n between depart* 

menta ot labor admluiatratlOD and pro- 
motion In IndustricJ planta of lae»I ma 
eblDarr helpfnT la earrTlng out the 
Dalional labor procram. 
Saeretarr Wilioa then appointed an Ad' 
Tlaorr Cammlailan (o uaial hln to pUb 
tha maehioerr Ibat would make the prograia 
•ffectiie. Attrr thia coraDlaiJon made Ita 
Taport to Sacratary WlUon. he eubmlttod to 
tha Saeretary of the Treunrj egtlmatai of 
f«Dda n a eaaaary to aarar out tba work with 
wbiah tha Labor ]>epartment had bean 
charged. Tbe neoenarj appropriation re- 
anartad waa abont tbraa and one-half mil- 
liana. Although the need tor a eantrKl Ubnr 
poller and proper adminlatratiTi 



pHallDg 
fotsnlat 



ratlTo, ___ 

Lppraelatbig tha need 
in naeeaaaTT moner. 
inomic prlndplaa i 









propam < 



_ , d emplorea 

a national War Labor OonJarenea Board waa 
onated. Thia board eonalated of Ato masi- 
bara eboaen b* the A. T. of Ti. and 9n 
Inr tha Katlonu Indmtrlal OoDference Board 
(•aq>laTan' aiaoclatlooi) , Bach of thaae 
nevpa aelactad a npreaentatlTa of the pah- 
Oc, who alio aarrad aa chairman on altai^ 
■ate daja. Thia board, after aaTarnl weaka' 
J mado Ihi* report: Tha Joint eom- 



. ) That there b 
rlod of the war, a 
Board of the aami 



B tha 



nal War Labo 
ler and b; the 



ng 






thia reeoounendatlL-. 

(b) That tha fnnelloni 
the Katlonal Board ahall 

1. To bring abool i 
dlatlon and eoneillBti 

Ttnj arlaing b si wean amplOTara and 
workara in tha fleld ot production neeea- 
— '— ■"■- --— "— conduct ol the 



2. To di 



the efteotlTe i 

the aame thing In ilmllar a 



tlTltT, dalan and obttruetloni In whlah 
may. in the opinion of tha Hallonal Board, 
affect detrimentallT anch production. 

S. To proTide anch machinery by direct 
appoistmeol or otharwiae, for aalectlon of 



dlatiOD and eouoiliatlon. 



sfltliatj 



■etilan 



aaring and action by the 
in caae of failure to aa- 
by local mediation and 



. ) If the ■inoere and datennlnad effort 

of (he Metlonal Board ahall fail to bring 

I Tolnntary lettlement, and the 

I of the board ahall be unable 

imonaly to agree npon a deelaion, 

__. ._ ..._, ^j ^n]^ ^ ^ ,^( 






ho nazt paral 

__ and flnally deaida tbe t , 

under airaple mlaa of praeedore pra- 
aerlbed by tbe Katlonal Board. 

(d) The mamben ot tbe National 
Board ahall ehooaa the nmplre by unanl- 






trom a liat l_ .__ 

oated paraona (o be no 
purpoaa by tha Preaiden 



lall b ' 



n by lot 

and dlainter- 

' tha Cnttad 



ton, with power to meet l- — 

plaea eonTentant for the board and tha 

(f) The National Board may alter ita 
meihodi and praetleo in aettlement of eon- 
OTeraiea hareoodaT from tine to time aa 



take oognlianee ot a eonboTern betwaan 
employer and workera in any liald of in- 
dnatrtal or other aotlrlty whero there la 
by agraamant or federal law a maana of 

— ■" ' -rhloh baa Bol bean Inroked- 

plaee of aaek member of the 



National Baai4 
attending on 
be flUad by 



bly detained from 
t ita aaaaiona may 
uauiDke to be named by 
hie regnlar inbetitnlr. 



acntatlTo eharaett_ , 

(I) The National Board ahall 
power to appoint a 



hia prlnelpat. 

Board ahall hi 

Beeielary, and to e 



obvGoo<^le 



AMERICAN PBDBRATION ( 



tor the diadhargs ot 11 

W The National Doord msT ipply to 
the SAcretar; ol Labor fi>r aolhoiltj ta 
uaa the maehlDer; of ths dcpartmont in 
Its work of eoneiliition and medlaOen. 

|k) The action of tbs National Boacd 
may bg isToked is r«apast to oontrovcnlca 
within It* JnHBdlctlon, by (ha Secretar? 
of IiBbor or bjr elthsc alda Id s ooDtco- 
veny or it* ovIt aathorlied rapreaenta- 
tlTs. The board, attec anniiaaTf conildar- 
ation, ma7 Tsfnia turtliar liearisc if the 
eBa« ia aot of sneh chiraetar or impor- 
tuo« to Jortifj it. 

(I) In th( appaintment ot oommlttee* 
of Ita own mamb<iT> to act (or the board 
In gooeral or loul mallert. and In the 
creation of local eommltteaa, tbs emplof- 
cn and the worken (hall be eqaatlr Tsp- 

(m) The rejiraaanlath h of the pnbllc 
-_ .v_ >--„3 jhall praaida altemataly at 



''u' 'lK°'l 



. of tha tHiBnl I 
nsdtatlDB 



eonildpratic 
:d h 

t tL 

I to orgaui 



__ _ :oDtro»er»y, ihall 1 

by tha follovlDC pTtnolplea: 
Kl(ht to Orcantie— 1. The ritht i 






bargain 



nniona 
tlj. throDgh enoa^n 
racognlied and af- 
itall not ba denied. 



talned. 3. In 



I employee or repraaantatl*a( enKagd 

BBied a 

of the 

r the Joining 



other eondltlana, at ahall be foand dealr- 
ab!e from time to time. 8. Xitabliihed 
lafa^ards and ragtilaliona for th« protec- 
tion of tha health and aafety of woAan 
ihall not be relaxed. 



Womeii Id Indnitrj — If It (hall besom* 
nacei*ar7 to employ women on work or- 
'Inarlly parfonnad by men, they raiut ' 

iDwad equal pay for eqnal work i 



dlnarlly parfonnad by men, they raiut be 

" red equal pay for eqnal work aoi' 

t not be allotted (uka diaproportlon 



day ia recognlied aa applying in all e 
in Thleh eaatlnf law require* it. In an 
other eaat* tba queetion of honr* of la- 
bor ahall be aattled with dna ritgard to 
STemmental nacaaaitia* and the welfare, 
altb and proper comfort of the worksn. 
Uaxbnnm Prodnotion — The mailnnm 

Erodactlon of all war Indnatrie* ahould 
a maintained aad method* of work and 
operation on the part of employer* or 
worken whioh operate to delay or limit 
produelion, or whioh haTe a tendency to 
artitolally Increaae tha eoat thereof, ihonld 



by t! 



_.-med. Thli rieht 

rluyen in any manner whalaoarar. 2. 
The right ot amplDyera to oreanlia in aa- 
aaelKtlonB of gronpa and to bargain eol- 
tectlTcly. throngh cboian repreaentaliyet. 
li reeognlied and aOrmed. Thla rlgbt 
■hall not be denird, abridged or Inter- 
fered with by tha worcen in any manner 
whatioerer, S. Employeri ahould not dl>- 
eharge workert far memberihlp In trade 
union*, nor tor legitimate trade nalon lo- 
tlTJtlea. i. The worker*; in the eierelae 
ot their rictat to organlia, ahall not nag 
eoerelTa measDre* of any kind to Indnca 
perion* to Join their orraniiaticm*. nor 
to indnoe employer* to bargain or deal 
therewith. 

XTiating OoDdlUona— 1.. In entablleh 
menta whom the onion ihop aiiat* the 
(ame ahall contlnne and tha nnion itand- 
arria ai lo wage*, honra of labor and other 
I of employment qhall be main- 



be dlaconraied. 

Kobilliatian of Labor — Tor the pnrpoaa 
of mobllliing tfag labor inpp^ with a view 
to ita rapid and affeetlTe dUtrlbatlon, a 
parmanont Hit of tb* nnmber of akiUed 
and other workera aTailabla in different 
part* of the nation ahall be kept on file 
y the DapartmanI of Labor, tha intorma- 
— *- be eonatanlly furnished: 1. By (ha 
mioni. 3. By atate employment bu- 
reau* and federal aganciaa of like charac- 
ter. S. By tba managan and operatora 
of Indnitrial eatabllahmenta Ihronchout 
the country. Theie aganole* ahould be 
giTen opptntnnity to aid in the dlatrlbu- 
tion of labor, aa ne«e*aitr demand*. 

Onatom of Looalitia* — -In dilsg waee*. 
bown and oonditlon* of labor regard 
■honld alwaya be had to the labor atand- 
ardi, wage aealaa, and other oonditlona 
preTallIng in the localitlea affected. 

Tbe Lmng Wage — 1. Tha right of all 
worker*. Inelndlng common labotaia, to a 
IMng wag* I* hereby declared. 2. In ti- 
in; wagaa. minimum ratea of pay ahall be 
ectaUlahed whieh will Inaiue the anbilit- 
enoe ot the worker and hia family in 
health and reaaonable comfort. 
Thla report wai aubmltted to the Preel- 
dent of the United State* with the ancgea- 
tlon that tha - ■■ - ■ ■- ■- 



e tha Secretary o 



In tba 

r aonuaoni- 

-atad with tha American Vederatlon of La- 
bor and the HaUonal Indnttrial Oontarenee 
nniiTd aa to the peraonnel of the tfational 
r Labor Board. It waa agreed th*t tboae 



the Frealdant laanad tha following procla- 

"Mow, therafora, I, Woodrdw Wilaon, 
Pretident of tha United State* of Amarloa. 
do hereby approTa and atBrm the *aid 
appointment* and make dne proglaniatlon 
thereof and of tha fo" — ■-- '~ -*-- ■- 
formation and gnldano 

The powera, ftmctiona, ana anue* ct ido 
National War Labor Board ahall be: To 
aattle by mediation and oonciliation eon- 
troTerllei arialug batween employer* and 
workera in Held* of prodnctlon neeeaaary 
tor the effeetlTe eondnet of tha war, or 
In Dtber Belda of national actlTtty, dalaya 
and obetToatlona in which might. In the 
opinion of the Matlonal Board, affect dot- 
runantally auch production; to praTlde, 
by direct appointment, or otfaerwlag, far 
'"-— or board* to all IB rarion* 



ovGoo»:^Ic 



HISTORY, ENCYCLOPEDIA. SEFERBNCB BOOK 



diKtiea and ccnelllMlor , _, 

the partita to conlniTanlei Idt bsatlni 
- ■ Nittoni" - - ■ 

ai 

» oliBaTTed i__ . ._ , ._ 

be follovtd b; the National Board In ei- 
•icUing nteh power* and tnncllona and 
puformiDE euoh datlsa ihall ba tbosa 
■peeUled In the aaid report of the Wit 
Labor Oouterenca Board dated Marab 2fl, 
laiB, a Domplata capr of vhlah U bara- 
ODto appended. Tbe National Board ahall 
refnia to take oopiiBanea of a oontrDiartr 
betvaen emplojBT and mrkar* In anf field 
ol indnitrial or other actlTitr where tbara 
U br aKTaaDent or federal law a meant 
of ealtlamant whleh bat not baaa loToked. 
And I do barebT nrre npoa all emplojan 
and emplDyaa wltbln tbe Halted Statea 
tba neceaallT of utUlilnc the maaoa and 
method* thn* proTtded for tbe adjtutment 
of all indulrlal diapntea, and reqseat that 
duisf the pendaaer of mediation or ar- 
bltratloB throncb the aald maana and 
mathoda. there ahall ba no dlacontlnnanec 
' ' 'il oparatloni which wonld re 

bailment of the prodnatlon of 



— (Ifll4, p. 4Ta> 

„ . .. blai " 

.J anj partlonlar (aramment or people i — 
too Kreal tor prejudice and aster." Alto: 
"That we warn oar fellow-toUen agaluil 
anjr IntamatloDal police foree." 

War Work, AvoU InteirnptUn of — (1918, 
pp. 85-880) A erial* lo world aKalra hei 
bean reached. Tbe battle llnea of oar alUea 
tn Franc* ara menaced by the fonsee (hat 
»pie*«u antoerallo goTemment, Each day 
■>d boar of the oomlnr month* will hold In 
k tatafal balance the dettlnr of the rorem- 
mcBta and the people* repreieatlof the 
Idnia wbteh bring Into being and maintain 
(DTenmanta directed hj tbe people* tbam- 
■alrea. America wai drawn Into thla world 
war b7 tha challan^ of thoee aatoerallc 
foreae wbieb anlbrone might aa their ablet 
aba. With tha rrowth of aebiaTamant* of 
oar Bepnblle, IhTa nation baa atood ai a 
beaoon Uffat to all tbe oppreiaad peopln 
of the earth. Onr Inititntiona bare radiated 
notaat part* of tba sloba 



a coTammant gnlded and maintained b? 
._j will of It* people. It I* a atanerlm 
thongbt to eontemplata world domlnloi 



antoeraej and tbe doHtmction of opportnnl- 

ao T^lantlj oontanded. A* a people Ira- 
bu«d with tba blaheat Idaala of Iiutlea, the 
fast that the allied annle* bar* their baeka 
to tha wall flgbtlng tha tntnlon* of antoc- 
ney, makea tbe preient moment auame ■ 
ragind and danrerena front and morea aa to 
the aelemn dntj of ■altezamlnatlon, to dp- 
tenalne wbather we ara doing onr foil pari. 
That criaTon* indnatiial wmnga itlll exist 
no one can deny. The armor that hai 
fonsht wrong, that ha* l&ted men and 
woman up to higher plane* of lite and work, 
that baa itood between the ospreiaad and 
the oppreaaora. l« tha orgaolied labor moTs- 
ment. tt hat aeeonipllihed tble conalncttTe 
medial work throngb organliad economic 
" ■ imfi power ha* been 



.1 the ie*peet and confidence of 
that* in place* of reaponelbUItT and anthor- 
ily Tbe preaant admlniatratlon, under tba 
leadarihlp of Presldenl WiliOD, who hat in- 
terprelad by word and act the tplrlt of 
democTaor and hunanltr In a way that 
haa maite blm tba apokaeoian (or world 
daoioeracr. baa recogniied that only throngb 
labor haa It been poailble to flgbt thla world 
war. The gOTamment has entered Into coa- 
ttacl* with organlied labor and haa pro- 
vided Bganciea for dealing with problama 
that arlaa is prodnetlDn in which the cot- 

tinnona, fnll-power production dapenda opon 
tbe morale of the worfceta; that. In tnm, 
)* dependant npon a aenia of Inatiee. The 
■ Drtera In war production are practleelly a 
pan of the Ughtlng force*, the Armr and 
Nktj. The; can not atop work wlfhont 
Intorfering with the wbolr program. The 
whole campaign from prodnclion to where 
munitions are need la tha field mntt be ao 
precis e. ao wall articulated, that nothing 
■ball Intntara with any forward moTsment 
if wo are to check and defeat the beat or- 
ganlied war machine the world haa oTer 
seen. No action thonld be taken In the 
ahopa or on tha field not In harmony with 
the pBrposes of tbe war. Organliad labor, 
■utcaptlble to erery Impnlae and atimnlos 
of riicht, mntt recDgnUe In its Impartial and 
eiaettng Jndgmant that the hour baa atmok 
for II to emphaslie and declare Ita porpoaa 
and attitude anew and to help meet tha 
overTKiweTlng force of circumstaDeet and ne- 
cBttltiea which oantroot onr nation. Organ- 
iied tabor, true to It* traditions, haa prof- 
fered Ite idII and oompreliDnslTa snpport to 
Iha Oommander-in- Chief end it will not now 
ba peralyied by Infirmity of purpose nr ac- 
tion. The pretalng need at tbla moment of 
Imminent peril la that shipt be ptnTldad 
whereby American eoldien, food, and mnnl- 
tioBt can be traoiportad to raen force the 
Amcrloan Army already fighting with the 
toldlen of France and England. In order 
that tbl* may be accompliibed there muat 
be full cooperation and eDTseslneaa of the 
people of our eonntry. We adtlse tha or- 
raniied labor mOTcment thai In tbl* erItU 
prove lis loyalty to onr RepnbUo 
nnr fflllow-men, and demonstrate Ita 
1 with blE problama and big 
ucnuB 111 ■ L-uuiilmctlTe manner. Deeply In- 
presaad by the erents npon the western bat-' 
tla fronts, wo are constrsiaed to place belOre 
onr fellow-workmen a definite courts of Na- 
tion. Yielding to no one in onr determina- 
tion to mainlain for the working people of 
this country the right co work or not, to 
work for a reaion or tor no reaaon, yet at 
a time whan tbe d-atlny of the democratic 
inttitution* of tbe world are trembling In 
tbe balance (and still holding lecrad the 
pHcciplea of the right* annnciatpd) wa can 
itell afford to walra their exercise in a pa- 
triotic doslra that the istnrs of this war 
may result in a snccesifnl termination. In 
acTeral departments charged with wer pro- 



pow«r. Uae of v 



r. 



hed to adjoat labor difflm 



mented by a 1 
scope, which hi 
by eiecntlve oi 
plan, •gende* u 
prodnctlon whic 



i*t been made effeetlTo 

In accord with tbl* 

a nUbllthad In all war 

III maintain tbe rl^t* 



.ogle 



AMERICAN FSDOBATION OF LABOR 



of worbun and at the lune time make poi- 

iciTins the rjglit to atrllte. tbonld iDbmit all 
dlffBTsnceii to thM« ■csncleB and In erarj 
my seek to adjnst drfflcultiM withoat oei- 
ution of work. No itrlke ahanld be in- 
BUKiiratsd which cia not be Jnstifled to tha 
man liaklng hit life on the flring line In 
France. An equal TBiponeibUitT and dul; 
d»Tol»et on employ en to do BTBrytblnt 
within thsir power to maintain contlnuana 
product ion. Aa the bat aarely tor tllla 
purpoie we nrge all employer! to endeaTOr 
to adjnet all grleraneea of emp1o;eg, to ei- 
tffallth and maintain equitable, humanitarian 
conditioni of work. The wotkera of Amer- 
icii with to coaperats in winnlsc (hti war. 
They can do ao with onreeerred ability and 



ot human lifa, tho brutalitr and tlia batohery 
aeeaed ao horrlb'e aa to .ba well-nish impoa- 
■ible. Bnt ttit montha Ihat - hare paiasd 
hare reTaaled the tanaolty of purpoae tu' 
TOlTod <n the war, the grim determination 
to flght the alriiEEl* to aome dadnite deci- 
aion. yet every day and every month of the 
war have demanded their toll of hnmaji 
vi__i __. ^ ... ij jjj^ anlTerlnj o( 

„, „„^„. .^0 pnrpoeo a— ' "■- 

method o( war are a direat reyeiaal 

tnrpoie and the ideala of peace, 
einga are merely the aseneiei toi 

actiyilloB tor peace rerolTe' and :„ 
a!l of ciiilitation and all of progreia 
With the heginnine of hoatilltiee, oil 
life haa been completeJy reiolalioniiai 



The pnrpaae and~the 



,Teme aacrifice, which 

a dominating and InaplrlDg Influenca upon 
(he people of thia nation. Let It not be 
aeid that the organlied Amarisan workmen 

accoutrementi of war (hall be fOQnd nn- 
Killing to make the Baarldee deoianded of 
them in thla honr. Oonaeloua that unfair 
and unjuat crltldam hat heea leveled at our 
movement, we can not eacape the thonsht 
that nnleet we do our full duty and make a 
aacrlBce commenaurate with the exiKanciaa 
of the altuation, thaee crltielama may be 
pregnant with a leeaon of deep eat import, 
""- mutt either volnnlarily meet thla great 



AU of acience, lUeratur' 



oria r 



■ vith I 



Hon of tl. ._, __ 

eiery indnatrlal decision ar.d action, or elae 

tuultiea ot free men, and a atrong foree 
will interpoae to compel ui to render the 
neeeaaary aerviee. If we volnnlarily waive 
our rtghta to atrike in thla hour ot dire 
neeeailty. there will ba do opportunity to 
atlgmatiie our movement aa nnifliponaiva 
in the honr of need, and our appeal for 
Justice will take an redonblad farce whan 
the terrlUe conflict ahall have been brought 
to a doae. Unaparlng induatiy and attea- 
tioD, nniwervlng and nntstflah fldellty la 
(h( taliaman for an Inunenee capacity for 
oeaasleea progreai. and we ale lure that in 
acting upon the nggeationa herein atTared. 
tlie AmnlcaD labor movement will emfaody 
a prodenoe luid dtteemment that will meat 
the apprabatton ot the people of our oirn 
aonntry, a« wall aa the pro found gratitude 
of the workmen ot other canntriea engaged 
in thla terrlllo atruggle. We urge that our 
Dtovaneat reapond to the call (conaclona 
that the future la ioTolved In profound tu- 
cettdnty), ae that when the hlatory of thli 
great conteat li written, the lerrlee per- 
formed by the workmea of America wtll com- 
pilae Ita moat conaplcuoni feature. 

War'a BOeet on Woikait— (IBIB. pp. 48- 
4G9) Convention Indoraod thia report of 
Kieeotlvf Oonnell: When the Xxecdtiv* 
CouneU made Ita report ts the Philadelphia 
Convention, the European war hod bean in 
progreaa far aeveral montha. Tba horron. 
the deatmetlon and the waete of war warn 
all ao new that tbay were like a torrible 
walgbt on the iplrlti ot all. Tbe waal* 



— intent upon deetroyiag the 

armiea of the enemy. Out of all thla grim 
and deadly hoitillty there have grown an 
InleDiity of faallnr, racial prejndlee and 
bittameai that make all afforti at peacs 
impractical and futile for the preeent. 
America haa maintained a policy ot laolatlon 
from entangling alUaneaa and haa kept free 
from the diplomatic Ingglgry that haa in- 
volved BO many Enropaaa eonnCtlea In ware. 
Out situation and phyalography hava aided 
thla purpoae. It haa been our moat eameit 
deeira alnce the beginniUK ot thle Enropaan 
war to malntais our country tree trom any 
dlapnte that would 1 — ' — — — '"■ ' 



Ting t 



deaar 



Through anch i 



llonal power and fnflnanea to take advan- 
tage of any opportunity to aecnre peaca and 
to eitabUah condltiona of equity and juatjcc 
between nations. However, the aoaaomlc 



and so interwoven, that the life and tha 
affaira of any one eonntry neeeaaarily affect 
all other eonntrlea. and It la impoaalhiB for 



nal I 



Thar 






. al! the na- 
tions. Theae tiea oan not be aevared wholly 
oe partially without bringing well-nlgh In- 
credible Buffarlng npon the peDplee ot the 
ocnntriea concerned. The onlbreak of the 
war interfered wllh many ot the Induatriea 
and ocenpatiDna ot Europe. Theae people* 
bpeame Increaaingly dapendant npon the 



and other 






_.„.. complately changed 1. 

character. Tha produeta that we aant abroad 
had to be adtnated to meet new demanda 
and new neada. Thla neoesaltated Gbanae 
and readJiiBtraent In the iDdDBtriea ol the 
United Statea. We found that we were on- 
able to obtain many thingB tor which «a 
<n European eonntrlea. 



obvGoo<^le 



HISTORY, ENCYCLOPEDIA. REFERENCE BOOK 



TUi parlod of Tgadjaitmiint In tlis wtatsT 
of 1914 iMant t« tli« wigg •unan of Iha 
tlnltsd Statn oneinplaTmiuit for minf sod 
mil at tha aril sonaeqnaiieM of vnaoploj- 
But vlth tka raadlnatnant tbare 



.> prodnc* the tUaci that wan 

ry to inpplr >b* n««da of th* war' 
ttloni. Aa our ranulr; had naln- 
■ potltT at poUlloal neutrality II vaa 



ralitr, and the imdiiola of o 



immerelal Intar- 



itiona than for ottaera. 
It put and the dlractlon 
■la alniDit eomplatelT 



Dittr^ and In 



inc to tl 



[treniBly lanaitlTe 
concept, coEBnaerce that a 



1 with eertaiL , . . 

■oma dafrea at leaat, reaponalble 
war Itaelf and tor the loaa of life, 
who hBTe thia eonTiclion feel that 
bargo ahcnild be pnt npon aach i 
and that all trade shonld be forbiaai 
theae IhlOEl which enable Enrope to 
tlnae the itrngtla. Bnt theae peraoc 
— .._j, („2]y [||j (iiaa«trou« effect 



>roduc 



alJ of Iho eitlie: 

trade which won 
indnatrlaa and 
■anda ot men, 

Etnn^ tor It li 



miry a 



n>Dld 



artfelaa i 

ear; afVDeiea for Iho cnlllTation of paaei 
they are alao naeeaaary agencie* in oarry 
— Elhoold we make any altampt 



which material) can be pat. All n 



neesaltlaa ot eitetence. I 
ocnlied that theae tnpplJ 
do in I •- ''^- 



a alao n 



._..... „id dnring the 

the war bai been in procreu. 
^eHa^y far the protecIiDn of 



gela hli or lU liihts morply for lh( 
of maiDlaiiilnK peiec. IndiTMnail < — 
liana who conaeionaly pennit a right to be 
denied aatabliab a precedent of Ininalloa 
that ^ffeete all olhait. Wr do not condemn 
indivldnala or nalioni that bare fonghl 
nobly tor Ideala and for rlghta. On tha 
MDtraiy. we elcry >n their oonraie and in 
Iheii conTicdana and in the noble fl,tbt they 
bare made. Had onr forefathera preferrad 
peace to jnitice, wa woold not now hare 
the Ideal! and thr initilnlion> of freadam 
that eiltt. Bo now in anr atlitnde toward 
fJnropcan nations and the Huropeac war we 
moat have in mind Jnatlea for Amerlea'a 



i in the lait y 
nllJmaU^Kali 



□therB hare bean created by individnala and 
intereitg that aere really nnnentral. Theia 
moTementt haTe taken Tarlona forma; lome 
hare tiled to Iflfloence the policlei ot Iho 
at ale and torernmental anthorUlea of onr 
country: otlien bale tried to work npan 
Trublio opinion and atill othera hare aonght 
10 lue the good name of out labor moTamanI 
to farther the interest a of aome foreign 
cDDDtry, Rat all ol theie efforte haTa Ibni 
far been fotlle. The eitiiena of onr oona- 
Iry, incladiog all of the workingmen, are 
too gonninely patriollo, liberty -loving r-' 



[ diicrlmlnaUon ot 
1 in eioalnr to many 
nlckly redoce thon- 
ind children of onr 
.on. There la no middle 
inipoaaible to dlatlnealah 
of war and the sTdlnary 
Ootton, antomabile 



>ed by 
anv men agency. 'I'ne en oris lo aae tha 
woikingmen ot onr eonntry have been of 
two klcda: oca to get through them the 
endonement of the foreign policy to place 
an embargo npon ao-callad "mnnlllont of 
war"; the other has been to atir np In- 
dnitrial conlentlona and diipntea and thui 
Inlerfere wfth the actnal proceai ot prodoc- 
lion ao that prodocia to be aant abroad 
may be itopped. Foreign agenclea hare been 
irylng t ' ' ^ 



logniied 



..ar. yet li 

that we bsT( no right at > u>Tiun hi unn- 
tare with the right of ^ny other nntlon lo 
determine In what manner it ahall uphold 
Its demand! for Jnatlce. 3a long m na- 
(!oni are free and Independent, to long ai 
they aball maintain national ^etf-reapcct. 
they mail have Ibe right to determine ai 
thar ■earn bnt the thlnca which alTeet Ihsm 
directly and intimately, Aa Amerleana. we 
beliera tnllT In freedom. It nationa are 
to remain free, they can not ho forced or 
coerced by other nationa, tttn in the matter 
of paaea. There are erlle and hoTTora which 
rcaalt from war, bat there are also erll! 
and hom>» that retail from a dMpotlam 
thai dealea people and nationa fieedom to 
work out their own beat wcltara according 
to their own bigboat Idealt. Vr raapeet 



each cormptly < — . — .- 

enltatlan! of tha workert, bnt Ibay haTa 
not ancceeded. There la nothing toncblng 
tha indaalrial and commercial life of Amn^ 
lea that is not ot Intereat to the warring 
nationa. They hare aotigbt all angle! of 
control bnt everywhere they have tonnl a 
spirit of falthtnlnea! In America, a aplril 
at unity and aoltdarlty among the workoTt 
that Impelled then indignantly and decis- 
ively to reject inch olfert attar their real 

Welfare DlTlaiaii. Labor— (1918, p, 681 
The President of the American Fad- 
er a tlon ol Labor, as Chairman at the 
Committee on Labor of the Adviaarr 
Commlaaion to the Council of Natlanal 
Dsfenie, baa continued the development of 
the work of that committee. Notably 
an'ong the achiaremenla ware the drafting 



ents where war prodnction la being car- 
ried on, which Indicated tha need of house! 
tor the workers In anch place!: the vlalt 



T.Gooi^lc 



AMERICAN FBDBRATION OF LABOK 



■ dapirtnn i< caiential lor thi iftMtlTe i 
■nit of the nalloiikl delenu. ind than e 
ltnipoi»rIIy to meet iht gnmt Bmsrcei 



wS£>, 



re bBisd. mm tha hMltb, 
Itoej of tha workan In tbB 
pan which all alia daiieiidi. 



ly thnmch the noltad Btitaa Dapartment i 
LBbor, aaenilng lla aDtborlistlOD for na« 
■etlvltiei from the Btctettrr, vho la alas 
a mambei at tha OonDoil of National Da- 
Ifuae. The Seoratary by reaaon ol the U«l 

_. .__^ _. ^jij jjij recoeoition that 

ilttem o( the Com-'"— 

their OTgaBiiailons, adTliad thai theaa nrl- 
ooa eotunlttaea contlnua to (nnatioa onlil 
the departmanl ii prepared 1 



1 the Food Admlnli- 



orar. Oo-oparation 

tiation haa bean one di me larce enaBBTora 

Of tba Oonmittee on Labor, 

National OoDunltles on Wallara Warki 
Tbe dlraetlng motile of (be OommlUee db 
Welfare Work baa been that Indiipanaabia 
aarriaa under war oandltlooi moat be or- 
■aniaed In fnrtharanoe of two pnrpoie*. 
oonaarratlon of the hcunam and pradnetlTitj. 
Tbe work ot tbe committee haa been ao di- 
vided a> to take into acconal tbe needa of 
tha workSTB during and attar worklns honra. 
I: haa taken Into conaldaratlon the tact 
tbat to aecnra Cha beat aerrlce in peace or 
In war, there nmat be Inanred tbe axlatenoe 
of Bood win and loltletlve on tbe part of the 
woAera and that ^od will can eciil onlr 
under eqoitabla caodltionB. Tbla commiltae 
plBDied ID BSfeKQard the health ol worker* 
chiefly throat a cair.pairn ot edneation 
and in co-operation T>llh cilttln^ afansiea, 
the leaDi to be eaipl07ed being Illaetrated 
lecture*. morlnB ploluree, illoatrated lltar- 
alnro tor enplayerB. worteri, la'tnren, and 
praacken. and the agencies (a be nied bainjt 
trade anion a. fratonlty lodgaa, ehurehea, 
cbambera of commarcp, em ploy ere' aaioola- 
tlona, mlseelluiAOiii eonTaatloni. ate. ^e 
eoounlttea propoied to undertake to brine 
home to anployen in the meet forcetal way 
the nacetilty of Mtabltihlni: correct atand- 
arda to the end that the lOTemment ahall 
recelye from the lodnatrle* Fogagad In the 
production ol war uaterlala the beat poa- 
alble reanlta and at (he lame time conaerre 
the health and adlclency of the moit Import- 
ant inacbine wiilch the (OTarnment baa at Ita 
dlapoaal — the hnman machine. The deBni- 
tloa ot welfare work adopted by tbe Oommlt- 



Jt Labor la: 

ing working and IlTing condltiDi-_ 
-' — mlally applicable to min< 



factorlaa, i 



.._, , and pob.. 

typea of employ aa i 



Ina 



rell- 



(a) IndDitrlal; (b) 



Field Iteehanlea in 

notable effort! of the Oammitlee on Welfare 
Work and tbe moat besefleial la tbe goTem- 
maat In relation to tbe snccseitnl proieca- 
tlon ol the war, era (be eectloni on Oom- 
penaatlon for Satiated Men and their De- 
pendent*, and OD Homing, and on Indaa- 
tHil Training for the War Emergency. Tbe 
Brbiaramenta of all three, to da(e. baVB 
clearly demonatrated tbe InTalnable aerrleaa 
whieb the Oommlttae on Labor may render 
to the goTemment wi(b regard to national 
defense. .The prinolplaB apon which thaae 
tnlnrea ot Waliare Work, In the eomniKtee'i 



>thlng and food, ia iecond in 
ily to tbe military eatabllBh- 
rovemment, the eommittae haa 
indaatrlonily on plana for the 
md welfare ot the workan 
Indnatrial, aolantlfle 



reporta. Three 1 



eaaeerriag tbe 
tetr plant!. They 



how to rednca iadutrlal tallgnej ; 
tiure and loadln* ot bta^i exnloili 

Tldlnj, among c ,_, , 

adeqnate lanttary darlota), and code .. 
lighting (which will be eipaclally uaefol In 
nndertaking to aoenre aUta leglalallan ) , 
Other important repoiti haya haan anhmit- 
(ea by eommitleei npou "VantllaUoD, " 
"Abnormel Atmoapherlo Praaanraa," "Dlat- 
Eoatlo Clinlea," "Hedieal Bur — '■ " " -" 
"'Village and Publle^Sa^Utl 



itandardt tor 



'Hedieal Snperrlalon," a: 
--111- ^jilUtloB," which It 
i; be pnbllahad by the (overa- 
ii.iuf, siu<;s tboae which have been laaDed. 
by the nae ot lolontary tnnda, have been 
prOTen of value- Tha Dirlalonal Oommlttae 
on Indnatrial Fatlgne haa eondnoted Invea- 
Ilgattou In f acton ea jnannfaatDring war 
anppUee tor tha pnrpoae of daterailning 
whether nnnaceaaary tBtlgna la praaant and 
dlieovaring the aafa condltkina nnd«t whlah 
a mailmom eontlnnona on^nt may be ob- 
tained. Iti prelhniDary report la Intended 
chiefly for manataetDren. It deala not only 
wlfh the meana of detaetlng fatlgne bat the 
Introduotlon of reat parfoda, providing 
adinBlable aeali, omitting nnneceaaary mo- 
tions, proper ventilation ot workrooma, ad- 
justing the bonn ot work, avoiding ov«r- 
time, omitting Snoday work and lanltaiT 
eoaditioni outaida of factorlea. The Wvl- 
B ion at Commlllee on Induatrlal Dlsaasea, 
Polaona, and Siploalvea, In Ita report o" 
the mannfaetara and loading at high aipl 



as 



of the 



I In the induiti 



and loading ol high aiplo- 

I . — 1— — lODg the moit 

I eating taoill- 

. . ot^ tbe Section 

under t 
rsted c 



. The 'manufai^larwa* ^p™ 
„ »d vltbout axeeptlon to adopt 
the rules snd regnlations in (he report aa 
the practice for (heir establlahment* and 
they have eirculsted large number* of copies 
In their plants to that end. These report* 
wfre anbmltted to the employer* after they 
had been appTovel by tbe Ohairman. The 
Cbalrmau of the OommiKee on Labor ap- 

£ tinted Dpon the Divialonal Oommlttae on 
igbting In each BtB(e a member of tha tl- 
lumlDatlng Engineering Society, nominated 
by Its praaldont. The "Code of Lighting" 
haa bean aant to the head of eaeb aEate bn- 
rean of labor who will be sonsnlted by that 
ataie member of tbe Ligbtlns Oommittee 



obvGoOi^lc 



BISTOKY, BNCYCLOPBDIA, RSFBRBNCB BOOK 



■ckinf Idi 



with rafBTeiieB to tlis bsat incuia ol snllitloR 
the Intanit of smplojan Tolnntarilj to 
Adopt this meini of pntentlou for tha work' 
en. All thne reporta faara been untht bj 
munitaetiiTert, •dneaton and oBlcUli of li- 
' ■ orguiii*tion>. Povdei eoiDpanles ua 
'- ' tbom in lirn qunlilifs. Tha 
^iBDtUlc School at Tsla waa pni- 
Tldad with a anpplj adoqoala for tba aenlor 
mechanisal auiiiieda, aod Iha Dliialon of 
Education at Harrard UoiTeraltj waa fnf- 
nbhad with a almHar gnaQtllr to naa Id l(a 

Btara, now In iCMlon. 

Tha Saetlon on HomlnE: It waa appw- 
•nt that nalthar ahipa nor anppllaa for out 
boTi In BsTopa aonld ha adaqoatalj lorth- 
aomlBC without ihetter tor Iha workeni and 
that thare miut bs goTammant flnalslal aid 
in laaor luatanoM ai looat capital liad prao- 
tlcallr boon aihanatad in prorldiiii oparatlnc 

¥<-an plaaad b; tha fOTaminent, Unch baa 
'bran aaid abont alaolian amonK tba workara 
bnt Tarj littla about tba azpoanre of thoia 
workara dnrlni ripinina wsathar which 
made it aluoit Impoiilbia for contlnooua 
labor. LIttIs hM besB laid about tbe lone 
' h Inadaaaals tranapartatlon, to and 
I woikplacfls. Tba rarelallona of 



CBsditiDn 
nitlmi ' 



tbnmch tba 



air daralop 



imulttea 






tba Shlpplns Board waa i 

$60,000,000 of ita apprapnaiiDm mr nam- 
In; Ita anploraa, and tha Fraaldant ol tba 
tinltad Blataa to naa 160,000,000; 110,000.- 
000 tor bonalnr coTarDmant employaa In tba 
nlatriet «t Oalambla, and •50,000,000 (or 
hoaalnf monition workara. In eaoh In- 
ataoca tha plant anlllnad by tha Oommltteo 
on Labor ware iDcorporitad In tha lagiila- 

Soetlon DO Indna trial Tralnini 
War Bmerteney: Thia ■action et 
faro DlTiaion of tha Oommlltaa oi 
ECmpoaed at ona-lblrd labor, ena 
ployaia and ona-tbird practical 
Slala Dommittaaa almllarir orni 
bean dcTslopad wharo war nrodnt 
'-- --'- Taatlbnlc anboola, ao 






«Dtial 



nnamplDTad men be adapted a ^- 

now tradea for tha pariod of tba war and that 
vna killed men b« trained wbererar poaalbla 
bsfore raaoHicf to dllDtlon or Che amploj- 
xaant of woaea. Tti apltc of thla paraiatant 
aflort, it appeara the women hare been taken 
larnlf Into tarians tTSdea and their adapta- 
bility and readiaea* Id taking IralDlog baa 
drrolopad a problem, Iha aolntlon ol which 



aalibul. 



tborongh 
imatalT ia i 
both lor ma 
oiflT haa b< 
tralnini thai 



Lining 



hool. 



a jl aided appi 



ol the 

idnetion 



a In prodnetion, 
Tha labor Inrn- 
raoaeeo materially by the 
len. Among tba ioTeatin- 
the aactlon on Indnati^al 
TralnlDK, hecanae of the anomoai daaand 
for aklUed maehinlaU and loolmakera, tbere 
•aa one In tha atata of Haaaaehaaetta where 
the onaniployed nnnbared 



tbii 



report contltiaea, that Iralninc i 



, Iha 






reetad toward thoia apaclal trada* ti 
deiTta and the effort la to train aklllad nan 
from dnll tradaa to war prodnetion, TTn^ 
akiiled and inaiperlanoed workara are b«- 
log trained to beeome aScient operalora on 
machine tooii, either in regular machlna 
work or tool work by aubdiiidlng tha pro- 
eeaaea and training Ibe recralta npon Iha 
work under aiact abop sondiliona. Tbia 

capable of getting prodnetion bnt not.akUled 
tradeamen and tbey will not therefore flood 
tha trade after the war. One Interaitlng ra- 
anlt of training reaident nnampioyad la the 

traetieal elimination of the tionaing problem 
1 eartatn inatancea. Tha chairman haa ad- 
drsiaad tba leading metal, machlna, tool and 
other employera' aaaodationa in tha «n- 
dfavor to Indnca tham to adopt tba mattaoda 
of training rocommendad by this aection of 
the Ckimmlttse on Labor. It shonld be added 
that a labor man ia one of tho three mam- 

toneh with all lU Mtintln. The intemta 
ol labor are being guarded in every poaaibla 
war in thla ooBnecllon. 

Accldant Frevaation: Special effort hal 
bean made by tba Division on Indnalrial Ae- 
oidenl FreTentlon to have Inelnded atandard 
aa'aty deTleea in the eqnlpmaat of all ma- 
chinery at the time of ita mannfaotnra or 
bfrore ita Installation, by appeal to ttaa Snp- 
plf and Uacbiaery UanDfaetornv of tha 
eountT7 lo take inltabla act ion In eonneetion 
with apecldcatlon: 



i for all eontracta for ma- 



. a VaA, 

indnatrlsl nnning asTTloe and to naka it 
aTallable, baa lasned a circular which haa 
bran sent by the Ohalroan of the Oommlt- 
._. __ ..... .. t„jg nplona, urging them 



1 the W.1. 




n Labor ia 


dnatrlal plants and that the members of 




tbair families make rreatar naa of pnblie 


adncatort. 


health Doraaa in their commnnitlaa; alao that 


nliad bare 


the trade nnlon inflnence be exerted for 




the eitenaion of nnraing aarrlce in mral 


1- called be- 


dlttricta. The pnrpoee of this appeal ia to 


'Od to Iba 


guard Che physical condition of onr men and 


rganiaed In 


women In indoatry and their families in 




tl>alr bomei as a national obligation to aafa- 


*«"??« 


guard our body of eltiieoa at thi. cnelal 



Reere 



Thia 



I in proeeta of ornnliatloo. will eon- 
efforls Id ahipbuilding, aeroplane 
and mnnltion making cantera. It 
la prelimlnar? anneya of conditiona 
ig Iba neceaslty of proTidlng raqnl- 
liida mnnltion making 



compleli 



which 



Kef 



■tate. health and labor boarda and to make 
(he national Oomnilttee on Welfare Work 
mora readily acccaiible In the Tariona sec- 
liona of tba country. These state commit- 
tees are to consist ol Sre members, two to 

tiTea of Isbor already 'nominated Sy State 
Federations of Labor, and one other who 
ia recogniied (rooi bis atanding in the com- 
mnnlty aa acceptable both to employera and 
labor, preferably to be a elected by tbeae 
four. Tbaae ilata welfare eommlttaaa arv 



obvGoo<^le 



PEDSKATION OP LABOR 



t3 bo nodenlood ag opsTitinft in the jnrii- world at 
diction of th« Slats Ooiiaclli of D«tesi« ■ <>" " ■-• • 
WlUoB's Addrau »t Bnffilo, Pruldmt— 



I did I 






lleKa »iid ■ real honor lo ba thna admitted 
ID yonr pnblio eouacfli. When jonx Eieoa- 
IItb Commlttn paid me the oompllinaat el 
Invlliue ma hero, I gladly etceptad the in- 
TltMioD baoauM It Beami to ma that Ihla 
•bore ail other lim«> in onr hiilory Is tha 
time (or oommon connaei, for the drawing 
together not only of the energies but of the 
mindi of the nation, I ihooght that It wei 
a weloome opportnnlty for diaeloelng 



aring In mj ml ad dnring tbe 

I am Inlrodneed to tou aa 
of the United Stala. and ret 
pleeuad If 70D vonid put th 
the oUBe into the backgronnd 



lie Pruident 
I would be 
thought of 

. and regard 

. . . r failow-flltiiene who baa 
come bere to ipaak, not the vordi of an- 
tborltr. but the worda of eoncaol. the worda 
which men aboald apeak to one another 
who wlah lo be frank In s moment mora 
critical perhaps than the blatorr of tha 
world bM eTsr known; a moment whan It 

'- 'i duty to forget binuelf, to 

interagts, lo Ul himself wttb 
a great national and world 
conception and act upon a new platform 
elsTated aboro (he ordinary affaln of Ufa 
and lifted to where men bare views of the 
long destiny of mankind. I think tliat in 
order to realiie lost what Ihie momaat of 
connsel la it la vvy daalrabia that we ehonld 
remind onraelTes Jast how this war oame 
aboat and Jut what it la for. Ton can 
exrUin most wars Tary ilmply, but the ex- 



forget his 



old prinelplaa 



lllBtOIT, 

ciaiTs Issue bBtwe__ ,„. 

power and the new principles of freedom. 

The war was alerted by Qermany. Her 
authorities deny that (bar started It. but 
I am willing to let tha sUtement I hsTe 
JbbI made await the verdict ol history. And 
the thing that needs to he eiplalned la 
why Oermany started the war. Bomomber 
what tbe poittJOD of Germany In tbe worM 
was — SI euTlable a position aa any natlo 
has aier occupied. The whole world atoc 
at admintion of her woadarful Intellectna! 
■ad mateHal aehieTemenU. All the Intel- 
loctnal men of the world went to school to 
her. As a nnlvenlty man I have been sur- 
rounded by men trained in Germany, man 
who had resorted to Oemiany bacanse no- 
where oUe could they gel inch Ifao 
and searching training, particularly 1 
priDcIples of iclence and the prinelplea inai 
ucderlla madam material aebleTeraent. Her 
men of science bad made her Industrtea per- 

world, and Iba label "Made In Oarmany" 
was a gnaranlea of good workmanship and 
of aound material. Bbe had access to all 
the markete of the world, and erery other 
nation who traded In those markets feared 
Germany becsuia of her effective and at- 
most irrotlstlbla eompetitlon. Bbe bad "a 



baTS in abundanee. Wa boast of 

tbe extiaordiaary paoe of Ameriesn od- 
TSDCement, We show witb pride the ita- 
tlatici of the increaae of our '-.in.ivlu ,r.A 
ol the popnIatloD of our eltie 



eitlea erar grew. Her old Industries opened 
their eyas and saw ■ new world and went 
out tor ita conquest. And yet the authori- 
ties of Germany ware not latlsSed. Too. 
part of the answer to tha qnes- 



tiied t< 



Hon why ahe was 

ods of eompetitlon. There la no important 
industry in Germany upon which the gOT- 
enimeiit boa not laid its bands, to direct 
it and when naoaialty arose oontrol it; and 
yOD have only to ask any man whom you 
meet who Is familiar with tho oonditlDns that 
prevailed before the war in tbe matter ot 
national competition lo And out the methods 
of oompetilion whloh Iba Oerman maantae- 
Inrara and exporters used under tha patron- 
age and support of tha (ovemmant ot Ger- 
miTiv. Ten will find that they were the 
oris of competition that we bate 

rrevant by law within our own bor- 
they could not sell their goods 
cheaper than we eonld sell ours at % prodt 
to tbemaelTca, they oould gat a subsidy from 
the govamment which made It poiilbla to 
■ell them cheaper anyhow, and the eondt- 
lioDi of competition were thus controlled In 
a large mestnre by the Oerman govamment 
itself. 

But that did not aatisfy the German goT- 
amraent. AU tbe while tbere was lying be- 
hind Ita thought in Ita dreamt of tbe future 
a political control which would enable It in 
the long run to dominate tbe labor and (he 
indsstr? of tbe world. Ther were not oon. 
trnt with snooess by superior achieremant; 
they wanted success by aBthorlty. I sup. 
pose very (aw of you have thought mueb 
about tile Berlln-to- Bagdad Railway. Tha 
Berlln-to-Bagd*d Railway waa conilrected 



flank 



Q the tl 

of the Industrial nndarlaklngi i 

:en other countries; so thai whe 

ipatitton eama in " 



11 the 



atood 



TT, 



htSTt of that ecnntry quicker 
■rmiss could be got there. 
Look at the map ot Euro 



„ _ Take the map 

and look at It. Germany ba* absolute con- 
trol of Austria-Hungary, practical control 
of tha Balkan states, contnl of Tnrkey. 
control ot Asia Hlnor. T aa* a map In 
which the whole thing waa printed in ap- 

?TaprlalB black the other day, and tbe 
lack atretcbad all the way from Hamburg 
to Bagdad — Iho bulk ot German power In- 
serted into the heart of the world. It she 
can keep that, the has keirt all thai her 
dreams contemplated when tbe war began. 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



HISTORY, BNCVCLOFSDIA. KBFBRENCE BOOK 



Snilia Is — alw«7i preTldsd the prraaat In- 
uKi«M thM eontml tbe Ouiaui fOTcm- 
Himt coDllDua to control it. I baliST* that 
th* iplrit of fnedom «■□ gat Into the hoarti 
ot Guman* *ad Dad -- ■-- - — ' -■- — 



anlrlt ot h 
tbe Fu-0< 

with »□« .. 

pl« If 11 Is ued br tne pMpli 



r othar heirte, bnt the 

IB not rait the platu of 

Power ennnol be mod 

■■alsit free poc- 



ni ben ona of (ha Oaotnl Powen that It li 
mora aoiloiu for paaae than tha chief Cen- 
tral Powar, uid 70D know that It niMiia that 
tha pMpIo in that Oentnl Power know that 
if the WKT audi ai It itanda tha7 vlU in 
affect thamaelie* be Tisaali of Germajij, 
not withitan dine that thulT popnlatlana are 
componnded ot all the peoplaa of that part 
of the world, and notwltbitaDdlnc the taet 
that ther do not wiah tn thali pride and 
pnper apirlt of nktlontUt)' to be ao ab- 
•otbod and domlnatad. OermanT la datcr- 
ninad that the political power of tha world 
•ball balonc to her. There han faaan such 
ambttlODf before. Ther liaia been la part 
rcalliad, bnt neTer befoni haTs those am- 



^.*V.?. 



and I 



> 111- 



Informe 
Bnaala 

can llTs in tha prenace of ■ QemanT pow- 
erfnl anoBch to nndermiae or orartuow 
tMB b7 Intrlfna or foreaT Anr bod; of 
fiea men that aomponnda with tha prsunt 
OcTEun roTammiBt la componDdlnf for Ita 
own deatrvDtlon. Bnl that li not tla whole 
of tha atorr. Anj nuin lo Amorlea or an;- 
whaia alaa that nppoaaa that the free <"■ 
dutrj and antarprlae 0' " 






If tbe 



of the 



tha world 
Raisfa. 1 __ 
faelinc a( th< 



1 German powar faatanad npon 



fa» 



a tha 



. -, — ^-jlOit/lrat thdr'atupidiiyT 

Mr heart la with than bnt mr mind haa a 
contempt for tham. T want paaee, bnt I 
know how to ^t it and thar do not. 

Yon will notlea that I aaut a friend of 
mine, Oolonal Eooaa^ to Xnrope, who li aa 
graM a lOTar of paaae aa anr man in tha 
world, but I didn't lend him on a paaaa 
misalon yat. t lant bhn to taha part In a 
conteranaa ai to how tha war waa to be 
won. and bo fcnowa, ai I know, that that 
la the wa7 to fat peace If jon want it for 
nioro than a few mlnntai. 

An ot IU> li a pretaee to tha oonterence 
(hat I hBTe l at m ad to with refsrd to whit 
wa are nine to do. If we are tmo trlenda 
of tieedom of onr own or anybodj elie'n, 
we will see that tbe power of this conntrr 
r prodnetlTltr of this country 



I to Ita abiolnEa 



I (bat 



the war 1 

allowed to atand In 

that thar ahall be j . _. .__ 

of the Kovarsment, bnt hj the power 1 
Amarlean aplrlt. Onr duty, If wa ara to do 
tbia (raat tbioi and show America to be 
what wa belloTa her to be — the ireateat 
lap* and ansfj ot tli* world — li to atand 



toiether night and d 



unat aea among 
free, and that n 

loE thlflll' " 



iga that 1 _. 

nnmbar ot Intaraal- 

_ _ not only that wa 

do what we have daclared onr pnrpote 
to do, see that the candlllona of labor are 
not rendered more oneroua by the war, but 
alio that we iball sea lo It tliat tha Inatn- 
mantalltlea by which t* 



cheeked. 






body I 



italltlea by whi 

_. Improved are 

That wa pnat do. That haa b._ 

tar abont which I haTs taken plaaann in 
eonfarrlng from tlma to tlma with ^onr 
PiMldent, Kr. QompKi; and It I may bs 
pcntitted to do ao. I want to expreaa my 
Admiration ot bis patriotic eonrafe, hla larga 
Tialon, and hla stataamanlika lanaa of what 
haa to be done. I like to lar my mind 
alonnide ot a mind that knowa how to pnll 

'- ■"- >- "— "ok OTar tha 

bare to be pvt in a eorral. 
, .. aland togather means that no- 
nnat intermpt tbe proiiaaaaB of onr 
marcy, if the iaterraption can poaalbly be 
avoided withont the abaolnto Inraalon of 
traedom. To pnt It ooncTetaly, that maana 
thli: Kobody baa a right to atop the pn- 
ceiaas of labor nntil all the method! of 
conciliation and sattlamant have baan ai- 
hanitad. And I might aa well say rlgbi 
here that I am not talking to you alone. 
Ton aometimea stop tha eonraea of labor, 
bnt there ara othara vho do tha same; aaa 
I bellere that I am (peaking from my own 
experience not only, but from tha aiparl- 
anee of othera, when ' I lay that yon ara 
reasonable in a larger number ot saaaa than 
the eapltallati. I am net aaylng thaaa 
things to them personally yet, bacanaa I 
haven't had a chance, bnt they have to be 
said, not In any spirit of erlliciem, bnt In 

Srdm- to clesr the stmoaphera and coma 
own to business. Everybody on both aides 

srttlemant la nsvar Impoiilble when both 
aides want to da the square and right 
thing. 

Uoreovsr, a settlement 
avoid when tha partlaa c 



Is always hard to 
an be brought face 

to lace. J can aiuer from a man much 
mora radically when be is not in the room 
than I can when be ia in tbe room, be- 
cause them tbe awkward thing la he can 
coma back at me and aniwer what I aay. 
It is alwaya dangerous for • man to hava 
the floor entirely to himtell. Therefore, wa 
must Insist in every Instance that the par- 



' in plsa 



which 



with eaeh other. I alwsyi. 
iiie 10 remina myself of • delightfal say- 
ing of an Xcglithinau of a past generation, 
Oiarles Lamb. He itnttered a little bit, 
and once when he waa with a group of 
friends he spoke very bsrshly of some man 
who wss not present. One of his ti4anda 
Slid, "Why, Oharlai, I didn't know that 
}on know 80 and 80." "O-o-oh," ha sold, 
"I-I d'd-don't; IT can't b-h-hate a 
m-m-man I know." There la a great deal 
of human natnra. ot very plaassnt human 
nature. In the saying. It ia hard to hate a 
man yon know. I may admit, parentbetl- 



obvGoo<^le 



AUBRICAN FEDERATION OP LASOR 






ttltr, tbst lharg an tonie politlefuii wlUMe 
Kstlioda I d« not It ill believe Id but thay 
ua J0II7 good lallowa, uid if tlwy anlr 
wonld not ttlk the wnnf kiad ol politic* I 
would lava to be vlth tliem. 

Bo it JB sll along (be line, is aariana mat- 
tert and thlngi leu ■ariona. Wa ara all of 

the aame clay asd ipiriC, ... .__ , 

tosether if wa daaira to get torether. Thei 
. — — . .. _.^ J, ,„;,. Lb, ^, 

_ ._ I b7 abDwiDB that 
to H> oS In aaparate oampa 
. ... -. __neTTai, bnt that wa want 
!0-op«rata with all othar oluaet and al] 
other groupa in the ooramoa onterpriae 
which ia to ralaaaa the apiilti of the world 
ftom bOQdaga- I would be wllllnK to aet 
(hat Dp aa the ilnal taet of an American. 
That la (he meanine of demoeraor. I have 
been ToiT maeh lUetretctd, 1117 fellDW-oltl- 
Msa, by some of the thlngi that luTe hap- 

(laned reeaDtl7. The mob ipiiit U diipl*r- 
at Itaelf here and there In (hie coiuitr7. 
I hare no a7nipath7 with what aome men 
— -iTini, ,' ' ' ■ 



ahow onitelTea Americana 
or (ronpa b7 c 



tho 1 



take (heir 






' !"'.' 



CTer/ man who does join asoh a mob that 
I do not TvcDcnlie him aa wor(h7 of (he 
free inatltntlon* of the United Btatea. 
There are aomo ornaliationa in thia conn- 
trf whose object le anatehy and the da- 
atraetion of law. bat I wonld not maat 
their altorta b7 makinr mTMlf partner in 
deatrOTtng tha law. I deapiae and hate 
their pnrpoaa aa mach aa an]r maa. bat I 
reapect the ancient proceaaei of Inatlca, and 
I would be too protid not to aea them dons 
Jnalice. however wroni ther are. 

80 I want to niter m/ earoeat pnteit 
-— '— -~ manifeatatlon of the apiril of 
anywhere or in any canaa. Wh7. 



lawleaanaaa 1 
cantlsmen, 1_._ „_ 
In be the greateat A 



a flrat 



of that great thin( whieh we cal: 
government. A man who takaa I 
hla own hands i> not the right 
01 crate In any formation 



of t 



claim 









epeakine of, 1 
they are mere 
tion of the nn 
that tha fund 
aftnatios ia thi 



the atruggla betwcea capl- 
carried on are proeeiae* that 

th what I have ]ait been 



orgaalied h; 1 



)na in (hit manlfeata- 
9aB to eo-operate, and 
letion of the whole 
laC not onl7 take com- 
uiDn cDDDiei, a-a\ laai we moat yield to and 
Obey common connael. Not all of tha inatm- 
mrntalltiet tor thia ara at hand. I am hopa- 

fQl that Ln the vary n«bf fntnn n*w in. 

atrunentalitiea may bi 
we can ace to II that 1 
now (olng on ought not to go on. Ther* 
aid varioaa proceaaea of tha dllntion ot labor 
and tha nDnacBaaar7 anbatitntlon of labor 
and the bidding in dlatant marheta and nn- 
fairly npaetting the whole competllion of 
labor which ODght not to go on; I mean now 
DO the Dart of emoloTera. and wa mual In- 

? th" f^^h'Dj'wm 



t Into thia 
ration by ' 



be done all 'round. I am hopetnl that 
soma aaeh InatTDmentalitiea ma7 he de- 
viced, bnt whether they ar? or not, we mual 

uae thoae that we have and upon every oc- 
caaion where it li neeetsary. have inch an 
inatrumentality originated upon that ocaa- 

80, my fallow- citiiena. the reaeoo I came 
away from Waahlngton ia that I iomeClmea 
get lonely down there. There are ao many 
people in Waahlngton who know thinn 

who koov anything about what the people 
of the Uaited Statea are thinking about. I 
bare to come away and gat rprainded of the 
reat of the country. I have to oqme away 
anu talk to men who are up agalnat the real 
thing, and aay to them. "I am with yon it 
you are with me." And the only teat of 
being with ma la not to think about me per- 
loually at all but merely to think of me aa 
the eipreaslon for the time being of tha 
power and dignity and hops of the Unitad 



- - , -mvey to 

Woodrow Wilaon, Prealdent __ 

(ho United Statea. our profound apprecia- 
tion of bis preaence upon the opening day 
of the convention and for the direct frank- 
naaa with which he addressed na. Tha( 
there Is particular gratlflcatlon In tha fact 

that the '— -' *^- "-'— ■"--- 

to honor 

tentlon of the i 

bor should be eo ilaunch a defender and 
ao able an interpnilsr of the tmidamental 
principles of practical damaoracy. That aft- 
er aober, aerloOB-tn^ndad eonalderatlon of 
problemi arising aa the reault 



of ( 



1 righta 



._ _ __ncluaion, in anpporling 

him in hia efforta to ap^ly the prlnoiplea 
of democracy to the aolullon of the preblenu 
which Hriae in Industry, and In conducting 
tbe war ao that II abatl be a war of tha 
people, continued in detanae of the funda- 
mental inatitutiona for human liberty trana- 
mllted to ua by the foretatheri of our 

Women Is IndnstTy^deiS, pp. Tl-815) 
The Oommlttaa on Woman in tndualry of the 
National Council of Dafenae waa appointed 
Co adviae on womsn'a employment in auch 
> bring about the maximum effec- 



. jf the w . 



of the 



_ _ „ ngth la avan 

....J eaaentlal than to avoid waate matarlala. 
'Wage earning women must be aaanred auch 
houra and remuneration and sneh conditions 
of work as will promote their follest work- 
ing capacity. Onl7 by preaerrloc health and 
general welfare can this be alCalned. 
Woman's labor must reach ita highest effl- 
clency. By her eervlae in tbe aeeond Hue 
of defense the war mnat be won. The com- 
mittee haa a nemberahip of 84 woman, 35 
of whom are representatlvaa of labor. The 
remainder are eiperta on labor problame 
and repreaentativea of the employ era and 
the general public. The ofllclal status of tha 
Oommittee makes It nseesaary to secure rap- 
reaentatlon ot all tbe intereala ot the com- 



obvGoo<^le 



BNCYCLOPBDIA, RBFBRBKCB BOOK 



munitr, Th* work of Iti State OommletM 
._ n. ...... ._ — arTie«d bj thg National 

>p»rat«a with tbam b; 



Coaitilltee. 
iBportuice 



II a 



s Coounilteaa by keeping ■ . ^_. 

entire Osid and leriea a« a ehunal 
tlon In reportlnt to the (ov- 
importanl part ol the itsta 
wur> II >u sBcnra enfor«enetit ot labor lawe. 
Tbii meana eloaa aa-oparatlon with atai* 

■timulate Iheb- actliltlaa and. whera nacaa- 






t work on tba part a 
moit impo- — 



t Ibe 



, .1 the am- 
ploraenl ot women on -work CDitamarElT 
dODs by mea, WheroTar thia ehange )■ uon' 
tpmplatad or ii taking plaoa In anr Indnatrj 
or ofcnpation, the lonumiltao balisTea that 
li:4Diriei ehonld ba mada Immediilely. Tba 
hulth of tba wDmen ahonld ba fnpoelall; 
ooniidered. vhetber the work ia anitabt* to 
IhMD. Wberaver, tor Inatanca, it raqulrai 
(bem to cuTj haar; loadi. to work on baa^ 
naehliiH or to atand toi long perioda' It 
wUl be naceiaarr to modifj tba prooeaiai. 
Tba cDmmlttee'a attltnd* la that; 

"Woman an antitlad to ba paid the 

aame ratal aa man roaaiTa tor idantleat 

vork. It tha proewaaa ara not Idantloal, 

wagu moit ba adjutad aeeording to tba 

■kill and antptit of the workar. Tbara 

ia a real dangar that war needa will ba 

naad aa a pretext tor eotting down w^aa. 

Bverr aVoTt mnal ba nuda to eombal thia 

tandeacy and tha oanaaqnant lowartng ot 

tha atandard of IMng." 

Tha work of tha Ooramlttae on Women In 

Indnatrj haa bean earriad on throngh Ibraa 

ehannela: Throngb ita eiasntlre eommittM 

d)r«tlj; Throngh Ita atandlng oommitteaa; 

Throngh ita atate repraaantatina. The 

moal ImportaDt aetlTitr of tha exaontlTO 

eomnlttaa bM bcien laectirinK InforiBatton 

oonceraliig the amplonnant of woman in thJ* 

Dnited Btataa araenaia and Qnartermutara' 

dapota. Detailed raporta c' "— — *'•'- — 

of work In thaaa plasoa i 



1 ebangaa hai 



and raoommanda- 

— e been made to the do- 

partmanta oonDomad. Tba raporta ware re' 
celted with approclstioD and made the baala 
of aetiOD br the departmanta. One of tha 
aarlr atodlea waa mada ot the Brooklyn 
NaTj Tard. Tha report reanlted In maar 
Tccomnendatlona being pat into efleet. Other 
atvdiea and raporta ware made on women 
worken at the Prank lord araenal at Vrank- 
ford, PannBTlTinIa: at the Picatinn' 
■naoa) at Do«ar, New Janer: at the HchaTi 
kill araanal in Philadelphia; on the wort 
t'Tot ont from the Qnartannaitar'a depot a 



133 

JdreraonTllle and the aabatatlona of that 
depot, where more than 31,000 woman ra' 
aelTe work to be dona la their bomaa: on 
tha NaT7 Yard in PMIadalphla and 
—*"-'■" -It the Okarleaton NaTj 
ittee haa been halpfnl in 



In tha fastoriaa 



maUng anggeitiona and protealing 
engaged in war work on rallroada. 
gtated to the Director Qcneral thi 
ment of a board < ' 



It ■ 



point 



ndnatrial fatlgna, 



axperti. inoltidT 
lart, and an aiperT in 
atndr all ocespaUona 

-- ,. — engaged and to da- 

tMmlna proper oonditioni of employment. 
Tha flommlttee adopted itandards tor tba 
emplOTment of woman oo work for war anp- 
pllea. Theae standarda deal with tenemest 
honae work, child labor, protection of 
motbera, wagea, honra of work, aeata, extra 
heaTj and baiardooa occnpationa, dangarona 
tradaa, lifting and eipoanra to heat and cold. 
The Tariona aobcommlttaea ot tha Oommlt' 
nen in Indnitrr report tha fol- 






iraight 



_, „ — nen in war !n- 

dnatrlea haa rendered a Talnabla aarrlce 
in lining to the foreign and labor praaa 
a aarlea ot bnlletlna In foreign langnagea. 
Snbjecta dealt with In theae ballatTna are 
aaddeBt, fatigue, indnitrial ataodarda, 
i .V — 1 — . „(„ijm molhera 



children. 



The Oommlttea on 
trained eolored 

ItfM whieh 



Colored Women baa . .. 
worker In the fleld and L ,.._ 
daallng with the apaelal diOealUt. 

colored women at woA haTO to face. 

Oammittee on LlTlng CondlUona haa held 
conteranoaa with ■OTemment oSelala and 
other agenelea with regard to bonalng 
— ' 1 UTlng condlttona in the naw 



: which 



Indiutrlal __ 

In addition to the int. 
I'traaaarily be aronied in raeonntlag « 
haa bean done and attempted to ba dona _ 
oonierriiig the Utsi and tba health of tha 
ol indtutn 



>nd wi 



bring aboDt a better 
_..... ._jj] jjjij abandon 

laa faire pollor 



that oonree tpr 

that It waa not _ __ . 

prsleet Iti people agalnil the axploltalion 
ot emplojars wboae only coneem haa been 
piollt. Gorernmenti] and Tolnntarr cItII 
nting and aiding the work 



ot the 



greater lafetT and coi 
lan life, body and beallh. 



t will make 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



AMBKICAN PKDBRATION OF LABtm 



ENCYCLOPEDIA 



'^EARLY SOO subjects eonsidtrtd by tke American Ftdtration of Labor in the Hurty 
i » Bigkt years ef Us existtnte have been condoned and are herewiA printed. Every 
principle maintained and methods followed are set forth in the original language. Many 
educational features are included, as the book is intended as a guide for all neu members 
and for those who seek knowledge of our movement. The year in v/hich each subject taas 
discussed and Ike page where it can be found in the official proceedings also are given: 



, -(IBia, p. 278) De- 

clarel "aratrltDC wrIiUns'' ■ prooMi uid 
"iratyltn* mldor" ■ tool vUeh eui ns 
morr eomn nndir thu aisliuiTs jnrliillBtiDn 
of UT ao« tTkda or eilliPC tbaa Iha bammar 

Adair BUekUrt Ou«— (1010, p. 9a) The 
Dpitad SUtaa SspTTma OoQ<^ laid on Jar- 
oary a?, ig04, tn ita dseUloa on tha Adair 
oaia (■onatlmM popularir ratarred to aa tho 
"Blaaklbt" aa») ; "In nary oaia that 
oomai bafora tbla eoort irhar* tho pntao- 
tion of tbe Fadaral Oonatllnlion U aoiacht, 
the qnaation naooMarllT arlaaa, ia thia a 
iair, raaaonatilo, and ainiKpriala oiarelao 
of tba polloa powar at tha Stata, or la It 
an nBToaaonabla, onnacaaaair and arbitrary 
Intirforonoa with tha iWit of tho IndlTld- 
oal to hia iMrional llbanr, or to antar Into 
tboao ooDtraota in ralatlon to labor wUob 
may aeam to Um a_ppropriata or DouMarr 
(OT tho aapiM>Tt of btnualf and hU tamll)'! 
Of oonna, (ha Ubartj of oontraot ralatlna 
to Ubor Inolndea both partla* to It; tba ona 
baa aa mnah rl^ht to pnrehaae ai tba othar 
to aall Ubor." Afaln the oonrt aald: "Tho 
rl^t of a parton to aell hIa labor npon anah 
termi aa ha daemi proper la, In Ita aaaonea, 
tha lane aa the Htht of the pnnhaaer of 
labor to praacrlbe the eondltlon npon vhlsh 
he will BOoarit anoh labor from ■ peraon of- 
farini to aell It, So the right ol tha em- 
ploye to qnlt the aarTlce of the eraplojer, tor 
whatoTer raMon, It the aame u the right of 
the amplorer, for whatarer reaaon. to dli- 
prnaa with the •arrleea of aneb employe." 
wo QDOte aialn troa tha aanie oaae. "It 
waa tbe legal right of the dalandaat Adair 
* ■ * hoireTir nnwlaq aaoh 'a aoutae 
on bii part might bare boao, to quit the 
■errlee in wbleh he waa engaged beeauae 

irere not membm of a labor organliatlon." 
Aftor thla ntllng, the eenrt emphaalasd Ita 
poeltlon by aaytnc; "In alt anoh partlen- 
lara tho employer and tha amplDTa havo 
aqnallty of rigbt, and any le^alatlon that 
djatnrba that equllty la as arbitrary in- 
terfarenea with tha liberty of sontraet 
whieh no goTanimeDt can legally Jnatlfy In 
a free land." Tba eonrt In Ita fljaal Juds- 
meat on thla caas aald: "Thla doeiilan la 
tl.aretore raatrioled to the qneatlon oE tha 
validity of the parllenlar protialon In the 
act of Oongreaa making It a crime agalnit 
tbe United atataa (or an agent or ofleer 
of an Interatata carrier to dliaharga an em- 
ploye from ita terrlce beeante of hit being 
a rnembe; of a Ubor organiiatlao." And 
the court added that the partleular proTl- 



aion in tha aot of Ooagraat 
tional. The oonrt dodiad tL^ 
had the right to dlacharge a 
ho waa a mebiber of a labor 



n employer 



fnlaatii 
that gi„- 

Itoye to qnlt tha aarrlee of u mployar for 
whateTor roaaon la the aama aa the right of 
the employer for whatever reaaon to dii' 

Sanaa with the aarrioea of aaoh araploia. 
abort, far the ooorta to permit to em- 
ployan the free play ot dlacharge mnat 
earry with it the oorreapondlng free action 
ot employee to work or not to work, for 
any oanae or for no oatiae, aa they aee fit, 
ndt Inherent right can aot be aaeeoaafnlly 
abridfad, either by a le^alatnre or by tbe 
OoBgraaa. And yet within ■ period of one 
month indgea of three oonrta In three aap- 
-arata SUtaa — Ooff, In New York, agalnat 
tho uarmgDt Workera, Angnat 37 ISlo- 
Biohardaon la ICaaaaohnieMa, agalnat tho 
Ploto-Engrarera, Joly SB, 1010, and Bonch- 
ton, in ladlaaa, agabut the HaehlnlaU, An- 
gnat ST, IB 10 — laaaad Injnnationa and do- 
elded that It awn leave theiF amplonnant 
for reaaona JnatiOable to thalr jndgmaat it 
wlU »>• ,?o«?(r_.ill««fll7. Thia. too. in tlie 
face of tha Ugheat Jndieial antboritr in ear 
hind, the Snprame Ooart of tbe United 



mpelllng 



"fi^l 






(IBOO. p. 

..-ip'oliion la a toTqi^ 
of volontary ataoolatlona la 
" * — ' "' ".(lalra. A dam- 
Ion woDld mean 

— — Koral aaaaloD 

meaua piDgroia from tbe bottom. Along 
theae llnea we have bean working: along 
tbraa Unea we have formed maohlnery, we 
have formed tba eity central bodioa, tbe 
itata tedoratlona and the departmenta. We 
have them all ready for the ladlvldnal au- 
tlon of anion men. and If Indirldnal actios 
la bronght Into play In those organiiatlons 
we know the city central bodlaa and tho 
Btate federationa will be bailt np from tho 
bottom and wlU sadnre torerer." (IBIS, p. 
8ST) Preferred to urge aatloaal and Inter- 
national nnloDi to Inflnanee their looal 
iinloni to Join oentral bodiee In preferenee 
to attempting to force the aetloa by law. 
A. F. of L. a LMng lUnr 

Ids) Tho trade qbIob m 

Amerlcen federation of Labor — ia i 

thing. It can not finiab and flnally decide 
apoa anything; in ita work and aaplrationa 
there la no Onalltr — no itopplag point; It 
n.nat plan and do for today in order to are- 
ata greater opportnnltie* tor the m at r ow. 



:b,Goot^Ic 



HKTORY, ENCYCLO?BDIA. HSPBRBNCB BOOK 
■tMa of deTelopmsDl 



op«n tlu) wai 

frtfldom to ds Ibou Ihlogi wbish ihaU < 
abla hb to re>sb oat after •ad uhliTe tba 
better and larfsr Ideala of a tmar Inatisa, 
■ fnllar freedom, a broader hanuDlty. 

A. r. of L. mod BaUdoa— (ISlS, p. 313) 
Kothlns would be more Injorlooa to the wel- 
fare of our mOTmnant tban tbs lajMIion of 
SseatloDa relatlTS to rellelon. Tba Amer- 
!an tradta-nnion moToment, from !(■ laeeu- 
tloa. hai eielnded all qaeiUona of a loe- 
and tbii 



.a: 

epiaode bx the 



or maintain. Amenoan trade nnlona, a) ii 
tbeir risht, have Inileted upon oomplete m- 
tonomjF Bier the polloiea of tbe labor moTe- 
ment opon thli ooBtlnenl. In tb* aaaertion 
ol tbia rlsbt we moat recopilaa the aqnal 
rlsht of tb« trade union mDramenta of 
ctber eonnlrlet to gorem thamaalTe* and 
reinlate their pollolaa la laeb manner h 
thair Jadgmant dietatea. 

A. 7. of L, Aaplntlan 
V-14S) TUa aeaaion oE I 
BiatJon of Iiabor marka . 

ptDcraaa of anIlKbtment ■_ 

TOrld'* blatory. W» moat In aolld pbalani, 
regardlan of creed, regard] eae of dogma. 
With national prld*. bnl without Interna- 
ttonal prelndlee. The world l> our Held ot 
action, and man Ib out brolber. Wa not 
OBlf proclaim, under Ibe nnanlllad and nn- 
tarnlibed banner ot trade unlonlam, bnt llxe 
tba prlnslplaa at llbertT, aqu'lltr. fralemltr, 
and Jnatlsa. Oora la an aOllatloa of men 
of like Intaraita, and of a kindred eplrlt. It 
U tbe natural growtb of a aentlraent for 
nnltr that bind* and aeola tb* eompset (or 
barmonj, fldoUtr, and foUowihip. Onr 
eauo demandi tbat there li qa woikat ao 
deei down in tbe abrii of ndierr and de- 
apair that we dare iwun to aitend a help- 
lag band In bla npllttlDg; that tbaie la no 
blgh pinnaele ot rnndear to wblsh tba toll- 
ing maiiea ahonld aot aaplra to attain. The 
trade ualona are ot, bf, and tor tbe wage- 
workan primaillr, but there la ao effort 
wbleb wa In our mOTemenI aan make but 
what will hare Ita beneSceot. ealDtar? InflU' 
■nee upon all our people. The mlaer; of 
tbe paat. Ibe atruggles at the preeent, and 
Iha dnt7 tor tba fntcra, demand tbat no ef- 
fort be left nntiled, tbat all energr be exer- 
oleed, and opportunity taken adTaotage of. 
to orranlia the (ollera of our coaatTT upon 
tbe broad platform of Ibe trade uidon, la 
toll atBllatlon with the A. F. o< L. The 
dim, dlamal paat. with all lU pain and tra- 
Tifl. ranil give way to tbe batter and bright- 
er futntre for which tbe worken have borne 
tbe burdena, and made tbe aaetifloea that 
thJ people ot our time, and tor all lime, may 
be tmly free, 

A. T. of !._ AntbOTtty of— (iai3, p. S2S) 
Aaarlean redaratlou of Labor bai no au- 
tborltr to InTaatlgale or Intarfara wltb tba 
•dmlalatratlon of an aailatad Intainattonal 
BnloD. anleaa It !■ alleged the rlghla and 
iutareata of auotber atBlIatrd union are balng 
aneroacbed upon; bnt where two Intarua- 
tlonal nnloni agree to amalgamate and the 
A. T. oi L. la a party to the agreement. It 
can InTevtlgate if Ita tenu bBTo beta tIo- 



atfaetlng the Intel 



. to be wrong, and ahonld andaa' 

with all tbe InHnenee which can be broc 
to bear tkraugh our moTement, to ad; 
aoeb dlaputea, oonflieti and clalma ao 1 
„. .._,._ __j __,.^__.._ ,, the labor m< 



« unity and aoUdallty of tb 
sal may be maintained. If tl 



not the eonatitoted 
ui:»7, wu«D, r-'r. 'hall nob antbarlty 
_. .odga^T In any one central bodyl It 
that be loitlfled, then why not a alngle looal 
union? And If tbat be proper, then each la- 
dlTidnal member ot a union may ba oonatl- 
tuted a law onto hinualf. Then, how can 
any general policy or parpoae be outllnod 
or a oohoront practical couno be pnnued In 
the InMreati of tba general welfare ot the 
tollen of our aontlnantT The lawi, the 
pollelei. and tbe daclilon ot tbe A. F. ot U 
ara baied upon the eonbined ludgmeut ot 
the toUan of Amerlea. There la no power 
lodged anywhere In our movement by which 
the lawi, pollelaa, and dedalona thereof can 
be made eSaetlTe, unleaa II be Ibe ganenl 
eoneenana of opinion and Jndgmant of the 
organliad wage eamara. and the raepeet and 
eoDfldenoa whioh tbey have tn tbe raovemant 
and the mea they have cboaon to rapreeant 
them. 11 deponda for aucceaa opon the da- 
Totlou of the rank and flle ot organliad 
labor to the caoae of nnionlam for further- 
ance ot Ihelr own latereati and tbe com- 
mon welfare. In the abaenee of any power 
to enforce lawa. polldea and declelona (and 
our mavament alma at the aToldance ot inch 
tone and poworl, there muat come to our 
tellow-workeri the underatauding that loma 
decree of dladpllna muit be maintained, 
but tbat only through ditclpllae which la 
aelflmpoeed and maintained tor the pro- 
greaalTa and orderly conduct ot the labor 
vovamant of our time, can the Integrity and 
ei.tlty of our movement be lafagoarded^; ^— 



t the atuluE 



.(.ilble 



onditiooB.' 



tolling 






ralue and In- 



a of 



„,.,.w, ..» 'We'hoid it to be the 

duty of all organliatlona and mamben 
thereof to accept In good faith the deeliloiu 
at the cDDventlona ot the A. F, of L. Id all 
matter! that have been committed to tbom 
for deeWon. If each organliatlon te to ra- 
aerve to Itaelf the right to retute aeqnlea- 
eenoa In the lawa of the A. T. of L. yd to 
diaregard lu authority in mattera wUorjt 
kaa a canati lotion al right to decld& or 
wblcb are by sonteudtng tonat anbmltled 
to Ita arbitrament, than there can be no 
harmony, no conoart of action, no unity of 
pnrpOBe and no flnal detannlaation Of any 
quealion In cootroveny." 



„ Google 



136 



AMBSICAN FBDBRATION OP lABOR 



A. F. of I>. ft V0I111LUT7 Org 

ita94, II. SS) Tha Amsrlcan FsdwaCfon c 
Bbar 1« a voluntarr or|r*al»tioa. Tha po- 
lillcal Teaolutiona or platform adopted by 

tlmenta and demanda of the majority o( tha 
orgaalied workera affiliated with it. Tha 
roaalatloDg or plattormi adopted can not ba 
. . affllUtad orisoliation 






, but I 






oely » £t1- 



platform* adoptad ara praaumsd to ba ob- 
■crrad hj all orgaaiaatlona. 

A. r. of L. Aziom— (lOlG. p. 114) 
"What ia worth hailsg la worth alT^t'>Of 

A. F. of I., Bansflt of— (1888, p. S] 
"Tha bsnaflt tha Amerloan Kderatlon of 
IiSbor hH been In tha parlod of Iti siiit- 
•nse to tha tolling maaiea of our eenntrjt is 
more, probably, than will b« told bstor " 

wationa to come. There '- ■- - 

don ot tboaehl opoo the 

worken, betiiB tlie prodncen of all tho 
wealth of tha world ihoald at leaat enjoy 
mora of ths raaolta of their toil. On eTery 
hand we lae fortnnea amaaaing, elecant 
manaiona and immenae bnalneaa liotuea rear- 
icg. wa aae the intrioata maeblnary in Ita 
mtary motiani. tha i:eiiiiii ot man, all ap- 
plied to the prodootlgn ot the wealth of the 
world; aod yet in tha face of this thonaands 
of ODT poor, helpleia brothera and aiatera, 
afronc, sbla-bodled, willing to work, unable 
to And Itr Hnngiy and naaeiated without 
ai-JSelent to properly nonrlah tha body 01 
to maintain the mental balanoe. On ths 
olher hand othera beat by their long con- 
tlnoad dnidgary and nnreqnited toil. While 
these wTonga hare bean upon the body po- 
litic fivm agei gone by we can yat traos 
(ha ImproTemente In tha oondltlon of the 
people by reasoa ot oar farlona organlia- 
tlons. Whereier the wotUng people baie 
msniteated their desire for ImprOTemeat by 
organliatloa there aa with a magic wand 
ImproTOraent has taken place. WharaTeir 
the working people are the poorait. moat 
dtgraded and miierable (here can we And 
tbe graateat lack of organ i lation : and In 
the aama degree aa the bails ot organlta- 
ttoD Is ImproTad there can we see the great- 
ar improvement In tbe material moral and 
social condition Dt tha people." 

A. F. of L. BnUdlng— The EieentlTa 
Conncil was inatracted in IS08 (p. 1ST) to 
investigate the feasibility of parehaaing and 
ereeting an office bnilding tor the American 
Federation of Labor. In 1S04 (p. 87) it 
reported that aft^r giving tha anbjact every 
eonilderatlon the beat coarse for the A .F. 
of L. was to lease a bnilding for a term of 

(1908, ' pp. 104-288) EiBentive Oonncll 
reported Ibat the directly affiliated local 
unions had voted in favor ot loaning tha A. 
F of L. ISO. 000 from their defense fnnd Is 
ba used Id the erection of an office bailding 



authorised to carry into effect and plan for 
tho erection ot on oSca bnilding within the 
bmiti ot the insttnetiona of praiioas oon- 

{1912', pp. JS7-847) Eiecntive Conncil 
rmpowerad to isane an appeal and ininga- 
rate aacli projest or projecta which may r*- 
salt In obtaining tha necessary funds with 
wblch (0 erect a Labor Temple, an otloa 
building for the A. P. ot L. ita departmanta. 
and aaeh other affiliated orgoDiiallona wiioea 
headqaartara are located in the Capital of 
the nation. 

(ISIS, pp. 111-SS8) Eiecntlve Ootincll 
directed to secnrs data covering these qnea- 
'of building luemed nacea- 
reqnlrementa of tha Fed- 
—DC and Immediate tn- 
iDie. uost ana aise ot lot at the disposal 
ot the Federation in the moat accessible and 
satisfactory location in Washington. Cost 
ot tha erection ot a bnilding In conformity 
to the reqnliements as provided for above. 
Manner in which the flnancea for the oom- 
plation ot the work are to be raised and 
the provisions, it any. as to (he means of 
ratnndlng such obllnliona as may be lonnd 

ince, np-keep, int^nst and principal per an- 
num. Approiimata income from all aonroe* 
■• -' -entals tor offices ot (he Fed- 
departments, etc., p«r 



Tlie slie 

■ eet IhL 

r the presHi 



I reealt ot r 
eratioD, (lie i_. 
annnm. Diltaran 

in the foregoing. 
(181*, pp. IB 
lias and directs 
tbe A. F. of L. 



OenDcIl of 
straoted, or 
e, a building tor an ofBce bnilding 
— — ^ ... F. ot L. and its departments, and 
such other uolons for which sDch atmetnre 
ma; be suitable: to nse snch (unda as are 
avtboriiad in the furtherance of the objaet 
herein stated, and be farthBT sutkorlsad to 
raise sneb other funds aa might be nacasasry 
to carry out tha inatroctfons herein aet 

leil 



(lOlS, p 


. 11B-8Z5) EiBcntiie Oonne 






t MO.OOO. 






. Tha lot contains 9.188 squmr 



The Massachuiettg .. ._ 

:0.88 teet, and the frontage on Ninth 
t Is 188 teet deep. The lot runs ~ ~ 



lot which is 



I teet 1 



. Oomj 






the Oolntnbia Title Inanrnca Company ._. 
District of Oolnrabia tor aategusrdlag tbe 
title (0 the property, or, In other worda, to 
sSord Insarance against any claim arlaing 
nuder the title. The trusleee named by the 
A. F. of L, agreed to a contract price at 
tBO.450 tor the «-»cUoo ot the bnilding, to 
'■- completed April T ■"•'' "- "■- -"- 






photi 



c with a 



flneir bollt 
In tbe rear. 
> before rasli 



which 



many dlfficnlties in secnring a proper site 
tor tbe new headquarters. 

(IBIO, p. 12(1) EiecntlTC Council re- 
ported amount anthoriied to erect an office 
building was iDsufficIent. 

(leil, pp. 181-208) Eiscntive Ooimell 



nvlted to subscribe tor a marble 
I appropriately oet in the build- 
lear the proper loalgnla of tha or- 



biGooi^lc 



EOSTORY. BNCVCXOPBDU, SaVBRSNCB BOOE 



.t for th« pnipoM (. . _ 

Konlae iataraU ia thu vork anil In the 
rtlumiii* of the lancisl purpoce and 
p«rsiuieB<i7 of onz BOTamont the tnutoee 
■ball b* empovaiwl to iuoe nuh pronaatBc, 
•nblamatle dMlgna, •lo., to be fnmlahef t« 
tha mMnbocahlp *iid frisudi M ■ prlea that 
vilt b« wltUo tha lauik of all and at tb« 
■ama time ba a flnanoial adTantac* Ut Uw 
in the ' -■ — ■ •- ■•- — 



ThlnJ — Tba tm»ti 






capt lai 


h (aoersl 


r££ 


MOUIU <n other- 


iri«t. >■ 




br membwi and 


fil^d. . 


DfThB M 




lant. It balnc m- 


dmlood 






Ibe propartr iholl 


alwaji : 


rsnilln in 


.tut ■■ 


the home of tha 


Amarleu 






. sad nnder tha 




: huTS bat 


in HI ablr l>ld ont 


bj the 


KieenliT. 


) Oonncil 


. (pp. 'Ba7-*44) 


In oidsi 




th« iH»t ' 


of the bnlldlni u 




poiilble 


the par c 


kpKa tax n> In- 


emied 


to IhTM-fonrthi of 


a eeat. 


(iBie 


. p. 49) 




lantona of tha A. 


F. of L. 


Bnildlnf 


«■> laid 


JaniuiiT B, IBIS. 


ud th« 


dodleatlon oerami 


3n7 bald inlr 4. 



The Preddsnt of the United Statu dallTared 
the chief addrau and wti foUavad br the 
BeontaiT of Labor and the Fraiidant of the 
A T. of I>. Uembon of tha XiaontiTa 
Ccnneil, the Tlsa PrHldent of tbe U. 8.. 
nrabfln of the Cabinet and OoDfrMi vere 
preaent . The InBerlptian on the eornar- 

Amerfcan raderallon of Labor 

Tonaded IS Si 

Tbia adiflca araeted tor Ber*loe 

In the eanaa of 

liahor— Jul lee — Traadom — Enmaaltr 

iBis-iaie 

Of apeclal Intareal and drnlfleanaa in tha 

DdIob 'Oenfraai 
The panel arm- 



A. W. of L. oflM bnlldlof ia 
tarad la marble with oak monnti 
•d bj the BritUh - ■ " ■ 

itarj Oomnittaa. The panel aym- 

le Triumph of Labor and ia oa- 
Saeretarr " "' "" 



anibed 

- 'lb : 

twin li aJTaKllo"of""tEa Trlnoiph. and la 
atandlns upon an oetopni with tantaslea 
lapped and djinft «'■'■' ^T the noblo aini 
mnf objaets aehiored by Labor. Behind thia 
flsuo 1» « «™at proeaajlon withont bejin- 
alnr or and. On one aide are the aarlleat 
tnea of worVara, hubandman and tiUan of 
the earth, and on the other tha modern 
workon. AgrlCTjltnra, "'"'"S. "*'"'"" 
other tradaa are rapraaantad. In Jhs baak- 
nonnd, abipa, cranaa, at oat. The work 
Sill be ejteented In marbla and enoloaad In 
a frama of BnfUab oak. with a,.!*"-*"";" 
band of laoral '" 



oondlngi 8lia of the 

r"f»at by a feat. Total 
1 trama, B f " ' 






t thia panef la 

nee of tbe tie 

irorklnff men and 
1 tbalr fellow wt<«- 

(p, 27*) Pull ap- 

nrOTalwaa liran Iboao ctaried with the tr- 
SonalWIIlT of tha work of eoa.traBtlon 



another and a beaottlnl Inati 
that blnda together (Ii< 
women of Amarlea wit] 
a of other landi. 



TBT7 ptM- 
In whieh 



r detain in oonnao 



(1917. pp. B7 — - . - 



war waa daclarod WaahlnftoB haa baeoaa 
Iha cealar of national life and asllTltj of 
erar7 n«tnr« and aa a eonaaqnanae not onlr 
haTa ranta Inoroaaed but it ia dlfflcnlt to ia- 

3ra oSea aeeommodaliona of a anltable 
araetor ao fraat are the imparatlTe oeada 
of tha SDvemmant, whloh. of oooraa. hai 

E'lor ooaaidaiatloa In all eaaea. (p. <st) 
foaad to reqneat all aDliatad onlona to 
donala fi eenti par membn to liquidate the 
debt owed on tbe bnlldlni. 

<1B1B, pp. 4T-37B) Total coat of the 
lot and ^aUdlnx, flSB.SlT.SS. Total 
amount borrowed, flSB.iiao. Total amount 
of indebladneai on tbe boUdint April SO, 

iBiB, |iaa,soo. 

A. p. of !•, OantraWiaMoB of P««w In — 
(1BS8, p. SO) Daelarad tUa prindple: "In 
the labora of thia eonrantloD let na aTold all 
cantraliiatlon of power and oonflne our 
mOTMnenIa atrlotly te the well deHnad llnei 
alreadr *o well known and io aneoeaafallr 
maintained br the Amerloan Vedaration of 
Labor. 

A. r. of II, oontmmtr ot^dsss, p. ae) 

Eaalared eontipnity of the Amerieaa Fed- 
eration of Labor 1>e reoosnliod and dated 
from IS81 In all fntnre doonmantg Itaned. 

A. F. Of I.. Ootdd ITot mtaifara— (IBOl. 
p. 2G1) Two losal oniona anilated with 
different tutaraationali were harinc a dla- 

rte orer jorladietion. Oonrantlon deemed 
vnwlae to Interfere in the matter, aa nn- 
der the nana! enatom it ibonid hare bean 
referred to the offlcera of the Intamatlonala 
affected by the dlapata. 

A. r. of L, BromUon of— (1014, pp 
IB-BSO) The labor moToment, ai aa<!h,.li 
not a erealara of Impnlea, nor haa it attained 
Ita praaent poaltlon and atandlns by tha 
operation of any proteaa of maclo or hoeaa- 
poco*. nrmly firandad on demonatrated 
fDndamantala, Ita (rowth haa been elow, and 
tberefora aonnd, ~' " ' * "•"'- " "•'- 



t likely a 



IB- ita 



by the praeentation of any plan, howorer 
attracttTe, that propoeea to aeoompllah all 
that labor bopea fcr by roTol " '"" 



■nd ineiora 



talnty. All that 



of thle law; ao, 



I eiaotltDde 

.ibjeol to the 

__ obor movement la anb]aet to tha 

operalloni of tbe law of evolntiOD, and Ita 
proireaa la neceaiarlly^ the rmnlt of_the 
cbanfaa bronght abon' *"" "" ' '"' ' 

thoee alo- ■■-' — '-* 



t by tbe applloatlon 



r bat oeitain mntation* that make 
iLu n.^.aeat and laatlng aohleiemant. 

A. r. of Xh llTklMla Vi'fTaTp'i Fah ai On- 
OAOO, IBBS— ItSSB. p. 34) Indoraed ftp- 
polntmant of Preildaat of Amerloan Fadara- 
tlon of Labor on World'a Fair Oommittee 
of Vnw York by tha mayor and In IBBO 
(p. 81) aalhorliad axecotWe aouncll to la- 
eure World'a Fair for Oblaaso. (p. 40} 
FaTorad keaplni f^r open Sanday, aa It waa 
the only day In which the workera eonid at- 
tend. The board of dlrecton had promlaad 
If Oonrreai permitted Sonday apenini no 
employe would be allowed to work mora 
than all dayn a WMk. 

Paaie BiroainoH, 1900— (1899. p. 8) lo 
»:taHon to _partielpate in an oihlbltlon at 
the Parle Kipoaitfon of the eeonomle and 
aoclal prorreee made in the aeioral ooontriea 
had boon aooepted. (IBOQ. p. 39) Preai- 



DiatizeabyGoQt^Ie 



AMERICAN FEDERATION C 



pTodnoU. It I 



dmt rapoited tha IntsmatiDDftl Jnr; el the 
■iPMJtion had >w&rd»d • gnnd pii>g of 
honor to tha A. F. at L. tor tt* axUblt. 

WOHLD'a FuK. Bt. Loch, IDOS— (1903, p 
2B) AmnKed tor » gihnstlTs axhlbit for 
the LouiBfBDB PnrehMe EipogltlDn. <1S(M, 
I'P 88-171) Otand priie vai anrdad ths 

JjMetiowii ExH)«irion, l«T— (i»06, p. 
104) Notice that tha Jameatom T*lr man- 
aecmmt bad deoldad to AHplo; only nnlori 
labor caoaad hearty anpport to tlia aipoal- 
tlon baisg voted »■ long aa "theta mnCnal- 
oonllnna to ex- 
. F. ot L. axhlbit 
lomle and aoaloloElcal ohar- 
la of tha flneal nnlon label 
niaaad daapeat Intereal and 

_ -,,— leaaon ol the aeope of onr 

work and' aoMoramsnta. The aothorltlea 
Craated tba gold medal and diploma, 

" -1 CaicAI. BlPOIlTIOM (IBIS. p. B*) 

exhibit at the Ban Fran- 
(lOie, p. lis) A ear- 

d exeetlanee and a broDae 

awarded the A. F. of L. tor Ita 

aihlhlt whieh baa been Inatallad In the A. 
T. ol L. BsildinB where it may be eiam- 
Insd by any Tliltor. 

A. F. of Ik. BonOTi — (1882, p. 18} Flag 
ralaad D*eT the ClaTaland Olty Hall in honor 
at the American Federation of Laber Oon- 
xentlon helng held in that bnildlnc. 

A. F. of Ik JniUdleUan— (leOfl. p. 1S3) 
The qneitlon vm aaked ioms yeara ago why 
wa call onr trade nnlDna iDtematlonal, and 
whether they take in Enropean eountriea. 
Wo ha*a anawerod no. not at any rate, for 
the preaaat. Ths title ' 'Intamatlonal" 
whan applied to our trade nnlau, Ineludes 
the North American eontlnent. whlob, though 
polltieally not one and ideutioal. yat com- 
n'.ereially and practically la praeticaily one. 
There Ii llttie healtancy on the part of em- 
ptoyera to more their ealabUahmeuta fi 



auged for an eihl] 
o BipoiitlOB. (IS 
ate of merit and ei 



hope that there i 






, while 



.„., ... JialanI that parliament of labor of 
the world and the eatahilabmant of the tra- 
ttmlty of man, atlll for the prsaeat we 
piopoiB to h«To the parliament of labor of 
the North Amsrican eontfnont. We are 
allied with each other the aame as though 
we were In different oillee or different itatea 
0- proiincei In either ol (he conntrlet. It 
le not a Unilod Stales labor movement, It la 



DBdlan 1 



of the Nor 



itimenlallty, the prac- 
1 protection and the 



Ileal nocenlly foi 

promotion of onr uib^bji*, ^™*™i« ,.-— 

pela as to ao conduct onr moTement. 

A. F. of L. lihraiT— (ISie. p. 112) The 
completion ot the American raderatlon of 
Labor Eiilding makea it poiaible to plan 
for a llbiry on an adequate icale In keep- 
ing wlt> the importance ottha^ orj^njied 






has he._ 

iTlded on the fifth floor of the building, 
t ia planned thai the library ahall contain 
,11 offlctal docomenta and recorda Isaued by 
•1 labor oTgaDlsationi: copiea of all labor 
ipera and all official Joumali pobllehed by 



Dna of all departmenta ot labor ot our fsd- 

irta laaued by foreign conntrjea. Tt ia our 
irpose to have Slea of the offlclal pubU- 
itfona of the labor movemeata of other 
luntrlea. In order to eatabltah a library 
•■oa a proper baaia, s trained librarian is 
< be in charge. In addition to literature 
pTeaantlBg the hiatory, the progreaa and the 
ij.-i. .. .1.. i.i-_ . — ^gp, (^ 



Idaali of th< 



In connectloD with tha fibre: 
oor ifuasum which ahall be ths repoaiiory 
for all doBuments and objects of historical 
impoitanca to the cause of Labor. Old char- 
ters, eirculara, scrap boofca. ban n era and 
emblema, ha*e an InteTsst and a value to 
aludsnta and hlatorlana. There la no more 
flttlng place for their aaaemblaga than the 
Lbbor Temple ot the American tabor moTe- 



ing some pnaae of labor, are of Intereat In 
cooaiderlng the many aldea ot the labor 
maTemenl. Now that we hare come Iota 
poaaeaalon of our new building, we have 
opportnatty to gather togelber anch a col- 
lection aa wonld be Tepreaentatlve. We 
nrta upon all alllllatad orfanliatlona. the 



ad organliatlo 

jsted frienda t 

t thii purpose. 



ot Labor la not now, never haa bee 

ui'tll Iti fundamental law* are changed will 
not be a flnanelal otgaalaation ; tha flnan- 
elag ot the labor moTemant ot the country 
ia In ths treaanrlea and the lawa of tha 
uulona aOllated to the A. F. of L., and to 
Cleats a fund tn the A. F. ot L.. changing 
Its relationship to Ita afflliated bodies, by 
praetleally throngh that meana making It 
the flnanelering method ot the American 
labor morement, will atop care among the 
unions in trying to conaerve tnnds tor thrir 
aaK-preserratlDn. In the event of any of 
the large uniona, or even some of the 
smallsr ones, getting Into trouble, it would 
not be long hetore the fund wonld be ei- 
hanatod. Then, If another organ! latlon 
ahonld got Into trouble all waelia later, 
thers wonld be do fanda to help It, and It 
vould feel It waa not being treated fairly. 
Tlie Idea ia that, in so far aa handling the 
fonds tor conflicta each aa referred to la 
oorcemed. the matter ahonld be left in the 
hands of the national and Interaatloaal 
uniona. and when they need aaslatanaa the 
plan we already haTs ot aaklng the othara to 
aaaiat can be followed. 



all OTganliatiouB; the rsporta 



I pnbH 



Federation of Labor are that It may become 
fL grand) and pavt*-ful or^nliatlon, fnt- 
fillng Ita great miaaion to bring the working 
reople Into the variona organliationa ot the 
(rcifea. to assist in tbe amellorstion ot their 
coadiltona, to raiae mankind to a higher 
level, ssptring to a nobler ciTtliiatlon. It 
la noticeable that a great reaction and a 
ateady diaintagratloa la going on In most all 
organliationa of labor not formed on the 
baaia that the BXparience of paat failures 
teschei, namely, the benevolent aa well aa 
the protective teaturea ot (he nnlona. There 
are tlmea when the labor organiaaliona are 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



insn»cy, BNCTCLOPBDU, RBPBRBNCE BOdE 1 

1 dMlilTa ttmai Id Id b poillion to help." I SDiTraivA tliat 01 

Kidtlon toward tht NXionU AsioclilSon 
■Dutki)tiir>n WM rtstuulv*: tlut I Hi n 
aim to •ttMk tha organUatlan *■ looh 
Mr. Van OluTe M Iti prwtdant, bnl I w 
not loiac le pejmlt him U — -•- -" — ■- 



■Bd tha cODieqaant praCaclloL _ — 

that orguiliation afford*. 

A. P. of li, Pow*T of^CieOO, p. 68) 
Curiae the put tUteen 7«n nurkad 
chancM have takan plua In onr amnliktlon. 
TbaD vo wore atmnllDC to jnauitain cut 
•lUtansa. Now tha Vadsntlon U aa itrani 
ak tha aTcrlaitlns hUla. ThaD tlw addce 
and help of tha TedarKtlon irai Hiiifltt lor 
b7 but faw ol onr nnlona. Now none o( our 
iLtaniatianal Dnlosi maka kb7 great tnda 
moTementf witltont the approval and OO' 
opBTation of the Ameilean radaratloa of 
Labor. At that time the deelalona ol onr 
ConTontiona irara llthtlT eonaidared by 
many labor men and many uDlona. and 
wUIe the tlma haa net yat arrlied where 
all nalona aeqaiwce In deoialoDa rendsrad. 
yet dorini the ^teen Teari marked pror 
reaa haa baan made In tbi* dlreatton, and the 
llbdinga and policial aa now daoliMd by the 
Pedaratlon hBTe a weight and Infioanoe In 
tha altatra at America that hardly the moat 
aaugnlne conld haTa antioipatad tUteeu 
yiiia aco. Sixteen yeara aeo our incomr 
vai twanty-tDQT thonaand for the year; 
c It ii aboat three hnndrw) Ihonaanii 

h a COI ■-- ■- *— 

aUp. The 

(hair men..—- — .- -^.- ;, 

wage* of at leaat 30 per eanl. If all our 
UDlona haTB done ai well, who oao eatimate 
or OTfln dream of the banedta that haTa ae- 
cnied to tne working people throoth the sf- 
fort* of the trade union morament aa am- 
bodled In the A. P. of L.. What haa It 
htooght In the way of brtter homei, batter 
food, a laaa nnmbei of ehlldren of onr mam- 
bare in the laetory, mUl, or ihop? A "!«•'. 
brUer, more enjoyable and eomfortabla llfa. 
TIlTio will or ean maanra the work of tha 
trade anion, dtber in the world of Indnatry 
la onr aodal anrrDDndinga, or In moral 
growth? To hare aaen a purt of thia woA 
and aaaomplUhmvita alumld nerrs na to 
atUI gr ea ter efforta In the fntnra. 



reaentlng then 



' labor I 
that aft 



all what . 



and waa plei — -- 

aeld: "Mr. Oorapara, I 
ploy of the 



and known Ton raToramj «■" "-" ii'.-q ^- 
atanding at l« y"" eontentlona. and I am 



undaratandlng with employ en whether aa 
indlridnala or aiaoclatioaa, and. therefor*. 
I waa faTorabIa to a coaclllatory poliey. He 
aaid he thonght an Interriaw balwaen Kr. 



eonid diaouu that matter aome other time. 
About aeTon o'olock that aama eyanlng I 
returned to tha hotel to get lome baggage 
*~ the porter In charge of the eoatrooir 



tnMaea tha Frealdant of the Ameilean 
pWaratlon ot Labor reeonntad hi. erorince 
with a man who aald he reprMonted the Na- 
tional Aaaooiatlon of """"''"^lEI^h^i ?i" 
Iowa; About a month ago, flsptembw as, 
w^ I ™ laaring tha yTeWrf" ="<J. " h 
Street and Broadway. STlh Street exit, 
Kew Toik. A man accoetad me: HaUo. 
Mr. Gompan." I <ald. , Hano- _*" 
rtVok hand.. ^H. aaldt ^J^^Jj'J^f"]^'; 

Tn 'the p"tfor^''(*'JE"l"mler'a«on "»^ 
«iB» tail faar My noma la Brandon- 

again. He 

..,. ■ In the em- 

lonal Aeaoofatlon of «ann- 



.. „ ,. nnalgned reQueat that he 

dulred to aee me npon a matter of Import- 
ance and immediately in hia room. I had 
already made other important engagemen' 

_., Brandenburg from 

New Tork, in whioh ha referred to tha nn- 
oomplatad oonTenatiDn__wlth i 

-laalng through 

1 me to go to K_. _. ... 

,.,, andenburg, wonld go and expeol ■_. 

irriTal within the next tan daya, adding 
that there wai nothing I eonld poaiibly do 
which "could haye a mora latlifaotory re- 
luK tor all ooacemad," On the aama day 
I wrote him a letter aaying that I wenid 
not healtata to go to Bdgefleld but my dotlea 
would not permit. I aaked him whether It 
would not be poaalble for him to eome hare 
on hie ralnm trip to New Totk. On Kon- 
day Ootober 1*. T recelTed a telegram 
deted Octobar la, from aallibnry, H. O.. 
from Hr. Brandenburg aaylag that he would 
arrive In WaihlDgton Sunday mDmlug and 
ieare on the Fsnniylcania road, Pullman 
ear (Caliph. luaamuch ai tha telegmB 
reached me too late, I waa unable to meat 
him On Tneada;, Ootober IS, I wrote him 
atating theae facta. I alao wrote him that 
T would be at the VIotoria Hotel. New Tork, 
October Bfl, and that wa might haT- — ■— 



...1..0W »^c ..-.B during that day 

Ing Ha wrote me a note dated October IT, 
rcFalTad October IC, expreaaing hii regret 
that ha miaaed me aa "mattera are moat 
ctltieal " DTglug ma to aee him "thIa Sat- 
U'day" (Oetobar 19} Inataad of Oetober 
2B. I replied to him that It waa impoaatble 
■a I had a number of conferenaea to attend 
In Chisago, that I would leaTO there on the 
2fth. reaching New York on the SBth. On 
arriTal at tha Tlotoria Hotel. October it, I 
wa> handed a note from iii. Brandenburg in 
which ha aaid he bad been to the hotel and 
left a note requeating ma to call him up by 
tplophone at hla home. 71 Irrlng ttaoe. 
telephone 1978 Hrammercy. Together with 
Mr Jamee Dunoan and Mr. Wm. D. Hu- 
ter. Tloo-Preildenta of the A. P. of L.. 1 
had an engagement to meet in conforenee 
with the TBpreamtallTea of tha Stmeturil 
Building Trade* AlUanee, Meaan. KIrby, 



oyGoo»:^Ic 



AMERICAN PEDSRATION OP LABOR 



HuiiuhkD md SpsBciT, on th« Tooialag ot 
tta« 30th. la prdllmlnarT eonttrtzta with 
Mr. Itaaoui mi Mr. Hnber I etUti thsir 
■ttantloD to all of (hs taregolaf In datkll 
■nd ukiid UihIt ftdTle* before I proceeded 
tnrthBr. They nrged me to biTa > CDafec- 
euo* Willi Mr. Brandenburi, eipTeuinc the 
ladgment tb»t Mr. BrutdeaDDiE intended to 
eIts » piece al iraporluit aewi recardlnB 
the cpentione ot tne N&tlonal AaiDeiatlon 
ot Mumfietnran. AdJonmlnK tor Inneh, I 
dttermlBed to pottpone telephonlnc to Mr. 
Biandenbori at the addrau he gtn, until 
the oontereace which pilmariljr bnmilit mj 
colleasaea and mjiall to Ifew York waa oon- 
oladed. Between that time, howeTor, an- 
other note wai left In the asloo of the Tto- 
torla Hotel for me aaTing that he, Bronden- 
bnTt, VDnld phone aesln at either E. S or T 
o'elooh. Abont 5:80, while the following 
centlemen ware In the room, Ueaita. Dnn- 
CIS, Bnber, Klrbf, Bpene^ and Hannte- 
han^ the telephone In Che room ranff and 
Mr. Klrb7, who -went to the phone lold ma 
that a (enlleman named Brandenhnrg da- 
alred to apeak to me. T told Mr. EirbT that 
inaamiMb aa we were lo bniUj angacad and 
I had aaid I did not want to be Intarraptad 
b7 tb« telephone he wonld better ad<ri>e Mr. 
Brandenborg that I waa eipeoted (o be free 
to talk in about half an honr. About half 
•n hour later he did call me up over the 

Shone and t apoke to him. We arranged 
II him to meet ma at the hotel ta the lobbT 
a: SiBO that erenlng. Hla peralatent repe- 
tlllon that he wanted to aee me alone rather 
aronaed my auaplolDna, lo I at leaat made 
up mr mind that elhara. If poaalble, ■henld 
le' Mm when bs called and note hla eon- 
Ing. hit going and hit nanner. Bo I waited 
In the lobby of the hotel. With me ware 
Mr. Duncan and Mr. Hohei. The time paued 
lor hla aniTal and I called him Dp br lele- 
pbose. I waa informed bj a Udr who aald 
■he waa Mra. Brandenborg that he waa on 
Ilia way and would be at the hotel to aee 
mo lo a few minntea. I ntomed to the 
gionp of gantlemoD I have named In the 
lohby with me, and atood with my back 
turned to the elerk'e deik ao th&t anybody 
*ho would come In to ■esoit me wonld 
have to do eo with my back timed toward 
him, and in fnll Tlew ot thoie with whom 
I waa oonTeraing. While In that poaltloa 
Mr. Brandanbiiri tipped me on the ehoul- 
der. We greeted eaeh other and he ezcueed 
hlmaelt tor a tew minntei beoanie he aaid 
ha wanted lo telephone about a matter. He 
retamad in abont tan mlnalea aDd I Intro- 
duced him to Mr. Dnnean. Mr. Hnber. and 
■cvcral othera. Whan I Introduced him to 
Mr. Duncan ha turned to him 'and Bild: 
"Are yon Jamea DnneanT" Mr. Duncan 
artwarad In the affirmatlTe. I eicuted my- 
and Mr. Brandesbarg 



ind I w 



hlr 



Number SXO. I aiked 



[ that 



hla atatemant. However, It ii ai neirlf ao- 
curate aa my memory [aiorg me. He aald: 
*'The pnrpoaa of my coming to aee you 
Is of the nlmoat Irapartaiice to ua. I am In 
charge ot a certain bureau of a department 
organ! led for the National Mannfacturera' 
Aaaoeialion. The purpoie of it la to eipoae 
the immorallly and the dishoneity of the 
loedera in the labor moiament and to make 
It pnblle. We have gone Into the recordi ot 
eveiy prominent man in the A. F. of L., and 

ecntiTa ofloara of Datlonal unlona who' Im- 
plicate yon and otheri, ihowing the Immoral 
IlTea yon and they have llTad. All thla la 
ntharad and moat of II ia iwom atitemeota. 
The time thai yon were ill at Little Bock, 
Arkanaaa, in IBSG, the nature ot your U',- 
naaa la known, and It waa reported to ua 
that jon had, expecting lo die, made a atitu- 
menl, being a eorl of a confeaalon. My ob- 
ject in coming to you la (o aay that I want 



:e, which would In 



no way eaat any blame upon yooraelt. but 

wonld ihow a aplrit of broad kindneia I 
olhen whom yii deairad to aara, a aort < 



ferred to talk to ma while he wal „ 

ihe room, and aakad me to be leated. He 
began to talk with the meet pained eipres- 
■lon upon hla face. Hit featnrea were 

hi* remarka and what tew worda I nttared 
during the Inlerriew. Too will bear In 
mind tbat thia waa dictated two daya after 
Ihe traaiaetion; It wa» not dona today, I 
am aure. howayer, that a mere recital of It 
can conTey but little ot the tall purport of 



He handed me a paper that he had pre- 
pared. I read it twice, and realliing that 
he endaaTored to Impreaa upon my mind hla 
knowledge of ray anppoaad guilt. It wai 
with the greateat mental concentration that I 
wae able lo contaia myaelt. Howarer, for 
the purpoae ot dlaarmltig an] ' ' 



and 



in apeclBe II 



'IV.: 

while 



lor the pnrTMiBa of having .. _.. __ __ ___ 

ther, I aald! "Welt, I no not pretend to 
have been an aogat." T made thia alate- 
ment tor Ita literal truth, he eTidentb 
ceptlnr It aa a part aeqnlaacenc ' ' ' 
ilnnatrona. He [ban proceeded 

da' terma what tha^attonal AJaociatlOL .. 
Mannfactnren la willing to do. yet I can 
guarantee that yon. will be Anancially aafe 
for the balance of your life. AU that you 
need to do ia to give ni the information 
which we want of the other men, and lo 
glTc OB the workinga of the loner circle ot 
your Oannell and Ihe general labor more- 
ment. We do not want you to get out ot 
the praaldeney of the Federation at the 
(orlbcomlng convention, (or the Manufac- 
turarB' Aaaoclatlon doaa not Ilka Dnnsan 
any more than they do you. 






) get 



;-i.' 






mean that be won 

Norfolk, you can get out, and the publica- 
tion ot all of Iheaa mattera In regard to Ihe 
active men In Ihe labor movement wonld da- 
■troy them, and they wonld have lo get 
acme nobody to be praaidant, and then thaie 
would be little Federation left." 

~ i Ihara waa really no Inner 



if the lab 



take It tbat n 
at mind can 1 
attempt to da 



_ Infer 

t on the part of 
movement had n 



ith- 



Btler Imagined than T can 
a It. At abont thla time 
waa In the lobby of the 

came Impatient, and Inaamnch aa neither of 



obvGoo<^le 



HISTORY, ENCYCLOPEDIA, SBFSKEKCE BOOK 



»nd Mk*d ma 

comiof down beoni* h* and 
di wanted to go to lapper. 



in lino of hi* pallet to iktanard me. I 
(vad^d llu mbioot lor a lima witli the 
1 realiied tba importanea of 



said iurlhor than tha > 



rmiltcd to keap the tTpawiittou 



I 10:: 



•anid be better 
ThU waa am 



, In 



When 

meX Mr, Doncan and Ui. Hsber and on* or 
two othera In the lobbj ol the hotel, they 
eipreaaed their (prprbe of how near I ap- 
peared to a norroni egUapae. I took ont 
tba typewritten doonnont whjeh Branden- 
burg had glTen me and wHhont ~ 



.. ._ _ meaoa o[ 

He did 10. I handed him 

my key and aaked blm to go at once to my 
room and gather ap all oi the papera that 
vere on the dreaain^ caie and take them to 
hip mom. I vaa apj>reheiul>e. Mr. Dna- 
cas did lo. We then want to a nearby rea- 
tacrant where they had dinner, but I conld 



room ainee t look Ihoie papera away. I 
went thrangh (Tiat drawer thinking there 
micht be lODie papera yoi had (orgolten in 
t^ere, bnt T doied It. Of that I am poil 
liTe." II wai then agleeo inaf I ibculd 
purine the eime conne in the nert Interrley 
with BraDdtnburg. and to ondpavor to find 



I did n 



natter he had praaeoted ti 

not fe-' '"-- -■ 

and t 



Unite a 



.. _ , that after all, I had only 

a paialng aeqsatniBDce with him, Bracden- 
bnrg. and that while I had no doubt that 
h9 bad authority to act, yet I would want to 
have mare direct aaanrance. He anawered: 
"Do yon mean that you want to tee Mr. 
Van OleaTB peraonally and get the aaaoianoa 
'--- 1 himV I aniwered that I thought II " 



t the 



r that 



1 fee) 



warranted to act. He anawered (hat 

Tan Cleave might anapeet that thla waa ■ 
trap. For the pniiHiae of allaying that ana' 
pieion, I anawered: "So might I regard 

gpoBltlOD to me." He laid: ■'Too 

. . T _ _ . . jj^ip y^^ ij,^^ oppo- 
on partlenlarly and 



yonr p 



agalntt all othera acllTo l_ . 

meet, bnt I am dealrona of aailng yon and 
having yonr aerrlce for na." I qnlotly bat 
Srmly Inalated upon an intarrlew with Ur. 
Van Cleave la the only thing upon whlsh I 
might give the matter further oonalderalleu. 
That I did not proteat agalnit bla tnalnns- 
tioni and propoiltloni, be iMaed to have 

evldeully allayed hla anapkioni. He eald 
he thought Ur. Van Cleave wai In New 
York City; that It waa Sunday and it waa 
dlfllCDlt to get Into communication with men 
who conld let him know where to locate 
"■'- Mr. Van Cleave.' but that he wonJd ad- 



t by Mr. Tan Cleave 



one of the ehambarmaida doing duty In the 
hotel whelbn anybody bad been Into the 
room after *e left. She aniwered in tbe 
clErmative, aning that the man In tLg 
btown lult of <;lothns and wearing glaiiea 
liad beau In my room. On the following 
mcming. Snaday, October IT, Mr. Branden- 
burg met me In the lobby o( the hotel. We 
i.mnt to my room. The promise ol Immn- 
nily from eiposure and a gnanuitee of my 






t if I c 



r Id 



New York until Monday inch an interview 
nlKht be bronrht about, but he would let 
mi> know later In the day. We then parted. 
T immedialBiy repeated the oonveraation 
with Mr, Brandenburg lo Ur. Dunoan and 
Mr, Haber. About two houn later Mr, 
Brandenburg called upon me at the hotel 
and baeange there were olhera, Hr, Dnneao 
and Mr, Huber, In another room, adjacent 
to mine, he aiked me over the 'phone fron 
the lobby in the hotel to my room thai I 
meet him in Room SIS, on the aame floor 

RiciDienl, bnt concluded to go. However, T 
told Heaara. Duncan and Huber that I waa 
jcolng to that room. I went to Room SIS 
and toond Mr, Brandenburg there, and he 
told me that it waa diScult to get the men 



! had prepared, that t ml«ht write .ome- 
Jng on a iheet of paper which would ahow 


roold meet on the following 


day. I de- 




leaa I could 


mfel Mr. Van Cleece himaetf, \ 


lo verify hla 


ce as havi-ig boen written hy me some 


(Krsndeaibnrg'a] itatement. I 


shonld not 


reive yeara agu in Little Rock that would 


consider tb^ matter further. 


He said: 


I pra-iically c nothing, that he was sent 


"Well, I will arrange that Mr. 
Tort w'''on"Scs''me " al°?ria 


Tan Claave 


> Little Rock to obtain a paper which waa 


In his ef- 






.a en anthor- 


Lvealintlon he fonnd aimply a raemoran- 


iied sgeni and repreaenlatlve 


of the Ma- 


am in the panem of a lawyer who had 




■actnrera ht 



IDE no conneellon with me; that thla waa 
of no use, and that he wanted this state 
meni purporting to have been written by me 
Bl the time which he could ahow to Ur. Van 
Cleave and others, that there was no fonn- 
dalioD for the itatem«nt, and that this was 



c-i'lpta tor money paid to bim aa Ita agent. 
The warranli and vouctaera and reeeipls 
vere in printed forma of the Cenlury Byndl- 
cute, No. 1 W. 8*th Street, New York City. 

department of the National .Asaoclatlon of 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



AUEKICAN PBQBRATIOK OF LABOR 



UanafMluror*. Hr. Bruidsribors vu Tarr 
InalitiDl thM I ihoold IM him h>T« a writ- 
tap itatament, at I hav* alTsad]' itatad. Ha 
■aid that nnlaaa ha had It hj tb* tollovlDg 
dar, UaadBT, it woiild be ot no naa to him. 
I (old hi"? that I could not then maka blm 
-s prooiiaa to do ao, but it 1 mada up my 
mind Co do ao I wonld call him np otct the 
Tbooa at hia home, Tl Irring FlBea. tale- 
tilione KITS Qrammarcy, and tel! blm, I 
tlld not OBll blm ap; I did not write it. I 



)at 



ibarg might hsT* elTen 
, one ot onr trlanda to wnom 
■nlta ot the iatenlaw ot Bran- 
with me angKeatad that whan he 



I told thi 

(Brandanbnrg) leltlthV hotel be onsbl 



Gear,-, 

pontera and Jolnen, vko were calling apon 
ib. Hober, Preitdent of that orsBnUetfon, 
to tollow Brandenburg whereTer he mishl 
f^. Mr. Gaerin La a delegate to thia Goa- 
TEftion. The; did 10. He porined a ilgaag 
nnni-ui and wMa laen to ent«T 71 Trvine 
1 Inveatlgatian made and 



llrloni attack In the National Aaaoeiatloa 
-of UaautactnTOTi' orgnn, the AmerMn Indni- 
-triea, rollooad a few day* later, and It made it 
■qijlta claarlf apparent to me thai the pur- 
ple Biandenbnrg had to leenra from me 
^■cme written ■latemsnt wal tor itj pnblloa- 
-tion ai a aort of recantation or eontesaio^ 
In nonaction therewith. It la quite efldeat 



Monday momirg ll nonld be of no nie to 
him. The paper BrandonLurg aaked me lo 
ilgn bag never tett my poraeaaion. It la ae 






hare 



, Not far away 

ia the titial eriaation of lometblBg mortal, 
that I know, bnt that myatery at the aiia- 
penalon of other tblnn immortal ranit yet 
be nadp i-loar. Soon I ihatl atand where I 
■ball see with ^nblinded eyea, and to that 
point ranat come ^tery one no matter by 
what poth, and the rraliiatlon of tb>t fact 
pallialei the bittemeaa with which T aonld 
contemplate my own conree wore il not true. 
For I haie itrugded with the hnmblrat on 
a pUae of eqnaKty, and I ha«e walked and 
talked with the mighty onet of the earth 
and have lent 'hem my pover. The poor 
clgarmaVer'a apprenlico baa liied t- •■- 



I the I 



million rain da. 



nneei to be what he la today, 
not e«BD a master nl hlmtalf. There la 
nothing ot the iihlnD in llda. Emptied, 
hmken aa I am, I haTa nothing to aak. 
Nothing T might achieta wonld natter In a 
llltlo while, and thia what I write la after 
a'1 nothing mnre than my retroapeotlTa 
thongfats exoreaaed throngh the aocDRtomed 
medlnn ot my pen. Wladom ia snmnlatlTe 
■ad ont ot my abundance I might endow 
poaterity. Vengeance by the law of com- 



elualve and I might with a truth hoe and 
there p^ata many a graie ndacaRian. 
Dnt whyl Why ahoold I, haying driTeiT^ 

to my own aima lea*a my now diaabtad 
cfcariot to retrace the hippodrome! Eaeli 



hit own inner conaclooaDea*. StrloDod of 
the aopblatry that aerved aa a m^aflnbri' 
cant whan in aitiylty, I aland at halt eon- 
tomplatlng my own ego. I aee Inat of power 
that baa trinrnphed again and agaia." 

And there it abmptly atopped; Ton will 
obaerve on Ibe margk of the ortginal typo- 
wiittBB doctuneat Srandenbnig wanted ma 
(^ lign, the initlala of Jamea Doncan and 
the date, each written by hla own hand. 
and which I naked him to do Immadiataly 
after the inlerriew at which Mr. Brandon- 
hurg aaked moto algn the paper when com- 
p.elad. I have theee doonmenta here for 
the Inapeetlon of any delegate who wiahea 
to aee them. I ha»e. and horewilh aabmlt 
to you (or your examination, the notea, let- 
tera, card, acrap of paper which Braaden- 
burg wrote or aent me, with the ragiatered 
marlc ot the Victoria Hole!, ahowfng the 
time of their receipt there; alao the lettera 
and the euTelope aent by mail with the 
PoatoJOce mark giring honr and data- alao 
the telagram aant ma by Brandenbnrg. 
There la In my poaaeaalon farther Informa. 
tioD ot the ramlfloallona and machlnationi of 
the National Aaaoelatlon of Unnnfacturan 
their deteetlTe aganciaa, their auxiliary 
companlea. and the reptile hlrellnga who are 
amployed to aaaaaalnata the character~~al the 
mail of labor and thereby hope to weaken or 
dratroy the labor moyement of onr oonnlrT. 
All that I now dealre to add la that there 
1* not a aelntllla ot truth In anything pub- 
Ittbad or which can be pnbliahed by the Na- 
tlonal AaaoelatioB of Mannfaetarara or their 
birelinga wbleh in any way can refleet upon 
the Integrity the morality or (he hooeaty o" 
" --* * an ablllng faith tbey cai 



IE iniBgniy, 
yielf, and T 



t do 



Ig faith tbey can 

- _., jiber of the- Ei- 

Council of the A. P. of L. I defy 

At the coBclaiion of the atatement the en- 
tire Oonyentlon aroae and applauded Prea- 
Idcnt Qompera. A handaoma baakal ef roaaa 
and ehryaanthsmnma waa than preaautod to 
Preeideot Oompen on behalt of the delega- 
tion from the United Hattera of North 



Prealden 



e-PreaiJ 



Gomi 



of one 






HfouJ 



in addition la hla' informathia abont'°*he 



l^bor movement, added that I. .. _ 

be found he propoaed Id manufacture it. 
thia becBuae of ita IfflpoTtanee, ' ' 



tbTpriv; 


urii™-;i the ™e.: 


Thia atate- 








Pi eel dent 




"?o'nald7r''abla 


emphaalB 







ind T might mi 



paaiiag. J'natica la ( 



PrealdenI Qompera— -It la true that alate- 
ent waa nade. There ia not a word In tbe 
atement T hare made thia atlemoon that 
a not a eoDaerratWe .... - 



obvGoOi^lc 



HISTORY. ENCYCLOPEDIA, RBPERSNCE BOOK 



I( WM mad> oon»ervBllTe In order that I 
ndgbt be ibiolntely within the trath, 
BfslitloK the importuice at makliiB tlM 
lUtemsat. T had ■ ooninllatlaa vHh Vlie- 
Fnaideata Duncan and Hnber. and the; 
astsd ma to writs It down aa loon aa poa- 
aib'>e attar I retnrned to 'Waalilnftan. In 

warn ovarlgaked. Ur. Brandsnbnra aald; 
"Tktj ara datarmfned to daatro; tho men 
at tha bMd o( ths labor mOTament, and par- 
tlenlarlj; >" " „ 

niBuh wuu u.TD w==" national Qfflcsra 

who haTs had tout eonfldanaa. If the In- 
fannatlon we hays or ean find Ii inmBoirot. 
we haTa Eot tba bnrean that can and will 
mannfaelnTB U." I eonid itand befora jon 
another honrand tell of tbaas thlnn. I 
could tell TOn of man whoaa nainaa haTe 
l)ean fivan who ara In tha amploy of the 
labor arganliBtlona aa bnalnaaa annta and 
cflcan who are alio in the pay of tha far- 
l»Ta, the Fairdla. and thla Oonturj Byndl- 
eata, all of tham either aganti of tha Sa- 
llonal Manntaclnrera' AiMoiatlou, ot ani- 
lliailea and oompanlea formed bj it for the 
purrwaa of doitroylng the nan In the labor 
noVnnent. In all the hiitotr of the labor 
■aoTflmsot In any eonntrr on tha fao* of 
the globe. In all the world, I do not baUaro 
that any coterie of the wont rapraaantatlTea 
of the oapltaliatle elaaa ha»e bean ao ernal. 



I hireling 



Ohalrm 



aa thSBfl 

Delegate BaTgei— Ki 
Fallow Delegatea: For aume 
haa been my Tol to eome I 
againet the nnanlmoae eleetlo 
Qompera. Thla year I promL. 
make hia ateclion nnaolmona. (Applana. 



.ra paat It 
of Preiident 



Ccmpen ■ 



1 the t 



RESOLTZD, By the !7th Anno 
Tsntlon of the A. f. of I>. that tha d 
herein aasembled expraia tfaslr fallt 



lal Oan- 
egatea 



.„ integrity, honei . 

faltering eonrage of Preiident Qompera. 
Wb herein glre our nnqualUled andorae- 
nent to everything he haa done and aald, by 
pen word and eSOrt In adtaneing the saoae 
of labor, by combating " ' ' " 



organlii „ 

Mr, Van CfleaTa praanm 

BEBOLVBD, That th. 

the admlnla 



Inrera for which 
to ipeak. Be it 

eoorae of the Na- 



with 



'tBtlon I 



imploy 



indiutrlea 
cable re- 



alm andporpoaa la to promolB thi 
ot our country, and who leek amic 
Inlloni with labor. With anch we an 
Ir, ea-aperate, bnt with the aforeaald 
tlon, whoae enmity ie lo apparent, we ac- 
cept any challenge tley maj send We will 

?°a'ii "w'aga eameri, fully protertlog their 
rIghiB and aeonrtDg for them economic coo- 
dltlena, long dented by the type of mannfae- 



v'"ri*°'' ""P"*"" xepwaanted by Kr. 

A. F. of L. Power Orer XJnlau — (1013 
5. aOO) OonTention refuaed to endona plaii 
for BiacntlTa Oonnoil to take fall eharga 
of national and InterBatlonal nniona, when 
threatened with geeaaalonB, Decided no one 
Bonid take charge ot a union who la not a 
member ot It and withont Ita eonaent. 

A. F. ot L. SoUdwltr — <1P06, pp. 11-1TS> 
The growth of this Federation la not merely 
nomerieal. It haa an Inhaiitanee ot good 
deeda done, a preaent ot actiTe abUlty, ■ 
fntnre of potantia! poaglbilitlei. What we 
will we can. To transform inertia Into de- 
termination, IgDorance into Intelligenee, dia- 
TiEiOB Into » oohaeiye aaaoelatsd effort, la 
the legltimata and practical propaganda ot 
thla Federation, and It haa moit aaanredly 
jnitlBod Ita mlBaloB. The wate-eamen of 
Amariea are batter adncated aeonomicsUy. 
broadarmlndad fraternally, and more lade- 
pendent in the eierclae of thalr powera aa 
oltlEana became of the ailatHnoe of the Fed- 
Bration and Ite afflllaled national, atate, 
central and local bodlea. The federatlte 
principle la a powerlnl force la promoliar 
tho BOlIdarity of labor. Back of all organ- 
liitlon la the (BdiTtdiial with hla peraonat 
blaa, prajndlcs and temperament. In onr- 
annnaf eonTsntlona the labor rapraaantatlTe* 
of the continent get knowledge of each oth- 
er'a ideaa and panonalitleg. Tha enrae of 
labor haa been tha dlvialan and mlannder- 
atandlng eiliting among men of different 
raeea and oreeda. In ramoTlng thla ralann- 
daritaqdlng irbat other (nflnence hae ae- 
ecmpllahed eo much aa the aiaoclatloa of 
man carrying the union card I We daalre 
to emphaaiie tha value ot oar eantral bodlea 
They do for each locality an even greater 
work in thli diraotlon than a national body 
can aoeompliih. 



A. F. of L. Bnppra 



Eyety report, reaolutlon, rBoom- 

eonTeotlon reeelvBd the eameit considera- 
tion of the delegatea, Thale are many 
gathsriaga of men and woman in wMcb 
thlnga that arc thought InconTeulent or un- 
acceptable ara auppreaied by reference to a 
committee, where they are killed and burled. 
The American Federation of Tiabor haa this 
record, that, no matter what opinion may 
ba held by a delegate, it he stprsisea It In 
the form of a reaolutlon It la given conild- 
eiatlon by tha convention. We realiie the 
thought and the principle that that country 
la beat, that organlEBtlon ii beat where the 
xreateit itraedora obtalna :and where the 
rlgbta ot the minority ara guaranteed. It 
mnat bo a eouros of great gratlllcatioB to 
all to know that after two weeki' Beationa. 
to which the delegates have given aiiMaona 

cloae thia convention' without one thought 

Itaa not been given dDB conilderatlon. 

A. r. Of !•. ThrsaMuad^ClSOl, p. 2se) 
The convention gave Ibie answer to a threat 
by delegalBS from an international union to 
withdraw from tha American Federation ot 
Labor it certain things wore not done: We 
dpploro the fact that en afflllaled national body 
In submitting a grieiance should depart 
from the principlea of trades nnlonlsm and 



obvGoOi^lc 



AMBRICANIPBDBRATION OPfLABOK 



*lola(a the ipirit In which thg organiisd 
vftK-sBinsr deilru that tU dlipiitw, 
ir bather between emplajren and smploTM r- 
b«lw««n the wagB-Barnen "' '" "'""' 

bs tak«n Dp. Thia grlei 
■ented (or our coniidenl-- -._,.__ .— 
threat and we believa that we would 
careleii o£ our dnt^ should we allow Buoh 
s matter to he lutrodnaad, b«lIeTlnf that at 
•11 timea we Bhonld atuid armly by the 
aplrlt of concillatioD and arbitration. 

"A(TMmsDt Dv" — 1901. p. 383} Beao- 



jWei, fhould 

Thia grlBTancB haa been pre- 
conildBratloD couptad with a 



cItiBa 



flToring 



pBcifle dar 



all t 



a plan mifht bring about a conflict a 



Ini joint 1 
their owr 

rular neediV May' 1 baa ffradually 
ptared aa a day lor the Biplralion of i _ 
uiBnta and in tscbuI yeara there are no 
ereat May Day diapataa. (ISIS, p. SIT) 
OouTention Endorsed policy of havtnf local 
arreganenta In allied Indnatiiea termltiale 
uuon the ■ame date, anabllns all i ' 
ployed In an indoitry to act i 






nd other terma of 
KeeolutloD 



employ- 
tbe oon- 



cffeet deteated in IBIS (p. 
Tcntion riving tbii reaaon: nan/ irauoa 
find eartaln perioda of the year more fiTor- 
»ble for making arrBomanla with em- 

AfTMnenta, Tiada— (IBOT. p. 204) 
TOndemn aa unwlaa and In" 
wage workoxa the agitation mat uoa re- 
ci'Utly been inaugurated againat the trade 
apfeament. Ai long aa tbs candltion of em- 
ployer and employe oilila there will neeea- 

iirilT have tc ' ■ " '- 

pHed. They __. _. 
lor a apeciflc period 



to Ihfl 



cblleoti 
crpti I 
bPglo.. 
at the b 



written or oral, 

, _ .__'mlnable at will; 

_. __ entered Into indlTidnally or 
ely. bnt the momoct any paraon ac- 



: philoBopby of the t 



lilble 

eon'tracli for'wagei and condltiont at em- 
ployment abonld be made cDllectiToly. While 
It la Dot (he provincB of thia committee or 
of the American Federation of Labor to di- 
rect the varioas trade unions in the manner 
or form of their eonlracta we daaire to point 
out the fact that ai employari of labor can 

contlnuons employment to all of our mem- 
ber! neither can we. dot ahould we In oar 
wage contracts, guarantee to them that we 
wilt foniiah them all the workers (hey de- 
sire. 

*'■■*•- aaUwaya— (IS14, p. 8fll) Report 

made that bfir *- "--" -*— 

for railways i 

Eight -hour da 



r Seattle e 



Alcokol, raiB Suistaivd — (1B14, p. 
aso.) Endoned bill for an Industrial slao- 
holic commiaaion snd as appropiiatloD by 
congreaa to demonatrate the praotloabilltr 
of farm denatured aleobor dtatUUng. 
tlSOe, p. M) Law enacted with prorlalou 
denaturing should be done In dritillerlea 
apeoiBed by Internal raTonu* olScara. 

AulnBaUon of Unloiu — (1B13, p. 102) 
Reaolntions providing for an amandmsnt to 
the eonslitution giring Datlenal and Intw- 
natlonal nnioni the right to amalgamat* aft- 
er IndoraemanC of both membeiahipa by 
two-tfalrda Totei eauaed a protest, OonTCn- 
tlon eipreaaed surprise tbat any trade 
unioniat coutd bs found who did not know 
the A. F, of L. waa oontlnnoaaly worklnL- 
for the complete orgauliation of the workari. 



. 14} the . 

decided it was necessary 
Joonial although ths fini 
st that (imt ■' •-- 



dvatlon of Labor 
to have as offlcial 

„_ . — jolal arrangemBnle 

would be diflcnlt. In ISST 
,,. — . — jonstitntion was amended pm- 
Tiding that ths president should print a 



. 22) the 



ng I 
_jall monthly elroular," _ _ 

34) the president was Inatmetod t_ 

estlnutea for a tour-page montUy eircular, 
pamphlet ilie, to submit to the EieeudTe 
OouDCil for eonal deration. The convsntlon 
in IBSe (p. B1) rejected a plan to pssume 
publication of the "Union AdTocate." In 
less (p. BS) the prealdcnt of the A, F. of 
li., with the advice of the Siecutlva Ooun- 
oll. WM authorised to iasue a monthly msg- 
atlne for the discnMioc of labor and l(e In- 
terests in ill pbssei. This action ramlled 
la the laenchlng ol the American Pedera- 
tionist (1864, p. 18), an open forum for all 
schoola of economic thought, reaerving the 
editorial nttersnces to a strlst idvoeaay of 
■uch principles snd polioiea on which trade 

(ISBS, p, 24) 



editor 





it; to 


iuitlll ho 


pe and couj 


rage Into 


the 




rkora, 1 


:hat they 




their ha: 


Bda, 




thdr power to 


b"ng abc 


lut what< 






nge in 




imlc, social. 


and political 


lite 




ver Ihey i 






later their 


wiU. If 


oar fellow-i 


iDionlati 


who 






>ed will t 


int perform 


their duty to 


(he 


premi, 


>ea, there 


1. no roa< 


.on why' 


the 



naguine 



1 wage- work sn 



Isbor rsgnlationa: 
iderground workers, 

vagee at least twice monthly, proper rales 

BDCh Other regulalions as are neceiaary for 
(he protection of the United States anainat 
nonopoly and for safeguarding the public 



iblicatlon of the 

(isBS, p.''iT'r' It i« noted with some 
degree of pride that no statement appearing 
In the colnmas of the American FedBratlon- 
Ist ever hai been aacceBsruIly refnted. I( 
Is regarded by the worken and aludenta of 
OUT movement, and ot economir and social 
pTogre<i, as a safe adviser and practical ex- 
ponent ot trade Dnionism, the cause- of 
labor; and by oar organisen, both general 
nsd district, it has been rammended For the 
valnahle assiatauce It has rendered them In 
their work. (p. I4B) Eieeulive Oouncil 



(IflOO, p. 80) The America 
ist Is an earnest, faithful advo 



obvGoo<^le 



HISTORV. BKCVCLOPSDIA, RBFBRSKCE BOOK 



li.bor; K dafandv of tlia lighti at Out nrk- 
«n; ■ facrlMi gritla of ihaou and pr«t«nd- 
>n; thi ehunplon of all that 1* trae. Tight 
kdd )iut; 4iid iiiUi ftll to ehronlGla th« full 
ebDDtetsd wilh th* ipUodld, •Ten tluD(b 
■ometlmiB todkIi, •tnislf tar rlstat. Th« 
dptallad npnita at the oflioan and orgaii- 
iisn, both of tha aotWe mwi in thafr Iradm 
UBi In thoir loealiliH. b>r« bsan pnhllihod 
nrnlulT, ind In sr«4t detail, thni i 



da, ua amooc 



ipprOTal sdltoi 



cause. A monthlT ohart 
aod faa limile* at nnloa 
the mmt (eatnrei of the ml 

(1901. p. 188) Enthiia 

KiTea of tha coDdsct of tha 

eiatlonlit, which had beeoraa a po-ver of ae- 
■latanca la areaalilnK and kaaplnf peated 
the inat »tm</ of labor. 

(1908. p. 3«} The Amartaan redaratlan- 
iat. our omcial moDlhlT macaaina, ii unqaai- 
llonablr Qov the ataodard pnbllealfoo In tha 
ecoDDintc world, and ii as roKvdBd br trade 
uulonlata and atndanta. not on); of onr own 
ccnntrj, bnt tha world orar. In eorte- 

manta at labor of Iha federal. aUIa. and for- 
eifn (D"">>n""!ta It 1> acceplMl aa the beat 
and moat accurate rail ex of the Ameneao 
labor raoTemsnt. OoUeKe proteaaoia, atn- 
denta, und tboae eillad npon to debate the 
1-BTJou and complex queallona. of trade 
nnion fiTOwth, prinolplea. and phUaaopbT, 
and Ihoae in onr own ranka adTOeattng npon 
tha pnblla platform tha caaia tor whloh wa 
atand, Moapt it M their text-book, rnide, 
and teacher. Ita colnmna are qnotaa and 
referred to in oTory etandard work npon 
tba labor proMam. and, withal. It la an »dn- 
cptor to the nnorranlaed. Ita aHlolea, rs- 
porta, and editoriala are repnbliabed in the 
vtwapapera and maBMloes. It »el* forth 
the thaila of labor; 11 U tha ednoalor of 
tha nnorganlied. and It comDandi the ra- 
aj-eet aTan ot onr opponesta. 

(1904, pp. 3>-14S'lTl) Kaeb Itaee ft 
pOHlble had bean an ImpTOTamant ot Ita 
pradeceaaoT. It alwaya endeaTored to pnt 
labor'a heat foot forward; to defend labor 
Bcalnat wronr and panialentlr adTOcate ita 
rifhta; to tear the maik ot hTpocrliy from 
onr opponeQta, and to encooraja onr fallow 
workman to a mora intelllcent nnderataadlng 
ot their dntlei, a higher and better concep- 
tion of their rights, and the maani h; which 
tLej- can be schleTsd. There l> not a word 
uttered throngh ita colomne or npon the 
platform that w« wonid retreat axoapt to aa; 
it with greater amphaaia. 

(190T, pp. 47-29B) Adopted thia method 
of gradnally ineraaalDg tha drcnlatlon of 
the Amarieal FadaratlaDlat; 1. That tha na- 
tional and international organlietloni aSIi- 
atsd be raqneated to adriae their loeala and 
other BObdiTlalolu that each one ihontd aend 
at leaat one inbaciiptlon to the Amerlean 
FederBttonlil fn order that tha orgaaliatlon 
maT keep Itielf Infotmed aa to thi general 
labor moremant. 3. That all paid organliera 
repraaentlBg the A. P. of L, be Initmeted 
to make It urt of their dnty to mention the 
American rederatloDlat at eTory meeting 
Ibey attsnd and forward Iti Intaraiti to tha 
beat ot their ablllt». S. That eirenlara 
ihcnid be a act ont at Intarrala to aa manj 
■niiated OTganliationa aa poaalble, aitolllag 



eat Id tha moat Important ot all labor pub- 
licationa. 4. That the proper offleora oftbe 
A T. ot L. be empowered to take neh aa- 
tloc aa mar aaam beat to tbem to adranaa 
Iha Intereata and Incraaaa tha elronlation of 
the American redatatianlat. 

{190S. p. ST) KdncatlonallT, the Aner- 
Irac PederatlDiiiat haa been o{ raat ralaa. 
The adltorlala and contrihnted matter are 
ganerallT repobliahad by the labor presi 
and, to a eonalderable extant, by the gen- 



haa fallad to prick the banblea 
1 onoDiM or tada and fanolea of apectac- 
>r Iheorfati who, nnder the pretenie of 
endihlp, undertake to do our moramant 

graateat Injury. And aa for our open 
lagonlalg ot tha capitalUt claai and their 
ikeaman ha baa allowed no oppininnlly 
paaa to >how bow utterly out of harmony 
' they with the progreaa and suceaaa ot 
inomic elTillaed lite, 
(190B, p, ST) The American Tedaratlon- 

parfonna a aarrlca which will be mora 
i more appreciated ai the preaeat eyenta 
' '-■- Uatory- It ii 



>t all that la dona by the Pedi 

. true reflection of the lantlmen.- 

^opei and alma of the tollen and (heir lym' 



ind 



thi? copies of onr printed eircnlara and the 
edllDrials to tha preai, they are ohllgad to 
qoote accurately or not at all. In the past 
year the editorials of the American Tedera- 
tloDlal baye bean quoted more widely than 
tl.oaa of any other magailna in axialance. 

(19oe, p. t3) In onr atmggla tor tbe 
nalnteoanca ot tree preas and tree ipeeeb 
the fliea of the American rederatianlat will 
afTord Inaplratlon to the biatorian and iii- 
formatloa to the alndent ai to tbe temperate, 
yr*. ioaielent, manner In which wa hsTe 
etmgfled for the presBrration ot oonstltu- 
lianal Hrhta, not only for tha worker*, bnt 
for all tha people for all time. The work 
which tha American Federatlonfat hat al- 
ready performed will become mora and more 
important aa tim« goea by — there Ii much 



yet t. 






Injuatica 



1 righted. 



the 



. -J ba aaotired. i 

be gained tor the tollera. There 
ail it the naoaaalty for a tree 
Df the confidence and eataem ot 
. throngh which ahall be atated 
I attitude and record ot tba do- 



YOice the timely proi . . 

ring clear and true. It ig onr aim to hsTO 
the Amariosn Fedarationlat truly (txpraaa 
and reflect Che aeatiFoenta, hopea, and alms 
of the tolUra lor the wellaro ot all- 

(IBIO, p. fiS) Tha laananee ot the Amer- 
ican Federatlonlat wai not orl^nally dl- 



ial 



might 



yifld. The anthorliation lor ita publication 
by the OonTcntlon ot 199S waf "*-- "-- 
dlBCDUlon of labor ind ita inte 
ita pbaset," and In the seyantei 
it! regnler monthly lasnai II be 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 



■Ingla Aim to makD it rinff trae to th« cimn, 
Ihg rl(hti and Inlerestg of the toillni miuim 
ot AmciTlca. And throiiBli It ill ths Amei- 
loan FederatlODlit ai an adTOcate and it- 
fender a( <na irsat saoit — tha oauaa of 
hnniaiiKT — haa been of IniiBsUleaat flnan- 
rial CDit to onr fslloir-irarkera or anr Fed- 
aratlon Itxell. 

<1011, p. TO) It iraa naTer expected that 
tbe pnblloatlOQ of an organ for our national 
UD lament mmtd retnlt In declaring dlri- 
ilaiidi. Ill pnnioia li adneillonal. That ii. 
it haa been, and la intended to bo, the 
madinm b; irbloli the esrneat and teriona 
nadar ma; be edncatad in the piinelplea of 
trade onioniim, and ma; obtain the Tlsira 
0( pnmlnent trade nnlonlata and ot gual- 
ISed vritera TOiuding tba evanta ot the 
day. (p. STG) Tba Amartoan Federation- 
lit baa romained in tha forefront In the 
clearneaa wltb wlileb It baa prei anted the 
hlatOTioal faeU connected with onr mOTe- 
■leDt, Ita praaaot day actlTltlea and onr 
hopea of fatnre acMaTament. 

(IBIS, p. lET} Execntlve OonneU an- 
tborlaed to eonilder the anbjeet ot oonsoll' 
datioB the Weekly Neva Letter irltb the 
AmeiTcan Federatlonlat, and to iama It 
Koekly with nefa lenaral Inatmotlona at 
■re contained In tha raaolntlooa of the eon- 
Tcntlona of IBBB and o( IBIO and haTla> In 
mind tha sonatltntlonal pniTlilan rarardlnK 
the poblleatiom of tbe A. F. of L.'a flnan- 
eial tranaaotlona, and that If the BxtoatlTe 
OoBDoil Bball deem anah conaolldatlon and 
ehanra aipediant and advantanona, It ahall 
bsTo tha authority to oanr the aama into 

(p. SST) Wa approT* ot the Amerioan 
Federatlonlat being n>ed aa an open tomm 
bj all writara upon the problema Uiat affect 
ont InterMta. and urge that oTeiy aabordl- 
nate body anbaorlba for at laaat one oopy 
oBoh nonth to bo kept on file for Informa- 
tion and referanoa, and that wa alao com- 
mand It to all onr membeca and all otbera 
Inleiaated In labor'a problam*' aa the moat 
reliable pnbllcatlon in OVT land conveying 
labor'a poiltlDQ. not only on all Important 
queationt of eaneral Import, bnt alao on all 
local matter! of more than ordinary Im- 
portance. 

(IBIS, p. SflS) Aa detached locale and 
federal labor nnlona haTe no aSclal organ 
keeping them in tooch with the general 
labor mavemant, practlcaUy all of their ai- 
oontlTB and odneatlonal work mnit be done 
and paid for by tbe A, T. ot L. Itaelt; that 
It la neosaiary that tbia tbonld be done In 
Older to aaalat in tbelr edncatlon and de- 
Tclopmsnt, thereby making the memberablp 
of theie orgsnliatloni more afflelenl and 
poialbty Ilghteolng tba laboia of tbe parent 
aigaaliatlon Itielf with tbem. The coat for 
the Federationiat ibonld be fixed at G centa 
par month, with tba nndantandlng that if 
tbia doea not pay tba coat ot fornlaUng onr 
ofllclal organ to thai a mambara. the prisi} 
can be changed at tba next comenllon, 
blinking It np to tiie reqnirsd amouint. 

(1B1« pp. ie3-B*1'} No medlom ot pnb- 
llelty or literary agency 1° America baa 
been a graatar power tor Jnilica for tha op- 
rreiaed and for fair opporlnnily for all than 
baa the official monthlv magailne of tbe 
A. F. of L.. tbe Amerlran Fedaratloniat. 
Founded by tba intbority of the ChleaRO 
Oonventlao of the A. T. of L, In 1863, the 



maasilne baa eonitantly grown In power 
and Infinanoo. not only among the woAlng 

Ecople tbemaelTea bat among atndeoti, pnb- 
otati, lawmakera, admlolaliatoia, and In- 
terpretera. Oontributad articlea and edi- 
torial aipraiBlona in the American Fodan- 
tlonlat have driTen home with conTtneing 
logle and IrrealaUbla power the fnndamentala 
of jnatlea, right, and htunanlty; the labor- 
era' lids of labor. BOclal and political prob- 
lema; blgbar conoepta of rlghtg, dntlec and 
obllgationi; the ntlatlona of workara to am- 
ployera and to loolety; tbe detenae of the 
■weak Bgainet the rapacity ot the itrong; 
prolaat agalait wronga too long andniad and 
rigbta loo long deniad. Tbia 



oBolal Joomal 



baa 



nearly a qnartor of a century. At iiiit the 
ordinary pnblicatloDa were cloaad to onr 
canae. There waa no way to get a hearing 
bffora tboae who mnal be conylnocd before 
remedial leglalallon conld be aeonred. There 
waa no way to preaant the canac of loatice 
for human belnga who had not the measa 
to buy pnblldty In pnblicatloni eanducted 
for profit. In that fight tha American Fad- 
entioniit hu lad, ably mpportsd and aided 
by tha labor praai. A groat change haa 



tboae who hold i 
the rlghta ot human beinga are of inanliely 
greater Importance than righti attaching to 
property. Thii canae had to be preaented In 
a way that wonld appeal to and cDnviac* 
tboae who mold public opinion and polleiM 
and aa well aa thoaa who by the baUot alti- 
mately declds pohlio lainea. It baa been 
neeaaiary for thoae who undertook the ad- 
Tooaoy of thaie priaclplea to incur fnll ra- 
■pcDiibility wherever that night lead. Free- 
dom for tba worker! has luTolved freedom ot 
apeech and preai. Efforta to maintain tba!e 
rigbta nnrattrlcted bare neoeaaltated that 
thoae retponiible for tha publication of tbia 
oRlcial maniine oballenge Indicial nanrpa- 
tion of authority at the ritfc of peraonal nb- 
arty. By thli concrete immediate Inatanea 
of denial ot rigbta to workara tba Amariean 
Federatlonlat efllactlTety fore ad home the 
mgenl need of leglalatiTo relief to aecure 
relief from the abuia ot injanetlTe procesi. 
Thii Amerioan Federatlonlat haa anooeaafully 
done thii. It hat aroniad and cryatalliiefl 
the Judgment of the people of our oountrj- 
which found Ita eipreaaion in the enactment 
by Oongraaa of the labor aectlona of the 
Clayton Antltnut Act and In tbe deciaion of 
the Buprema Court of tba United Statea 
upon tbe CDoilitutlonallty of the Hlaaouri 
truat law. That deelilon laid down the 
principle at leaal io far ai that itata la 
concerned, that there ii a diatlnet line ot 
t:~inareaIIon between tha control ot the pro- 
diicti ot Sabor and the control of bnniin 
bi^nga over their own tabor power. A 
>tudy of tba oolnmna of the American Fed- 
eiationlit readily discloiei the peralatent 
ditruasion and Inaittcnt demand tor the 



obvGoo<^le 



mSTORV, BNCYCLOPBDU, RBFERENCE BOOK 



of • huiui] beiAC U not % ttonaaoiiXj or 
■rtlel* al eomnures. In tha moTnnnit for 
tlw mor* thonniEb oriaDlntlon of wiaT(>- 
nliod (oIloiT'Vaikon tha Amailcan Tedar- 
klionlit not onir >»• fnniihxl the ■rtonont 
■od the philoaophr of oTcmiiliInt loatOTial Is 



;i.itT, 



tlu tho i^iaolplo of orfuilied offori, 
fadantlon, aad loUdarltT, bst hai 



bMTti uid ulndi of lU, Bcd^lialpad tha 
ttTncfllBi toboi preaa to a bettor under- 
■Itndliit of tha DBdoilT'ni prlsclplM, aa 
Hcll aa tha hope and tha aaDlralloDi of tha 
orfaulied labor moTomeat. It h« fortharad 
and intarptatad tha Intomta of tha irorkara 
in all llnea of andaaTor. la addltfon, In 
tha oolnnuu of tha Amaiiean radaratlonUt 
hsTe boon pnbUihad ths flnanalal rapottt of 
Iho A. T. dI Ij.— tha iDcoma rocelrad Iram 
all aonrooa and azpendllnna for all pnr- 
poiati thui ohallonfuif tha erltieiam of our 
opi-ongnti and raooiTlng and daaarrlas tha 
condD<ndatloD and eoofldanoe of mi lallov- 
woiken. It pnbllfhea tha reporti of the 
crgaoiion. aauuiad and Tolsntoer, (I Ting 
the record of tha viorfc doaa la each loealltj, 
and flTini adTiee and aneoiira|iRneDt to the 

labor hUtorr. 
pllpabla form sffortt to 
Tallara. Thay ihov the 
wf DuiDu* ui bud mahinff and contain the 
nir cenaral anrrsj of the labor moTement 
1 Amarlea pnblUhod aBjnrhere. The Amar- 
;an Tadarattonlit prlnta eon' " - ■ 



toUen the eontlneni 
are tha Ant-hand 
Tliv reflaot la 
promote hnman i 



1 the ilrhta ■ 



- — ilrhl 
bran pnbUahad hi 
panled bj 



which 



prompt and aKeotJTg 



of Labor haa 
rafatatlon. 



iia Amwloan fai ^_ .. 

to the membarahlp of directlT afflllatad looal 
DBiona and hai kept the workera batlar ad- 
Tlaad of tha mrk, alma, and psrpoaaa of 
our moTOmant, tharabr eraallDE a eloaer 
bond of onitr and armpathy. Thli project 
of lupplflng the membarahlp of dlraellr af- 
flllatM local nnloni with ooplca of each 
luna of the Amariaan rgdsratlonlst la not 
fluinclaUT a profltabla one, nor Indeed )■ 
■" ■ *■ ■ atlonlat 



!laUT a prol 
.merlean l-ad 



and nasd aa an inthorltal 
eotintSsB the hlatorr of 
atblaTOTnenti of the labor 



londnctad with refard to 

■' ^aniliie la retarded 

tatlre naana o( re- 

lethoda and 



tor tha hlcl 
hiihar and 



:haat Idaali and aiplratlon 



Theaa adnntaie* 



d thU 



1 with carofally prepared I ,-- 

tatloni and detailed Information — In other 
wordi. the magailne U the offlDlal organ 
vrMch dsala with tha polldee and tha phll- 
onphr of tha trade nnlon moTameat. II la 
the pnbUoatlon to which ofloen, nnlon 
mrmbari, worker) and alndeuta, tnm for 
data and Interpretetloni aa a refaronce 
aoore* to help them In Iheir work, ttalr 



the iplondld oppottnnltlee afforded tc. 

— ' '-- --i clearer Tlalon ot the 

and width end depth of 

by Tolanlarlljr LabBcrlblng tor 

. . fadaratlonlit. 

(191G, p. ISl) The American Teden- 
tloalat haa been a tribune that baa alood for 
buman rirhta and hitman traedon, and haa 
inalatad that arer; other oonaldsratloB mull 
b« inbordlnatad to theaa. The Inflnanoa of 
the magailne apos the labor proa, aa well 
aa the ■engraf preaa ot the eoontrr, la 
^ helptnl In all thinga, tma to 



trade 



It la 



_ . be dlTartad, and can - 

lencad or Ignored, 
p. 1S3] The labor papen lOnn a 
iciaa bj which the prab- 
1 end the Ideal* of the 

»Ut7 are commnniceled to 

fellow- worker* sTarTwhara and the tlea ot 
brolharhood and co operation atraqglhaned. 
I UTc been efrectlTelr 



""'asn, p. 1 

chain of lira ani 

loma, tha aetlrltli 



nbor pap< 
thcongb. thi 



- aerrice which the A. r. 

fiunlataed in Ita oBcIal publico- 
iiona — ma imerloaa Pederstlonlit anl 
Weeklj ITowi Letter. Thcae two pobllon- 
tlona anpplement each other In tnmlahlnf 
aid to labor papera; the American Fadera- 
tlonlit IhrODgh adlloriala and artlelea In- 
terprela Labor' a relitlona to tltal prob- 
lama and Important mOTamenta and apeaka 
for Labor; the Weeklj Mewa Letter for- 
niaha* to the labor praaa a renma of hap- 
pentnca of general Inlereet to the morament 
ot thia and other eanntriea. The Amarlean 
Fedaratlonlat peaanU to the workara the 
beet oonaldered Jodgmoiia ot repraeantatlTaa 

(hem In working ont their awn problema. 

_^ Of BallToad WoA- 

ITT) Beoanae ot lack of anp- 

._. iein Twlaratlon of Railroad 

Workera want out ot aiialenoe. Baoanllj 
It attempted to create a aanrce ot rerenne 
hf maaqneradlng under a new title and aedc- 
Ing to decalTo the nnwarj Into tha ballet 
it la ■aaoelated with bona Ade unfona. 

AKorlcaa Baflwrnr TJnion Btartkk— (isSt, 
pp. 10-asl A atampada atrike of emplora* 
ot tha Pullman earahopa In Pnllman, III,, 
followed tha diaeharge of three membara 
of a committee which had praaenled oer- 
taln juat grlerancea to the cnperlnlemtant. 
Uanjr ot the atrlkera were membera of the 
Amuioan Ballwar Union. The latter offered 
the Bompany erbltrattpB. bnt thia waa ra- 
Jeelad. The A, S, IT. conTantloa held later 
deolared a boroott on Pnllman cara and 
notified the Ballwar UiDagara' Aaaoelatloa 
Ita membera wovM not work on tralna In 
hauled^ The nan- 



a refuaed to elimln 
atrike followed. 



e the 



atrlkera call el 



the praaldant of t] 

upon to attend a meeting I 

"— - general atrike. B 



Tldual or aa prMldeDt ot 
would ha moat Dnwlae and Impraolli 
liiaamueh aa I could not take anr ti 
■rtloD. Aa the Sieentl** Coundl i — 



lanrible 



-abyGoogle 



148 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 



Id meet. I msEMled Iha auiion be bald in 
CblMfo. A DDmbar of Dttlonal and loCn- 
nitlonal afflcen ware in Vita d to meat the 
Eieeatlie Conncil io >d ndfixirj eapteltf. 
Tba preiidaot at tba A. R. C. wu iavitad 
to iddieii the conncil to pr«eat obit ba 
Id bli jndcmeut baliaved It ahoald do naAar 
tho clrrnoitttlicas. Hs deplctad Iba eondl- 
tlona wbich eaniBd tba iirlka and boTcott 
uhI tntiniltlad a propoaltlon whlcb he ukad 

S'lir praaident to Ia7 before tba Railway 
aoacan' Aiaociatlon. It ii bat proper to 

Iba proildanl of tba A. R. C. 

iDiItfoD ererj member of the 
of tha 



-iiade tbii pi 



coufareiica aeeepled II is a dacUration ... 
hii pftTt tbM the itrike had failed, ilnce It 
oontalnad the proTlaioo for the ilrikan to 
'Tetnra to work aneoadillonallT.' After 
(uithet confarenflaa the EieautlTe OohdoII 
tatenient declaring 



1 tbe I 



Tho 



_ . r folloo 

to letnm to i 
. __lmonily lodorat- 
ptaaidsat and ExesatlTa Ooi 



the 



eil, deoUriOE:' 

—Wa BIB of Iba nnanlniaaa oplDion that 
tho eonraa panned br Prealdant Oompara 
and tba EieeatlTa Oomieil. in tbe alrika 
of the Araarlcui Railwar ITnlon, ma Iba 
rlfbt ftnd proper eonraa for them l~ '~' 



Bied br 

PreildenI OleveUod In Ihe nie of force 
throngb tho federal troopa on behalf of 
mDDOpoIr and injnilice and age In at tha 
T'orking people and right spon tbaC oc»- 
■loll.-' (p. 481 Condemnad blacklisting at 
nan irbo ilnrek Id aecare jnatics (o PdU- 

nobla and conimendabla aTinpathy for tbeir 
fpiiowtnen In diatreAa, and nrganClT requaaled 
Ihe fadaril Jndlelarr In control of certain 
rKllroadi and their lecalTara to make a 
Iharongh InTeatlgation of Ibe facta and right 
(he great wrong, [p. fiS) Sincere aynpatbj 
iraa ailandad to preBidenI of A. R. U. and 
nil raembeTB IncaroarBled In the Cook Oonnty 
(IIIIdoIb) lall on contampl of court chargoe, 
__. . ^„j Br,—'-' ■ ■-■■—■ 

"'f lb IL 
'"{1B"94"pp. 18-28) ApproTi 
tCOO to tha datenae of the p 



relary of Ibe New York Dlatrict Oonncil of 
Carpanlera wh raid: "Today in the Sn- 
piema Conrt of tbii atate, application waa 
made b; tba Joint dlBtrict connoll at Car- 
(peatera for an io^riction enjoining And 
realrainlng tbe American Anll-boyeoll A*BO- 
clation from practicing law and Initltoting 
baaeleaa and Teiatioui litigation agalnat Ihe 
Crpeniere in violation of Seotlaa 280 of Iha 
Penal Law of tbe State of New York. In 
■ubitance II wbb alleged on thia applica- 
tion which waa adjsnmed at the raqnaat of 
tbe defaDdaata that it la an orgaolaed Tolnn- 
tiry aiaaiJlBtion eompoied of corporation a. 
n'enafaetarera and altomeya engaged in Ibe 
practice of law deaigned to deatroy. If poa- 
Bible, worklngmen'i nalona. and for that 
purpoBB baa regvlarljr employed aonnael with 
olBcera, aendlng out dnulara aollelting anb- 
acripliong and aaaeBamenta from the eorpo- 
rulioni and Brma who become membara of 
the Aaiociallon, adTerllaea In the Dewtpa- 
pera, whenever BQccoaafnl. tbe retnlt of ita 
attacka upon organlied Ubor and ao on; all 
of which it la aiiagad conatltntea a orime 
uDder tha lawa of thIa atate. When tbla 
motion waa made for an Injunction againa 



all the hidden i 



e gathered in court from 



ganiied labor throughout the coanlrr. and 
number of leaier molea who bad hereto- 
re hidden tbemaelTaa in Iha aecret raeaaaei 
tbe American Anti-boy colt Aaaoeiatloo 
xloDlly wondering whether Ihe Taal faei 



oS and whether tbey n 



with 3 



a Sght a 



Bnlah 



AntJ-Bhoddy— (1890 p. 40) Urged federal 
law maklBg mlarepieaentation of any article 
pot OB tbe market a cHmlasI offenae, anch 
M aelUng goodt a( all wool that are noi. 
hand made when they aro not and placing 
foreign atampe on domeatle aitlelea. 

Appiantlee Lawi — (1881, p. S) tTeoeaaity 
demanda enactment of uniform apprentice 
lawa thai provida a term of three to Ave 
yeara, the employer to tureiih proper faeili- 
-'-- ■- -take bim a competent workman 



a taken 



a (p. : 



and 



ISB5 (p. 14). (1B8S, ] 
apprenticaa bad became >o cummon jtiui- 
neymen ware brought Into dlarapute and 
Congreaa waa urged to enact a law pre- 
nPTlbing compulaory Indenture In Ibe Ttia- 
trlct of Oolumbla. that the apprentice aball 



— tbi 



bla bon.- , - . 

luthorily of the maatar to e 
the bonn of enployment a 



the Jndgea 

hostile to the conlentlona of tbe working 
people of our eonntry, .Todgo Anderson atood 
ont among the moat conipfcnoaa. When the 
Clayton bill waa paaaed br Oongreaa. signed 
by the Preaident and became law, tha flrat 
presenlBlion of tbe claiina eanUlned In Ibe 
Clayton bill ware at that time eharaclcr- 
liad by Judge Andaraon aa "buncombe,*' 

AnU-BoTCOtt Aatodatlon. — AmM!ie«n — 
(JSll, p. 81)2) Thla telegram from tho aee- 



. legislation piOTid<ng Ihe proper ma- 
cmnery to adjnat all dispulei between em- 
ployer! and omployea, 11885, p. 14) Cigar- 
makers reported their constitution made 
aibltratloD necessary before a strike could 
be called. Delegates of the Oarpentera and 
aoveral other trades said they alwaya of- 
fered arbitration before strikes. (IflOS. p. 
14) President reported a growing tendency 
■ ■ ' ■ ■ ' ' elwoan employ — - 






mployea 



tbe t 



] that 



The 



rably 

DTontlen (p. 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORY, BNCYCLOPEDIA, RBPBRSNCE BOOK 



H*) reeoamendtd no s^rMraenti fas mida 
that probibited one unioa liolpin^ anotlur. 
AIM deolued that it cantrtnU tar Ions 
teim* wars enttrtd Into llie jodiolary tn>T 
ui« Iti ■qnltj pDwar to compel apeeifle en- 
Inrrtmcnt and like awny the ri(bt to imit 
lork in DDiaoii. <IfiO!l, pp. 90:51) IB- 
doned leMlntlon adopted b; EieoutlTe Coun- 
cil eolidemiiiiiB sliarce tlkat trade duIod* 
violate aireemeDta, vblch added: "We viih 



ia 



■ti«Dte 



caible 1 



preii oar reirct Ibat an; orraniiatioD of 
mrHincnisn elioiild tall to tigidlj adhere to 
a COD tract entered into rith emplorarm or 
Iti membeia, and we bellsTe U eaientlil to 
urge npoa trade nnlonieti the abaolota ne- 
cnaitjr of holding con tried between them 
and their emplojeri loTiolate." (1B08, ii. 
2!>6) iDitrneted alUlated bslldlni tridea 



dtija or hf be named by preaident of A. I 
of L., ai an arbllrnllon board, dMiilon t 



and Lonfaboremen i 



intBitinta an^ Indnitriil litnatlon that ma; 
portend a atnke, and that pending aneb lU' 
vestiialloD all parliaa be reatr^ned frail 
aeliDu; that when a deciilon la rendered U 
shall be hlndjne upon all partiei for a bdmI- 
fled lime, alitv dan, and aaoh daeuion 
not to be eombatted without thirty daja' 
nolfre, and alio that irndes uniona ha in- 

aelion of their eevenl membera iadiTldn- 
ollectively. ■While wa deplore 



rained r 



ilrlkei, 



imploy 



I th»l 



mploye 



arlly e 



admit the right of an? 
or lefiilatlT* bodr to 

aialnat hie 

(1S95, p. 8S) Bin before Congreai to 
preTent itrikea wai declared aimilar to tbe 
law that deitroyed the Entlleb Labor moTe- 
uibDt In the fifteenth omtnr;. It attempted 
to tet laide the Thirteenth amendment to 
permit IndlTiduala or eorabinitiona to eoH' 
tract away their rl(hti. Ho one eoold 
elrlke or leave employmept except on three 
rionlba' notice or anffar a year'a Impriaon- 
irmt. Executive Council waa Inatrngted t« 
laTeatisate and rqiorMd In 18ST (p. 91) 
thiLl on adtice of eminent eounaet the proTl' 
■IoB> ot the bill were hichly inlnrlona ti 
the workeia, particalarly to their orranliel 
Bfforli for ]nit conditione. The proleat "■ 

the Senate. 



iTiduals 



I defeat the bill l-x 



liona and the fundi of orrauliationi altaeh- 
abls for the failure of any workman to ablda 
by a dHlslftn which may be awardad aiainat 
LI. or In the abienca of anoh Innda. compel 
ha plaoing of a bond by the tiads union 



the 



'ard. 



theisBi 



tbM-P 



ToWed in their recommend atlona, which ■ 
In brief, that a permanent commit 
appointed by the goTemment with j 



■ In- 



(18S8. 



of aerfdom; alio oppoaed to 

. 24) The railroad arbitration 



few if any initancea would awarda 
deied agalnal the trade union ■ when the 
trade would be thonugbly orgauiled, but 
during the period of organliatlon, or through 
an naauthorlied baity action of a member. 
the entire union could be placed In peril, iti 
foture and ita efflcacy deatroyed and the 
Korken placed at the tender merelei of their 
employera. Dieputee between the workera 
anrf employera may be generally adjuated by 
arbitration, but if they are, it will only 

when their power and Ihelr Hghta have 
rereiyed greater recognition. The Snt itep 

tlon. the neil. poialble. arbitration, but 
ccmpnlaory arbitration — nerer. 

(1B04, p. 29) The Executive Council !« 
Initrueted to coualder the recommend at ions 
of the eommlaalon appointed by the Preai- 
dent of the U. B. to Inieitlgate the eanaei 
of the itrike of the American Ballwsy 
Union. It Is evident from the eipreealona 
and ooncluiion of thie eommlaalon that it 
haa conducted aaid inveetlgation In a (air 

- ■ parffiTTm-iliner, hut we ballpve. 



, with m»ny imnroTenien._ __ 
canie of A. F. of L. auggeatfona, became a 
taw. Through thli peralitency, and the rail- 
road men bear willing leatlmony, the law 
li freer from dangera to their Intereata, 
riKhia and llbertln and thoae of t' 







itry tb 




ced. 


laoo, p 




BiBport of preaident; 


In oom- 


iron Pith 


the 




1 trend of orjiD 


iied 11- 


bor to pri 






ea and lockonW 


whete- 




'wh. 










I has 


been awakened 




the peoplo 


'of"" 










who. 


playi 


ng npon the c 


rodnlitr 


cf'lhVin! 




med 1 


eek to divert tli 


le prir. 


elple of . 


Irblt' 


ration 




, pSllcf 


of ao-ealU, 




K"; 


T^ arb'tratlTn " 


n other 


wcida. the 




ly atotea. or by 




tion, of I 




eonna, with pt 




hear and 




Brmlne 




diapute 






orkera 


and their employera. In 



s Client aecured. a dimlnu- 
nber of atrikei, particularly 
t organlied. In fact, the 



obvGoo<^le 



AMERICAN FSOBRATION OF LABOR 



iIbI rMonrcM of an orfvilutloii In U17 

tnit 01 c*)lins. Tha b*ToiD«t«T of itrlkw 
tIm* with lack of, or weaknou i^ oTfanl- 
latloB, and dimlniihef irith tha aiteDt and 
powar of tha trada union moTaaant. l%rou>i 
jLon oompaet and battar aqnlppad trade 
unlona haTa ooma Joint acnamanti and con- 
eltiatian batwaan tha workman and aa*o- 
elatad amplojeri; and only whan ooncUla- 
t<on haa tailed haa It baan oaaaaaaiT to 
raort to arbitration, and than (be only mc- 
eaaalnl arbltrMlon waa arbitration Tolnntar- 
ilj antend into. Orfaniiad labor oan not 
bT Bttamptsd aaoraar erad* tha provliloai 
□1 an award raashed hj compiilaor]' arbltra- 
llon, and datermlaa open a ilrlks. B7 tha 
nuon of thair laria numban their erarr 
aet wonld bi an open and pnbllB act. known 
to all; while, an the other band, an em- 
plOTBT, or an aaaaoiatlan of amplOTara, oonld 
■(■llj eTBde Iha prOTiaiona 0/ ineh a law 
or award, bj modam procaaaaa of enforoin? 
a laekont; that U, to undertake a "raoi^ 
Einliatlon" of their labor foreaa. It ii anb- 
nittod that tha Terr terma, "arbitration" 
and "oompnliory,* ' etand [n direct ,oppoii- 
tlon to aaeh other. Arbitration Imnliei the 
Tolnntary aotlon of two partlea of dlTane 
Intereite ■nbmltllni to dlilnterested partiea 
tlia qnaaClon In dlapnta, or llkalr to oome 
Into dlapnta. OompoliloD bf anr prooeH, 
and parti enlarlj b; the power of goTam- 
mant la repnsnant to the prinaiple aa well 
aa the polfer of arbltratloD. If OTfiniied 
labor ibonld tall to appraelate tha dancer 
InrolTed In the propMed iehanea ot ao- 
called compniaorj arbitration, and ooniant 
to the enaotment of a law provldinf for ita 
enforcement, there wonld ba relatiodnoed 
the denial of the right of tha workmen to 
atilke In detsoae of their intereata. and tha 
anforeement by piTeininMit of apeolSc or 
ptraonal aerrioa and labor. In other wordi, 
under a law baaed npon compnlaorr arbi- 
tration. II an award were madTe Bfdnat la- 
bar, no matter how nnfalr or unjnat, and 
bronKhl about br any meana, no matter how 
qiieatlonable. we wonld be eompelled to 
worh or to infter the atata ponalty. whieh 
might be either mnlntinf In damaiM. or to- 
ing to Jail; not one aerntllla ofdlatlnctlon. 
not one Jot remOTed from ilaTery. It la 
((range how mneh man doaire to compel 
other men to do hy law. Vhat we aim to 
achlcTe ia freedom thronfh organliatlon. 
Arbitration i( only poetlbla when Tolnn- 
tary. It nOTCr can ba enooenMlT carried 
out nnlaaa the partiea to a diapnte or oon- 
tioTenj are aqoali. or nearly eqnal*. in 
power to protect and defend themnalTea, or 
to Infllot lajDrj- npon the other. 

The mora thorongUy tha workeri are or- 
sanlied In their local and national unlona, 
and federated by common bond, policy, and 
polity, the better ahall we be able to arert 
etrlkee and lockonti, aeenre eonclllatlon, and 
If neeeaiary. arbitration; bnt It mnat be 
Totnntary arbitration^ or there ihoold be 



ratloD a 



mid 



come when the workera of our conntry will 
hrve ao far loct thelf manhood and Inde- 
pendence ai to refnae to atrlke, regardleae 
of the proToeatlon, or to anrrendar their 
rl|hl to atrlke. We leek to prarant atrlkea, 
bnt wa reallie that the beat meana by which 
lh«y ean ba aTertad la to ba the better pre- 



pared for them. We endearor to praranl 
atrlkea; bnt there are aome condition* tar 
worae than atrlkea, and among thaoi li a 
demorallaed, degraded, and debaaad man- 

(IBOO. p. 1*8' A apeolal e^mmittaa, ap- 
pointed to eonalder the (tatementa of the 
preddent, made thla report, which waa 
adopted; "Wa aro In full accord with the 
prealdent whan, in anbnanca, he aaya that 
tha right to qnll work, at any time, and 
iDi any raaaon nttoleDt to the worker blm- 
",',.? ^* "S'".'' **p™"lon of tndlTid- 
ual liberty. Ltberty h« been daflned aa a 
right to frealy mora from plaoe to place' 
hence, any ourtallQaut of thla right by and 
tbrongh law, or by and throogh contract 
anf oread by law, la. In fact, a negation of 
liberty, and a ratnni to aarfdom. Wa baTt 
haa befere iu "The Indnatrla] Oonclllatlon 
and Arbitration Law of New Zealand ■ ' 
"The Law Creating and Oorernlng the In- 
i'""^ ,f*'"'. Oo™l««lon and Arbltralian 
Board," sOTilad from lawa of 18ST, and la- 
■uad by the Indiana Oommlaalonara : and 
"The Arbitration Law of nilnola," aa well 
H. ■T'.M Ooneonilng Oarrlera Engaged in 
Intoralato Commerce, and Their Smplorai " 
approTed Jnno 1, 1888. along witb aneh 
other information, from thla and Rnnpean 
coonlrlei, aa waa arallable at thla time; and 

I and traniportatioD. 
latnrbe tha Indoatrlea 



! aoclety T.. _ 
lannfactnra, commt 
nil anything which 
> rcaented. and mi 



- apeei(l<!«lly, 

the New Zaaland law proi 

of Oonolllatlon with power „ „„ .uo„ om 

afforta In brlaglnE the contending partiea 



a garb that nnbllc opinion will accept It 
and permit of ita aieentioD. Dealing with 
*■■ ' " «ei(l'!«llT, ve flii3 that 

' prOTldea for 

together and in"can»lng" thom"to~n._„ „„_ 
agreement Thla (ailing, it goea, npon the 
demand of one of the rrontendlng partiea, 
before the Indnatrlal Oourt, which haa the 
esme powera aa any other «inrl, namely, to 
hear and determine; and the sward— aon- 
tonce — la enforced by the atata in the nana! 
war, by Bnea or Impriaonmant, or both, Iha 
onfy (flatnelion bJn. that the triaf by 
Jury la dispenaed with, and an appeal de- 
nied. The only rellOTlng feature about thla 
law la, that IndMduali ran not dalm ita 
protection. Uan mnat Tolnntarlly enter Into 
a labor union or aaioslation In order to 
come under Ita pn>7^!ona: hence, at ieaet 
a lemblenee of IndWda^ liberty la left, 
but we are of the opinion that If fa deatrue- 
tl*e of the right of combination and of ac 
toal indlTldn^ liberty, b#auta thoae who 
eonaent to arbitration by Joining auch or- 
'•S"''i2? ^*V '*• I**" to hrnd all the 
rpit. The Indnatrlal eonrta of Franre are 
at we ondsratand It, organlied much In the 
If ma tniy. The bill to prevent atrlkea 
which waa Introduced In the Serman Relgha^ 
tag, at the Inalanoe of the goTcmment, had 
the tame underlying motlre, and practically 
i attaining Ita porpoae. l-ha 



ere ench apeelSc agree- 

_ they ahall ba ImpUed) 

alao prorldea that any Tlolatlon of the 



(ibyGoot^Ic 



-. BKCyCLOPBDIA. RBFBRBNCB BOOK 



( I he offandiaic pmrty 



diasDHioD la tb« Bwadiih Rlckidat asd wh 
flanialT combitted by >ha loran of llbarty in 
thai coontr;. It wai, boweTar, flnallr 
pauad, and tlia Swadlih lOTernraaBl tb« 
■" r da; cmahed - ------ — -' 



,„. __, -J tba el«lrio 

jnviTi in SMckbolm, bT arnctini and 
■Fntaneini the laadan to lonf tarmi ot Im- 

Cominr. now, to oar own oonntrj, wa And 
that a bill waa introdncad in OooirMi whieli 
woDld admit of arerr train bainf mad* a 
mall-train, and wblob, nndtr tha Mital lawi. 
woold bara aubjaeted atrlkara in railroad 
tianaportallon. to impriiDnmant, for dal>7- 
init tba 'malla. Tbrouili tba afforta ol tba 
railroad brolbarbooda and tha AnarlDao Fod- 
arallos of Labor, tha bill faiiad. Than fol- 
iDwad the iDlrodaBtion of tha Olnay Arbl- 
tratiaa Bill, which prOTidod tor arbitration 
TDlnutalT in inbmiaalon or III ita initiatory 
itaftM, DQt compolaory In obadlauoa to tbo 
award; that la, tha award WM to bo eo- 
lOTcad br a diract panalty ol Imprlaoaaot 
for any bdlTidnal Tlolatini ths aame, or by 
tajaactSoD, and then the pan alt r lor aon- 
(tmpt ot eoBrl. Vft And In tha Indiana 
law. flaetlon «, paco I8I. tba follawln<; 

"An aneanont to antar Into arbitration 
vudoT thFa act ibal] ba in writlnt, and 
(hall atate tha liaDB tob* anbinlttad and da- 

andp^^ 
, pa(a IBS, 

"'"^ThV olerk o'f the Oireuit Court abal! re- 
cord tba papan dellTeiad to Urn. ai directed 
ia tha laat preeedlnc aeolton, in the order 
book of tba Cinnil Oonrt. Any paraon who 
waa a party to tba arbitration prooeadlnita 
may praaant to tba Circuit Oonrt of tha 
county in which the hearlnR waa had, or tha 
India Umvof, in vacation, a TerlAad peti- 
tion refairinc to tha praeeadlnga and the 
rprord ot th«n in th« ordar book and abow- 
ing that aaid award haa not b»n compiled 
with, atatinff by whom and In what reapaet 
it baa baan dliobeyad. And, tbarcopon. tha 
oonrt or India theroof, in Tooation, ahall 
(rant a rala afalnit tha party or parties 
ai charted, to ahoir caaaa within flra daya 
why faid award haa oot bprs obsyed, which 
aball be "frred by the aherll! aa other 
proeeaa. upon return made to tha mla. 
I ho JDdga, or coort. if In aaaalon, aball 
hear and detensina the qoeatlona praaanted, 
and make anob ordar or orderi dlraeted to 
the i^artiea before him ia peraonam aii iball 
Kire Inat ofTact to the award. Dlaobedlanea 
by any party to aueb titoeeedlsgi of any 
order go made ahall be deemed a contempt 
of eonrt and nay be pnnlalied accordingly. 
Bat aueb pcniahment ahall not extand to 
iDpriaonment except in oaae of wlllfitl and 
eontn-naelDUB dlaobedianea. Ta all prooead- 
inn nixiBr thia laetion the award aball be 
retarded aa preaomptlTaly hIndloK upon the 
employer and all tmployea who were partlea 
Id tha controTBray <nbmlttad to arbllratlon. 
which preRiimptlon ahalt be OTerFome onl; 



by J 

Hi and I 



t dfiae 



the 



rbitrati 



Dbaaivad that thia may ba 

tary arbitration," baoaoaa It 

entered into. Tha partiea 

a rery be(innin[. that It thaj, 



ard, they 
DC, withon 



' inrj, 



ad without 



1 thea 



pertom 









until they ahali i 

labor which the award eujolna i 

The thontht under] yini thia law », inat 

the indirfdual man may alienate IMa right 

tu liberty, and it la, therefore, deatrao* 

tlTc ot the tundamantal prinoipla ot the Be- 

public of tha United Btataa. It U equally 

dancarou with tha New Zealand law, the 



Huncarii 



r tha I 



iropoaed ._ . __ 

i, became It alma at tylxg the work-* 
a mine, the factory, or tha maana 
ot tranapartation upon which be worka, in 
the aame way In which the air Icnl Curat 
wDikar, daring the feudal era, waa tied to 
tha aoll. We are sot alngling out the In- 
dlaaa law aa different from afl tha reat, or 
aa wone than the raat — we quota it ^ntply 
beeanae It la before aa. Faracraph Ba, ot 
tha nilnola law, reada aa followa: 

"In tba event at a failure to abide by 
tha declalou of aaid board in any caae In 
which both employer and emplayaa ahall 
he*e Jollied in tha application, aay paraon 
or peraont aitrlered thereby may flie with 
the clerk of the circuit court or the county 
court of the county In which the offandtnff 

Early realdea, or Id Iha caae ot ao employer 
1 the county In wbieb tba plaoa at employ- 
ment Ib located, a duly autbenllcated copy 
of inch deciiion. aocompanled by a Terifled 
petition reciting the fact that aach daclalon 
haa not been compiled with and atating by 
whom and In what reaped It haa been dia- 
regardad. ThereapOD, tha circuit court or 
the ooonty court, aa the caie may bo, or the 
ledge thereof, if In Tacatlon. ahati granl 
a rule againat the party or partiea id 

-V 1 .. ... ,„g^ within ten dayi, why 

mplled with, 
erlil aa other 
pioceaa. upon ratum. made to the mte, 
the oonrt, or the Jndge thereof, If in Taca- 
tlon, (ball hear and determine the queationa 
preieoted. and, to aecor* a compliance with 
BUBh deelalon, may pnnlab the olTendlag 

Early or partiea tor cactempt, but aneb pua- 
iLment ahall In no caie extend to Imprli- 



■uch deolaloD baa not 1: 
which ahall he aarred by 



tbo 



from the fli . , _., .__ .. 

which la doobtfol, i( In veibiaga onlyi and 
tnrlber comment ia, therefore, nDneceaBarV. 
We are informed that the Manufactorera* 
Anaooiatlon of the aoalh. meeting dnring the 
last year, decided Co submit to the legiala- 
tnre ot each ot Ibe southern atatca ■ [aw 
proTidIng for term coutracta, ths rlolalion 
ot which would be punlihed aa a felony, 
and that they did this with the apeciflo 

SLrpoae of prerentlnr atrlkea and of in»ilinr 
orthsm caplul. When rbalr attention waa 
called ■ ■■ --••-■■ 



"bother 
lald to 



■ by 1i 



ered, "That 



I, Chay 



why we decided 



.Gooi^lc 



AUSUCAK 7BDBRATION OP LABOR 



• In 1 loiDBwhat ilmilar podtion to tha 

•Dijilarari of En|lud ifter the "Blaok 
Daatfa." Ths Kins lunad a proolamatlen 
at that tlms that any one who wonld retnts 
to eontlnne to mrk tor the wana nnislly 
paid la a apeolllad jaar et tha Kbni'a rain. 
would, by tha Stata, ba compsUad to laSar 
at laeh wmgtm, rstudleaa of aar wiihea 
tliat he or aha nfcht haT*. The Engllah 



latar anacted thla Into 

known Bi ths "BlBtDte of Laboi 

■ i It porlodUally, 



Lldaa. until Henrj Tm, flndlnc him- 
■an in need of fnnda. conBieated tha solid 
fooda, and, by Imporaiiahlag the ornnUa- 
tloDi ol labor at that time, aaoeeeded In 
•nforoing the Statnte of Laborsia from that 
lima on. That law wa« erarr bit aa fair, 
UMn Ita faea^ »a the law of New Zealand, 
of Indiana, Illlnaia. or ur other of (hoae 
lawa with which rovr eommltlee hare anr 
aranalnianea. beoaoi* it prOTlded »>i»i ti>" 

■ ittlng In qoaiter leaalcini 



tha 

landar of hit paraonsi libettr toi a daOolte 
time and for a reeapilied porpoae, and inb- 
oTdlnate hla (olni and somlDs to the wilt 
oI aaothet during the rionilnuanca of the 
eontraot; not that all nmh sontracta woold 
ba lawfnl, hnt that a tervltuds which wai 
kiiowln|l7 and willinglr entered Into oonld 
— . I. • — 1^ inTolonlary, Thna, if one 
, for a 7»»rlj wa«e, to lorra an. 
... _ _ partliuUr eapaoltr daring h!a 
life, and never to leave hii eatata wTthont 
tala coDaeut, tha sontraot mlcht not bs an- 
fordbU for tha want of a letal ramedr, or 
might ba Told npon gronnda of pnbllo pel- 
icy, but the aerrltnde could not be proparly 

. 1 1 1_.. — ggjh agreemenla for 

■errltnde at (" 



r both Bldeg 



1 then determine 



aid Rogers, ProfoMDr at the TJnUeraltj of 
Oxford, will know the reanlt to the Engliah 
working paople. Their dally hanra of labor 

It waa naesHary to enact the "Poor Lawi," 
and ta nnirtsr (hc Worker npon the occB- 
he wan contlnDally being 
amployer. It hat been ataled 
thfa law redneed the phyalaal 



plar, beei 
rob bad by 
by others 



It hat been 
_, . . _ redneed the pi . 

atatore of the Brltlah workara abont 



._. . , t the porerty — the rasl. dire 

poverty — to be toDad In (he back elleyi of 
Engllih oltiei, eren to thla day. la largely 
canaad by that ipedaa of lealalatlon. The 
thirteenth amendmant to tha OonatllaUon of 
the nnilad Btatea, forbidding alaiery or In- 
Tohintary aerTltnde, may perhapa be quoted 
■- -how that In onr coantry — — — *— 



and that, therefore, ti _^ 

far to IndMdaal liberty In thaea ao-oallad 
'■Tolnntary arbitration" lawi. ' In order 
that tha working people, and the tna frieoda 
o( fraadom, may make no ntataka On thla 
qcaallon, we qnote tron the daolaion of the 
Snpreme Oonrt of the United Stataa in Rob- 






ft^Sfe 



_, _. _.., _. Barry Baldwin. 

ISST,. and l>eg to remind them 

conilrnctlon of tha thlr- 



imendment and the term ' 



"The qne-tlon 



„nitnictloi 

I aotdlar. aallor 

can gnrrender hig liberty. 

and tha (Dldl> 



deiert his reri- 
. „., ,. battle, or the aallor 
e port or landing, or even In 
ta. proTldcd only he can And 



ahonld B| 



termed Iqto 



II In 



ngland, a 



! by a 



ute of Jane IT, 1B2S (4 Owi. TV. ^_. _., 
aec. S), It was enacted that it any lemnt 
in husbandry, or any artiflcar, calico prlntar, 
bBodlcrartmBa, miner, collier, kaalman, pit- 
eon, aboald contract to sarre another tor 
a dellnita time, and ahonld deaart anch sarT' 
ice dnrlng the term of tha contract, ha waa 
mkde lisble to a criminal pnnlshment. The 
breach- of a contract for paraonal aarrice 
hat not. howeTsr. been recognised in thla 
country ag la-'olTlng a liability to criminal 
puniitament, except In the caeea of aoldien. 
eellon and pogilbly (ome otherg, nor wonld 
pnbilc opinion tolerate ■ gtalole to that 
effect," The only dlitant from tbta con- 
almetion comae from Jaalice Harlan, who, 
in bin dltiontlng opinion, geodt ont to the 
ccnntry a warning againgt the awfnl conae- 

Sneneea logically followed from tbig decision 
1 the following wordg: "In oonalderlng this 
eaae It Ig oor '-'- '- '-'- ■ —^ - 



r declali 






dorad. We can not arold this dnty by 
aaylng that it will be time enongh to con- 
Blder snppogad eases when they arise. When 
such snppoged cases do arlac, thoaa who 
aeek Jndiclal support for «traordlnary r«m- 
ediea that encroach npon the liberties of 
freemen will of tonrse refer to the prindplvl 
■nnoanced in Tmrlong adjndlcBtlana and 



"It la, therefore, entirely appropriate to 
Inqnlre aa to the necesaery reanlta of the 
sanction given by this conrt to the statute 
here in qnettlon. If Oongreas, nndar Ita 
power to regulate commerce with " 



acthor 



• the 



I the 



ral a 



compel him by force to retam to the Veeeel. 
and remain dnring tha term for which be 
engaged, a similar mla may ba preacrlbad 
as to employea npon rallrOBdl aad ateam- 
ingagad In commerce among the states. 



doea it attach only at the Inception of the 
en-Tltade, and cbarteterlie It as nnlawfnl 
beeanae,1inlawfa11y entered latol If the 



Kven If It wen 
made only for 



onceaalon to be 
11 



Imlnal olfeoee. penlihable 
' or both, for inch 

— ,,— „ ,_- .■mploymept before 

[oa expiration of the term for which they 
agreed to serre. It wonld not follow that 
titey eonld be compelled, against their will 
and Id advance of trial and eonvtetion, ta 
rrntlRDe sncb service. Bnt ths daeigloB to- 
day logically leada to tha canclnslon that 
■nch a power exists In Oosgresa. Again. M 
the legislatures of the italea have all legia- 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORY, BNCVCLOPBDU, KBFBKBIICB BOOK 



hllTA powtr DOl prohibited to Ibam, wbila 
CeniTMi cui oalj axWDiH uitdn ■ddidiit- 
M*d povsrt for kecoDPliihlDg ipeoificd ob- 
iMtl, why mar Dot the illtsi ander the 
principlM Ihti day anDOasced, eompal all 
«D)plo;<( at nllroada eueafsd in domutlc 
eomioerea. and all domsatlc aerranta. and 
all smplorara Id priTats eatibllthmaiila. 
vIIUd their leapCEtiTe IfniKa, to remain 
vilh thslr emplOTiTB during the teimi for 
which Iher were aeTarallT ansagcd, under 
the penally of baint arraatad hj aoma aher- 
IS or coDitable, and forelblj ratnmed to 
tlie aerriee ol their emplojara? The mere 
■titemeni of theaa matteri ii InenffleieDl 
to Indicate the leopa ot the decielon thii 
dar rendered." 

We bellBie that the rauon irbr manr 
wall-meaniBf, boneat and conaeletitlonB men 
ukd women faTor ume form of eompnJaorr 
■Tbltralioa ariiei from the fact that their 
atlantioB haa bean called lo the retnial to 
aibltrata, on tbe part of Urge eorporaliani 
-r other employera of labor. It la fait (bat 



the rcat < 



the 



nblie 



» waj lo riTe to 
rder that It mich 



id that there ongbt 



the pDbIl< 



_.. _t micht know who je 

■riuBu/ Hf blame. WheneTor thej are 
aiked, "I>o 7on want to asnd a man or a 
wnnan to Jail for qnlttlnj worki" tber 
lomadtatelr snewer ''Ko, no."' 'What thar 
ac«a to dealre ii, that th«(a eorpontlone or 
employera who retnae to arbitrate ahall, in 
Bome war, be compelled to do lo. Thia la 
manifeatly Impoasible. Lawi thai an. -'inr- 
handled," eian If poislblc 



lablj 



bandle i 



pUeed th 


at tha Ibt^ 


eorporatli 


>ni and am- 


&lSSi.^ 


f labor keep 


ths budla. 


Dm. with pa 


wer to < 


iiamluc and 


report, w 


onld ■cam to 






what la 1 


letnally dieln 


id. b°t w 


e"'woSi'd call 


attention 






them a (. 


'»t'^]'i."go« 


lu "'ubertj' be^anae 


from the 









which ha.a .. ._ 

warp 'pnblie opinion and prepare it (or 
maaanrea wbieh withool ioch preparation 
the public wonid nDheaitatlncly reject. We 
Iherefore, reaffirm tbe prevlcDt poiitlon nf 
thu A. F. or L., Damclr. that we are nlterlr 
oppoaed to an; law enacCad br the ittte 
which will in any wtj, br eoBsent or other- 
wiee, deprlTB the worker of hl» rlrht to 
qnlt work it anr time and for aay reHOii 
BUfllclanl to hlmtelf; and we raoommend that 
the different State Fedarationi and Local 
Central Bodlea In tha lererat atalM Inalit 
npon the repeal of an]- eompnliarr teatorea 

book*, and nia tfaoir ntmoet endeavor to pre- 
Trnt an; inch laws from beinf enacted in 

(IBOl, p. 2«) It la the tendencT of or- 






and 



of I 



It tike* 



■ ponibli, __. ._ 

Inaiat. and will Inalat. npon tbe laRsl riifht 
of the worker! to qnlt thair emplorment 
(t will, wilbont incnrrlns the riek of pnn- 
iibment b; line or Imprteonment. We in- 
■let. too. that whan tba atate can inflict 
flnanclal pnciahment or lend to lall a 
worker who, (or anr Rood reaaon known to 
himielf. dnlrca to ebanee hi* emplDrmenl. 
or who rafnaea to work eo aa to indnee bli 
employer to irrant him fairer condltiona ot 
employment, that moment tbe worker ii re- 



iroTided for the apeciflo 



dnced to Teritable alaTUr. Of aayeral atate 
lesltUturea which conTened. there were but 
few in which there were not introdaced on- 
marona billa pn»»ldlng for compnlaory arbl- 
'-itioD. and fn each one tha penalty clanae 
._.... .. .. .„,.. formwice of the 

-, - _- --- .oWion. It ro- 

qulred not only alertneai. but promptneaa 
and • Tigorooa campaign against the enact- 
ment of tfaeae lawi. All who obaerra and 
tbiok rightly know that there ia no power 
ao ettcient to prerant haaty or illy-conaid- 
erad etrtkei. or to rednee the anrntier of 
atrlkei to a mlnlmom, aa a well orgnniied 
and wall equipped union of the trade, and 
a (horoogh federetion of all organlied 



We 

niity. 



After the mineri' 
led to adToeatr fr,^ 
labor dlapnl 

eaaential to 

ked and wa narer will am 
tht to nroteit aod reali 
iiMiOD of oar rights, to b 

t 



right 



rtrTs- _ 

flnaneial amaudpation of labor throttgh the 
avolotionary pioceaa o( balldUg character, 
maohood. independence, intelligence, which 
inspire nobler asplrationa. Tha men of oi^ 
gaaUed labor want arbitration, bat oaly ar- 

bM abaolntely failed, and then arbitration 
only, TOlnntarlly entered into by both the 
oiganliod workers and employers, the award 
voluntarily, honorably and talthfolly adhered 
t3 by both aidei. Oompalsory arbltratian 
means eompnlaory laoor at wages, boura and 
eondllloni preacribed by the arbitration tri- 
bunal. It therefore meana lois ot peraonal 
freedom, losi of mobility, lose of tbe power 
of InltiallTe, losa o( hope. It waa the lav. 
from the latter part at tbo aiitecntb to the 
early part of the nineteentb century. In prac- 
tleallT arary elTiliied conotry. but aspeclallir 
wan It ao in England. It left behind aooh 
pDvart}', degradation and etunted humanity 
that it has taken one hondred years ot bet- 
fer lawB and higher freedom to oran nar- 
lially ameliorate. To give It a now name 
neither ehtngei its principles nor Ita 

(ie04, p. 31) Nothing can be fraught 
with no much danger, reanltiug in rank In- 
Jnitice and Injury, ai compuTaory arbilra- 



■ ward. It ii 

Ticlion that In the ___ .. . 

In fonflacntion al piopeity, and in tha 



rritude: 






. .. cognliing in it the entering 

wpdge of what would Ineyitably lead to com- 
plete compulsory arbitration. <p. IflO) Rea- 
oinllon calling on Oongreea to proiide some 
p!an ot arbrtration waa defeated oa the 
ricand it Tirtnally aakrd for compolaory 
■rbltratton. 

(IBOS, p. 26) Section 10 ot tbe Krdman 
set wsa declared nneonstitntional by a Kan- 
locky t ■ ~ ■■ • - '■ 



oyGoQt^Ie 



AMERICAN FEDERATION C 



Kt, oT 1117 ac^Dt, officer at reoelTer ot auch 
■mplDrn, lo "raqutro any amplore. or any 
peiaon levkliiK «mplo;mciit, m « caudltioii 

el inoh •mplorment, lo ester Into an agree- — 

maiit, either irrltteu or veibal. not to be- he had i 



Br of an; lab 
- argaimatloi 



pDratfoB, anoolatlon, or arga^atlon." or 
to "threaten an? employe wllh loaa oi em- 
ptoyment. or najtutlr dlecrimlDate asalott 
any eiBplore baeaiue of bis membersliip In 
iuch a labor corporation, aisoclatlon or or- 
EiuiUatlan" : or to "require any penon asek' 
inc employmant, aa ■ caadltioD ot lueh em- 
ployment, to enter Into a contract whereby 
■ncli employe or applicant For emplayinent 
aliall agree to eontrlbnte to any cond for 
charitable, aoclal or benaflelal porpotea; to 
releaae aneh employer tram legal liability 
for any peraonal Injury by r^aeon ot any 
beneflt received from aoPh fond bavnni! tho 
proportion of the beneflt aria In 
employer'- - — ■-"--•■— — — -■- 



obtaining empIoymeQ 



(1912,. p. 2B) Ini 



fill) OOBT 

amended ao it 
employee had i 

to the apparar 



loa at 1011 (p. 
_ __ _ the Erdman act 
inid iueloda 



carried ( 



lain 1 



.i aiperlment la aach legialatlon and 

that the dangera lurking In the propoaai 
gnrely affected the tifrhta of the workera 
(p. 81E) OonTention declared: "Ve vanl 

Jeaoe in fadoatry, but ve want peace wftt 
onor, progteaa and freedom. We weir — 



>r Indnatrlal 
glTen the opportnnlty of 



1 the partiee to the proposed arbitra 
bliah 



tloB ahall proceed before It ii antered inlc. 
So other method can protect the righli and 
lihertlea ol the partlea al lotereat. Oom- 
pulaory arbitration, in order to ba affectlTe, 
niQst be binding npon both partlea to the 
controrersy. That condition would m«an 
that If an award was made unfair to an 
employer, ha would be compelled to oper- 
atn hi* plant erea though at a loaa, which 
TCnld mean conflaeadon or the taklnc of 
property withont proper eompenaation 



It would alec 



that the work- 
impelled to work ondor thu 
ithar^they w«8_aat- 

„ ..J beoatiae of tL_ — — 

tiatlOD entered Into there la a cleancnt dlTld- 
inc line between profit and loea readily and 
oaally eetabliahed by recorda which will pro- 
teet the employer againat any award Inln- 
riona to htm, while no nch diatlnct diyid- 
ing line protacta the workmen. The itand- 
ard of ll'infT is a Hexible ptopaaillon which 



[ from him hla 



orkman would 1 



aid of llTii 



I. from 



... vould be willing to accept. 

the people not diracliy mterealod In an la- 
duatrial oeafliot may be embarraaaed beesaie 
of auch a alrnggla taking place, but It U 
better .that they ahon" - -— ■•-- — • — 











conflict than 


tba 


the 


workera a 




e ah 






r rigbt Co end 


civil CO 




to labor 


and 


thei 


right to 






to work. 






■'1S,{ 


ay dicta 


a, Impaired by 


ie« 


FiLation 


















yeara ot 


e(r. 


rt Ih 


^Erdmau 


act waa 


repealed, and 


tba 






nai-tsd ID 


take 


ta place. 


EiecutlTe 


Oo'nn-U 1 


at meted 




end New- 












Tw 


. olh 


r billa"efore Ooo 


ire«» 


wouid be 



_j line In hia alandard of IMng. he 
would be more liable to hare an unjust 
award Impoaad npon him than would the 
employer. No one can conceive of any com- 
pnlaory arbitration being >0 eonatmeted 
that it would compat the employer to opar- 



and'tEe YelEor' nntrna of Michigan and' Wia- 
eonain were tirged to notify their repre- 
aeDtativaa, the anthore of the billa. they 
were obieolionahle and intolerable. 

<ieie, pp, Tfi-SeS) condemned hill before 
Conrraas modeled aftar the Canadian Oom- 
polaory InTOBtlgatlon Act. It proTldei thar 
dcring a period when demanda lor changed 
cotidltione are under cntidaration It would 
be naliwful for railroad workera to atrlke, 
Thla effort to (nb]act wage earnera to in- 
toluntary iorritude haa aronaed (he deter- 
' roalataBce of wage earnera generally. 
-• - ■ ■■ ^ ing daya ol Con- 

. I made by acToral 

repreeentatlTea to incorporate la the Bail- 
road Eight Hour bill -' '-■-- 



they were defeated by a lote 

of 382 to ST. When tho bill reached the 
Senate an effort waa made to amend to 
give the Interatate Commerce Oommiaaiou 
authority to Bi honra and wagea of rail- 
road employe!. Defeated. 

(leiT, pp. 12S-S12) BepreaentallTea of 
the A. 7, of L. were h>lptul In defeating 
the compulaory arbitration bill cOTerlng 
rrilroad employee and endeaTOred to hava 
the Colorado Industrial Commlsalon act re- 
pealed. The latter prorldea for compnliorr 
iDTeitintioD before a etrike or loekont can 
take place. 

Arbitratlan in Oolondo and Oanada — 
(1913, pp. 81-2fl3) The inititutlona for 
BchicTing indtiBtHal Jualice and IndnitHal 

frcaaf and beat dsreiapment of the people. 
for the eatabllehment of jnitiee and free- 
dom come only through tho growth and de- 
Talopmant ol right thinking and right Ilrlntr 
ao that opportunitlea for freedom and ]u* 
lice are uaed tor the beat Intereata of all. 
To only one atate of tho Republic haa there 
baen a law providing for compulaory Invra- 
tigation of Indtiatrlal diaputea. That law 
vea enacted in Oolorado in 191S and haa 
been diacuaaed In the following lBsue{ of 



reault of their 



. emphatleelly againat 



i„Goo<5lc 



HISTORY. BNCYCLOPSDIA, RBPBR2NCB BOOK 



135 



b^Trpi.d^iid'ti.:;;;;; 




np«l of th> u«. 


Tha mUou t>kad br 


thg OolondD tnda 


nnioniiti In AitgOMl li 



I nnianlati In ttasiT !hI Trsdf 
-LtboT ConcHH held In Septeinber, 1016. 
For iBuiT jm% thoi* vho ntn panonallT 
*Ie«t*d t>T lbs opcisllon ol tli« Cuadlui 
lav kkTC dananaMd tba pringiple span 
which It ni I»Md, but ths opiDlcni ngw 
b«caB* c«n<TKl •noDcb In Omada to baeoma 
11m damaad of tha orfanltcd labor moTeDiaiit 
vatU (ha Oanadlan la* had b*Mii aitended 
br an adsdniitratlTC aot to ipplj to a 
fmtly ineiaaaad nunbai of workera tn Can- 
ada. Tha aiparianea of Ik* irorkan dorlaf 
the v^t raar nsdar tba axtandad appllci' 



lleallT 
the Doi 
pealed. 



t tht I 



I tha 



rmr 



r IfaF ihtp Arai 



t— (18SB, 



p. 81) 



naad; i 






Up Araco; 

Tl In jsil 
taded; then, handeuiTod, uisj 
vara pni on board b? ■ C. S. manhal ; re- 
luud aicain to work; Teual towed ont to 
■*■; acaln refnied. Snbicqnantlj the taa- 
■a1 vaa in dancer bnt thar paraiiled In their 
ralniBl to mrk and were taken to Ban 
FraneiaoD and ehar^d with dikaobedience. 
Tho Seaman'a Union took np the eaia on tha 
piinolpla that no one ihonld b* aompelled 
to work asalnit Ua will. Oaia want ut 
■QpTeaie court and the lallora, lefoalnf to 
UTe bail, want to jail to taat their ilcht to 
qolt work. After ■ rear In Jail tha Bn- 
prena Oonit at the U. 8. deddad a laaman 
under eontraot aonld not leaTa a ihip whea 
In a aato harbor and Id ISST (pp. aO-BT) 
Ihia crtticiam waa adopted: Durini the aarlr 
part af tho jaar tha Boprrme Oovrt of tha 
Onlted Btataa radarad a deotalon In a eaaa 
InrolTlnr (he licht of aaaman to quit their 
amlojment araa whan tha Toaaal wm in 
■•fa harbor. Tha dadakin waa adTeraa to 
tha rt(hU of (he aaaBon. In tha opinion 
•ceompanrinf tha dacialon. the oowt saT* 
azpraaUOB and laid down doctrlnaa anmalj 
Inbiloal to tha Inlanata of tha people, and 
in 00 man7 woidt faiTalldatad tha TUr- 
taentb Amandnant to (he Oonatitntton of 
tha United Blataa pnUbltlnt Involnntarr 
■eiTltnde. Toot attvitlaa la aalled to tha 
dlwenttnr opinion of tha conrt tn order that 
tha fnU maaanre of the wronf mtj ba ap- 
preciated. Tha dadalon la tha meat far- 
rcBChlnr which (ha Snprena Oonrt haa !■- 
aned ainea ita famona I>rad Beott deotalon 
enfOTotof a return at a fufUlTe a1a*a who 
eaupod to another Stoto. in view of lefli- 
latloB WUeh loma '%aak, plaolnc fraatar 
power* Is tho hand* of boTemnent, it li 
anbmlttod that neater canUon ehonld bo 
exerclaed In tha tatnre than haa been in the 
pait, In order (hat aome of the right! which 
tha people peaaaea, or baliera they paiaaaa, 
>iir not be U^n from them (hroaCh eooit- 
made law. A rohaaTlnt of tho eaie liaa been 
applied for. bnt thni far hei not be^n 
■ruted. One jnitlee diiacntad, holdlns (p. 
81): "It la, therefora, antirelr appropriate 
to innlre ai to tha neecaiar^ reenlta of the 
aanetMn rlTan bj thia eoort to tha iMtoto 
here in gnaallon. ,If Congreaa, andar Iti 



power to recolato commerce with torelfn 
natlona and amonc the lererml Blatca. can 
BUtborlia tha arraet of ■ leaman who en- 
.. npon a prirata rcaiel, and 
-, (otoft to rotnm to the Taaael 

dnrini the term (or which he 

la eucated. a similar mte mar be praioribed 
a* to employei npon rallToadi and ttaam- 
boeta BUassed In commerea imonj the Btatea. 
Efen if it war* ooncaded — a eoDceeiion to 
be made anlr for arnuuent'i aaka— that It 
ooald bo mad* a artmual olIanH^ pnnlababla 
b/ Bne or Imprlaonneut, or both, for anch 
amplojea to fnlt their *mplorm«ul before 
the expiration of the term (or which (her 

Srrad to ■orra, It wonld not follow Oat 
n oonld be eompallad, agalnit thair will 
and in adTanoe of trial and eonTlatlon, to 
eontlnsa in inch earrlee. Bnt the deelelon 
today lorleaUr laada Id tbe eenalnalon that 
■ueh a bower axlato in Oonareia. Again, 
aa the ticgialatnTea of the Btetoa haTa all 
luiaiatlTc power not prohlbitod to them, 
while Ooofreai can only exuelie eartatn ann- 
marated povera for aeoompllahlnB epeclflad 
objects, why may not tha BUlaa, nnder the 
piinelple* Ihia day annoonced, oompel all 
employee of Tailrt«da encaEed in domeitio 



within llalT reapeotlTO Ilmlti, to remain with 
their emplDyna during the termi for which 
they wera lararally anaagad, nnder the 
penalty of being arrestod by aome aheiitl or 
conetabla. and forcibly retamed to tha aarr- 
lee of their amployaral Tha mere etalo- 
ment of theae matter* la anfldeDt to Indl- 
eate the leopa of the deelilon thin day 



Tetoad 1. ._ ._. .. _. 

haeaneo it proTlded for the reeall of Jndgaa. 
Tha elania waa voted out of tha oonatltn- 
tion Deeember 12, 1011, on tba tarma of the 
Prealdent. At the aame time they alootad 
a leglilatura pledged to reitore tha recall 



great Impatna to the morement through- 
out the cooDtTT (or the recall of Jndgee aod 
declalona naltffying law* of a aoclologleal 
ebaraater peaeed under the police power. 

* ^W* DafoeUto— UflB«, p._77) 



'■the practije of tj 
immeut aod oppreia their em- 
• ---'rolling greed 



ILil 



makei 



all lUCh I 






(IS 14. ; 



iug incteaaed, and thereby den 
the powers of tbe world we 
open our Tolonteer aoldiera t 
country in time of denger. 
Patent rights en munitions 

menta and they should be sll Boqnired by 
tha goTarament. 

Aeseismenta— (1SB8, p. BB) DdIobb (bII- 
Ine to pay l cent aiiemmeot for eight hour 
igltatlon before April 1, 1B97. ahall be sos- 
pauded and can only be relnitatad by s TOte 
of eonTanllon after such arrearagas have 
been paid. (IBlfl, pp. M-Vtl) HO assess- 
ment* ba leTlod «cept In aeooidance with 
the eonstilnllon (see. I, Art. xn.), a« it is 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF IJ^BOR 



DnVoai, 110 



...itral bodis* to ba nil 
•utrgvDor tnDd mod to I 
DO viy modifrliif the pr 

dtToled to an; porpot* 



_ _honId not ba 1- ..- 

b; B rglxrandiuu Tota d1 iht noloai ■ 

AnHrmll*. Iitbor ConmtnloD to- 
p. BSal P!«B (or A. F. at L. to aeod 
million to ADetnll* tn loTeilifate 
perienec of the labor nofamant dm 
wai^ court pro«eedInr* doriDc atrlki 
pnlaorj iirbltntloa, pnamnient opor 
rail wars, ate., wai adoptad. 

AnatnUui Ballot STiUn— (IBSS, 



-1 1917. 

'lh< a"- 
rlBg tba 



- mtttj o( 
loomad to 
Tallin bil- 



(18B», ,. „-, — 

IfT* a praetloal Tiew of the Ana 
lot lyatom. (pp. 1(1-10) Ur(ad 
ifilem In all itatri. 

-(1901. 



' Indianapolia, u Oircnlt Oonrl 
I It wonld permit blm to revlsn 
hla fathar'i daoUloni. A Jadtt nnrtnted In 
lueb inrroandlnga and undar ineh banafnl 
IpRnancea ahonld not ba placed In a poaltlm 
to empbaaita and legallia a father'i deci- 
■loni and further harraaa and oppresi or- 
(anliad vaga eanan. 

■iktAop^ putUenea BrMtftu — (1B9S. 
p. 83} Called attention of laolorr inspaetora 
to "peatilanca breedlnr bakaihopa." Urgad 
agltatloa (or lawa pToMblllnE bakeehopa In 
baaemeuta, eallan or anbeallara. 

Bandi at Bxparitlan-^(1B1E, p. BOS) Or- 
drrad proteat fllad irltb Saeretarlai of War 
and NaTf againat parmltting anllitad band) 
plsTlas at Sao Diasa Expoiltlon. 

Bank* of tba People — (ISIB, p. 2<4) 
The control of capital iboald ba in tba 
hand* of the people, tberafora the EieeatlTe 
Ccnneil ibonld InTeatlgata the poaalbllitT of 
making tba national banka, bank! of tba 
people. 

Buika, Trada TInion~{lllO*, i " 

fnaed to r"* '— '- '" 

banka in 



._ .^arioni''pBTiB~of the connt 

to be selected b; the ExaeotlT 

n which all nnlODa matt depoi 

'ial4, p, te2) Ratected [ 



mat depo 

, ,, _tat*cte<r V 

Federation of Labor to eatabllah 



bank In rtlch _ _ . .. 

fucda can ba dcpoaltad. 

p—'"" Flarara, BTOthaihood of-^ 



of Baieball Fliyan 



.ulnanalr andoned. 



rlarlng It conld not conceive how It oai 
be poiiible tha brewerr Intereita ahoi 
Dred aid in aecnrins leglalatloti in tbalr o 



Blrtb BMOidi — (IS 10, p. GO) U. 

pieaent condltiona of amploimaDt tbar 
a eonaUnt tampUtlon to mlaitate the 
of a child aeeklas work. Valid arid 
of the date of blKh ii ottsn lacking, 
lawa proriding toe ■ fma and haniiT f' 
hood and the preTa 

the omploiment of i 

to ba enforced tbara abonid ba raeani oi 
obtaining otldanea of agai bejMind donbt. 
Mambera of nnloni ahonld take a penonal 
Intareal in thla baoaiua of Ita importance 
to their famUles. 

BbekllMac— (1SBB, p. IS) Denonnced 
btaekllating b; amplorera of all voikmen 
who vould not become "aerrlle ilavaa" and 
condemned (hoaa *bo aonght br lla nae to 
break ap trade* union*. Oongreai waa 
urged to aoict antl-blaekliitlng bill*. Sim- 
ilar action Ta IBBT (p. 29). 18ST (p. 21], 
18SB (p. ISO). 

Blind— (1900, p. SB) F.ndoraed hill In 
ConiTeaa to ptOTide writb and mean* for the 
higber education of the blind to dt tbam to 
pvnit Tocatlon* In life in whicb the aight- 
leai can moat aneseasfnllr corapete. 

•pendanM—.-dBls, p, B40) 

Federation of Labor pledgaa Ita 

mpport to all mail natloni by dechrlng: 
"Nc people nnat be farced under *ot- 
eralgntr nndar wblcb thor do not wlib to 

llTO.^' 

BolUr Ini9Mtor»~(1898, pp. «-77) Pi- 
TOred goTomment appointing practical 
boilermakan and Iron abipbnildera to In- 
spect bollan of ateam Teaaela. (ISll, p. 
B55) EiacntlTe Oonncll inatmcted to do >U 
in ita paver to hare competant locomotive 
boiler tnipacton appoint ad nnder lav 
enacted. (1913, p. 4B) Keqnaat made that 
all Tiolationa of the law be roporled to 
praaldent American Fadaratlon of Labor. 
(1SI4, p. «T0) Offloera Initnoted to draft 
a anitahle bill to preaent to Oongraaa pro*ld' 
Ing for Inapectlon of looomotlTe bollwt. ea- 

!<»•* toi --- -■ ■ 

rocomotiTi 



tandt 



, ,. 114) Chief 

napector agreed to cartdn rahN 

Ion of looomotli-a anglnee and 

__i th*T vera anbmltted to Hu 






Endoraed plan to 
of nniona by com 
erntlTc Cooncil. : 
vent I on re fused tc 






aoG) 



.__ j!1 (Inanela! oflcora 
nr aeleetad t 
1909 (,. :', . 
roDsider tbe quaatlon 

taoiianing a nonoing compiBT. 

Boidan KntlDy— E. W. Clark and Oeoria 



bv the Bi- 

ISi tbe eon- 



1B76 for I 



I the 



lefl Nev (Jrleana on the echo 
a flOO-ten vaaaal. ovetloaded 
manned with onlr fonr eailor 
maat. A bmtaT captain etmni 
tliE maat b; the tbnmha. toea 
tbe deck. Thejr vere forced 
viter. Prenited by drinking I' 



. their 

Preeldent Grant 
. i^n Tnen bad 



. _jtini*d. One 

ingllahman. Hi* gov- 
1, and he vaa given 
_ and Miller vere «en- 
b. In ISSO (p. 98] tbe eon- 
itad tbe Frealdent to pardon 
convention repeated the re- 



0bvGoO<^lc 



\ 



HISTORY, ENCYCIX>FBDU. REPBRENCS BOOK 



qufit ontll In IBOS (p. 2IS) Clirk y/as ph, 

donsd. Miller h»TiD> dlid la lBe« (p. 2S] 

B«roott tot Opbdani, OuwM — (ISO*, i 

aC2) Tha nnlTRDmelsd frecdora of Ihs prei 



pi •hIdb of oplnlf 
Id 1002 S0 of 



tba 



... _. __iplOT»™ In ToTOBto In 

■haet motil trade ilnied >d ureameot 

~ >tTu tloc« b«BD ra- 



irltli the onloiu 
i.ewad aaeh fear, una oi 
tLa oierciH at liia rlghli 
The worktaea, In ponnaner at their rlEbtB. 
Tetoted to work tor him. Tha amploraa In 
l^alr local nnion Totad in favoT of a atrika. 
Poi Ibat tha Gonrti haTe dalatminad thai 
tha looal, and the inlamillonal. vhich etrn- 
Irlbnted aoma alrika pa;, ara liable In dam- 
acca to lb* IfataUlo Rooflng Company, an 
tha broad prlncipl* that the man were eo- 
en«d bj the ratolntioo to itrike. The local 
union, oat of dafrreuca lo nttaer amploren 
Tllh which the; had eantracta, gaTa notice 
that on and after a certain data tba mem- 
bcrt did not Intend Id handle tha good* of 
the Katallio Baoflnrc Go. The oonrta hBT« 
rated that to be a bofeott and (hat 
and International are reaponilblo 
in oamacea. In time indcment was ciTan 
afainat the local and fnteniational nnlona. 
Vbt Uetallio BooBng OompanT baa had a 
receiver appointed to collaot the par capita 
tax that li to r> to tha international nnlon. 
Thv Indgmant atlowa them to take the par 
capita tax. not onlr of thr local untona in 
TorontD, btit all tlia local nnlona In On- 
tario. The reanlt will b* the local nntoD 
will not eoUeet per capita tax. which will 
Biako II dlflcDlt for the Interaatloaal body 
._ -J pjj j^^ necaaaarr ««■ 



ie'TMaf 



imp any 
-ovin 



e in Can 



I the 



Blile in tha United Statei. Whether they 
will anceaad la the atatei ia another ilorT, 
bnt tha chaneea are they will inccead In 
any proiinee In Canada. 

Boreolt Law, AUbaraa— (IBOS. p. 162) 
KiaentiTa Oonnolt aothorlied to teal Talldity 
of Alabama boycott law, which nroTidei Una 
and impTiaonment (or declarins the pro- 
daeta of any iadlTiduat. flm or eorporatlDn 

Boroott IIa(fcod»~flS9T, p. 91) . Vhen- 
ara- a coart ah all laane an lajnuction r«. 
atrainlnr any of oar fallow workari trom 
plariBg a concern bcilila to labor'i intareat 
OQ ODr unfair Hat; enjoining the worken 
from ianlnr nolleei of Ibta charagter. tha 
■nixaation la made that upon aoy letter or 
■ ■ ■- ■ "of this ■ 






after atatins the 

ind tha KTleTanee 

"We hare beei 

from hoycottinj; 1 



f the nnfair 

lOmplalned of tba 
enjoined by the 



were conaidered a ponolar 
weapon of orfanlied l^bor, 
raaei the principle had been i 
by anacrupnlooa and deiignini 
ncrted with aome of the nnloi 



ventlon declared inch a 









• of a 



*i»e parfectly honorable, lefltlo 
pcwerfnl weapon with which the tollen can 
compel Ihair oppreiaon lo make amenda 
aul conceiiioni to the lichtfal demanda of 
organlied labor. Soma OTguliiationa le- 
Borled to the boycott on erery frlTolooa. 
tritial or imaiiuary grlarance withont Bret 
SiTlnf the Bobjeet that attention and 
thorough InTeitlgatlan thn Juitlca and ctbt- 
ily of the qoeatlon ao naeesairii/ reqaired. 
Rixal (aetiona of work! ipncn had lieen 
known to hate boycotted tha gooda of Hrma 
that employ none bat anion woTkin;nnen 
and paid the hi|heiit rate of waftea in their 
lino of mannfactnr*. Hnch practloea in the 
fntnra will be dlaconntenancad, and we ree- 
Dnmend to all nniona the oeceaaity 
Tiding proper aafagnardt to — -■" 
odinm eaat on the honaat aoi 
of wnrkininen in Lrinrlas I 
reaaonahia and tyrannona ampjojen, 

(less, p, 19) The IndltcilminBta and 
frlyotona lua of the boycott aa a remedy on 
every triflln( oceaaion la attDugly con- 
demned and it! carafnl and energelTe naa at 
a laat raaort, when properly nndertaken, ia 
(BTorably anjoiaed. 

(ISBB, p. 38) All nnlona and sentral 
bodiaa raqneated to fnmiih the aeeretery 
-'"■ - "-• if their aaeretariei eyary throe 
B need in aandins onl boycott 



Many boy col te 



n-ontha I. 

elrcnlan. 

(1S0O, p. 30) Declared no boycott ■henld 
ba endoraed by the AmericBn rederation of 
l.nhoi until ordered by tha EKecntiya Oonn- 
cll and then only after arbitration and other 
maana baye been axhaaated. (p. 4fl) Owing: 
tn I he nnmber of boyeotta on beer, action 
. ... i._ ... ___...._ V ,^j j,j^. 

leieiraa. 

net"ed'' ." _.. '*™. ." _.."" 

adopted by the conveotion nnlll after it had 
Tiglied the arma InTolved to leo if aattle- 
menta coold be made. (p. ST) We sevara- 
1y condemn the pnbllcBttDn of edTerti8«- 
menti of boycotted flrma in the Jonmalt of 
afniiaied organliationa and reqnest that 
greater care be exerciaed in thia matter in 
th' fnlnre. (p. 64) Thia amendment to 
tha conatllation wai adopted: "No endoraa* 
- ' ' -- aball he conildered by 

DCil," 

irt in 

icotta. 

H tha deaired reiulte in one local ion wonld 
be BO mnch waate of energy In another. 

(ISSK, p. eO) Delegate refnaed a Beat 
bccanie hla anion had refnaed to endoive a 
bovcott ieried by an anilated organiBatlon 
and endoraed by the A. T. of L. 

(laSfl, p. S2) Reported that the En^lah 

;2r;- 

the" grand jnry had creferrad chargea of 
libel againBt It for conaiicllng a boycott and 
two membera had been arreited. 

I1B97, p. aS) EiecuHTc Council recom. 
mended fewer boycolti be placed. belieylnR 
It wonld Bccompliah more good. [p. 91) 
Executive Coancil waa inalrDCtad to aand 
circalsr letlera with tbeaa qnaatlona to all 

nniona wllh "" ~- ' * '"- '*■- 

bar of boy 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



AUBRICUT FBDBBATIOH OP LABOR 



« liat. 



. Whnt !■ 



t pTMsnt 



beins done to lalDnn the vorklnf peopla 
of tlJB flnu'i poiltion In niaid to ' 

UboT. 5. Under vhal oonditloa i.. , 

i(i workman u« (mplo7*d. ftDd tlia i 

of laid emplOTH. And tnoh oth«r Inlor- 
miitlon ■! *U1 s1t« [faa BiMUtlve Oonnoll 
the «CBet altnation of ■ffiln. \ad if, npon 
Invetllsation tlw Eieontiia Oannoil iioer- 
tain that no effort la belnt mide to luceeM- 
tnll7 garT7 on the work, b? thoie directly 






I he t. 



. > LUl." 

Oonscll ihaU. after lint making an sffort 
M adjnit the dKBcnltlei. take the Orm'a 
name from the "We Don't Fatronlie Llit." 
Id the fntire. before greutliiK a reqneat for 
the plaeiac of ■ Ann sn the '~We Don't Fat- 
ronlie Lilt," all ontBnIiBlloni baTing mem- 
ber! wotkug for laid Arm ahall be earre- 
apondsd with to ihow canse whj the Teqneit 
ihonld not be (ranted. 

(IBM, pp. BB-lie) The A. f. of L. ihall 
eodone no boycott where the pmdnati of 
■araral orgBnlied nniona will ^e affected 
thereby ontU ererj poiilble effort hai been 
made to aeonre a aettlemant, and all orian- 
liatlani to be affected ahall hare been ^rtn 
a hearing and an opportnnlty to aaalit In 
aMiulnt a aettlement of tbe axlatinj griev- 
ance, (p. 116) Tbli TCiolutioo waa re- 
fened to toUowInc oosTentlon: "No Arm 
ahall be plaoed on the A. T. of L. 'fair 
Uat' naleai all parMna ennfod la the an- 
ploy of aald flrm are mamben of the trade 
naloni of Ihalr craft." 

<1BB9, pp. 10-147) BoTOotli wantonly 
or EnnaeeMartlr plaead brlnjn that weapon 
Into diirepate. It la onr 6od-|i*eQ, natnral 
right to beatow coUeetWely that which wa 
hare the right to withhold Indfrldnallr. (p. 
Ifll) Any product repreaented to be 
"tuilon made" ahall not be oonildered nnlon 
nntaie It bean tbe label of tbe craft prodnc- 
int incli eammoditj. (p. 163) "We Don't 
Patronlie Llat" ordered dropped attar Feb- 
mary 33, bat thia did not dabar tmlona from 
renawint application ftfter falling to adJnit 
griaTanoeL 

(IBOO, p. 168} Ordered that a)I fntore 
applieatlona to plaoe £rma on the "We 
Lon't Fetranlie Iilat" ahoold be made di- 
rect to the Cieeatlfo Oonnell. 

(IBOl, p. 1S8-3B8) Deoland it InadTli- 
able to bnrdan tha vnfalt llat with too many 
namaa and limited national and intema- 
lional nniona to three tMycotta and iosal and 
f«deral nutou to one. (p. ISA) No Central 
Labor Union, or other central body of dele- 
datea ahall bare anthority or power to orig- 
Inata a boysott. nor ahajl auch bodlea en- 
dorea and order the placing of the nann of 
any ptoioa, Ann or eotpontlon on an nn- 
fafr lilt, antil the Loeai Union desiring tha 
lame hat, before declaring tha boyeott, enb- 
mltted tbe matter In diapale to tba nenlral 
body for InTeatigafloa. and tbe but endeaT- 
ora on ita part to affect an amicable aettle- 
mant. TiobtlaD of thia aaoUon ahall forfeit 

(1002 p. 148} Tbe eonatitDtional guar- 
antee of a free preaa ahonld be pleaded 
againit intarferenea In the iunauce of boy- 
eott clrcnlara r~ --■— -■— - --' — 



dodgeri, ._ . _ .... 

cluing that a boycott O- - ._ . 

baa eilated, or la contemplatad agalnal ■ 
paraoa, Simi, or corporation doing a li 
fnl bnilnaiB, or pnbliahlng tha nsma of m 
Jndlcial ofleer or any othar pnblic 



y blackllat, i 



nfalr 



any lawful ■ 



cialon of anoh o«oi»l.'' (p. aST) The nl- 
moBt caution abonid be aaad in granting 
applieatlona for apace In tba nnfair Ttet. If 
any Arm ia nnjnetly placed npon It not only 
la the orgBDiiatlon directly Intereatad in- 
jnfed bnt alio tha entire labor raoTement. 
Any pnpoaition inbmlttad In good faith and 
hiTing merit oannot inffer by nndergolng 
a oai^fnl InToatigatlon to tlie end that the 
unfair llat may not be too tooaely applied 
while In tbe Intaraet of one branch of or 
ganlaad labor it may ba Inlnrioue to another. 

(1006, p. 243} Organliatlona naTini 
namaa on tha nnfair llat beginning January 
1, 1007, moat report CTCry lh»e montha to 
the EieeatlTO Oonncil what afferti they are 
oilng to make the boycott affaetlTa. Failure 
to report for ili monthi iliall Ira anttcient 
eanaa to remoTa inch boyooita aa are not 
reported on frooi the nnfair Hat. 

(1900, pp. 108-283) Under preaont eon- 
dltlona tbe boycott i> a neceaaary legal and 
moral weapon, and one tbara ahonld be no 
heattatlan to resort to when qther remedies 
f^l and tlie oeaaelon demandi the nnnaaal 
and drwrtio antidote. Lewyara' aaaooiaticns. 
medical aocletle*, iBtantiflc bodlea, even tha 
fraternal aodetlea, all forma of combined 
human endeaToi — all reaort to the boycott 
to BOhlave their legitimate, and In aonM In- 
ataneea illegltimata ends. Why then ahonld 
not tha labor nnton haTo that right with Iti 
canaa a hut one, and Ita deaire tba better- 
ment and uplifting of tfaoae who follow the 
acriptnral Injanetlon, "In the aweat of thy 
face ahalt then cat thy bread." It an In- 
diTldnal haa the right to retoae to jiatnO' 
lie, then that aama indMdual haa the right 
to enllit tha lympathlea of hli fellowman. 
and it foUowi that If tha two haia tha right 
to rafnae to patronize, than labor in com- 
bination baa tha right to refnae to patron- 
lie. We aay that when yonr canaa la Jnat 
and erery other remedy haa been employed 
wlthont reanlt, boycott ; we aay that when 
the employer haa detaiinlnad to exploit not 
only adott male labor, bnt onr women and 
onr children, and onr Teaaoning and appeal 
to bli t^rnea* and hia coniciance will not 
away him, boycott; we aay that when labor 
haa been oppreaead, browbeaten and tynn- 
niied, boysott; wa aay when aoolal and poli- 
tical condlllona become ao bad that ordinary 
remedial maaanraa are (raltleaa, boycott; and 
Anally we aay, ws hai« tha right to boy- 
cott, and wa propoae to exarelae that right. 
In the application of thla right of boyeot!. 
we propoae to atriya on and on. 

BoycB tt a, Folttlnal and Baonomlo — (1014. 
pp. 03-863) Proeeedinga were bronght 
agalnit tbe Photo-En grnTera' Union and the 
Allied Printing Tradea Oonncil of New York 
nnder the Sherman antitmil Uw, bnt the 
act complained of waa buld by the aiaiataot 
attorney general not a Tiolalion of that law, 
Tbe ruling held that workeri maj^ legally 



strike 






ondition 



oyGoo»:^Ic 



HISTORY, ENCYCLOPEDIA, KBPERSNCe BOOK 



hii laling, ma; tSBiUr tndeaTDr, bj appaali 
M iMla bDuda ol xluBBtion, to hare 711- - 
■ga wiltiiinwii from pabUahlnv taonaea 
hsTa priDlInc or angraTltif done In 
nsion abapa. Sneh aoUon vat hstd si 
litieat in natnre. On th« othsr haac^ __ 
hold that If DDlon workman ipprosched 
bookifeUers wKh tbraaU not ta 
them it iher oarrj 1 
lliberi who emplor n 
action la lUepil— tbat 
prDmote thslr welfue 
to witbdrs* 



bar waltara attended meetldia and helped 
to laoneh the mOTemsnt wUeh nnlolr 
■praad to other oillsa and tovni. Their ef- 



,'ESr^ 



political patronap! 

, 11 thoaa whoae poltetea are son- 

traT7 to IhatT mneapta, but ther mar not 
tbreaton to withdraw their eeonomk pat- 
ronai*. After tUa rallnc proeeedlDga were 
broafht acaluat tha Photo-En(TB*era Union 
to ihow cams why It abonld not be en- 
joined from ur aota to aatabllah nnlon 
atandarda or eonditioni contrarj to tbo pol- 
leiea of the complainant. The brief for the 
Photo-EngraTeri pointed oat the heart of 
the BonlTOTartT: "Hare the defendanti Ibe 
right eoIlaatlTelT to retrain and to notifT 
n' 



_j[i omplOTora that tbar will refi_._ 
eally from working en trpographli 
photo-ngravlng work ' 
part of their *" 



nrk to 

i trafc attltndfl __ 

rimilar to that main tali 
plalnantT" 



>ho giie 



' np^7 

. _ met with hearty anpporl froi_ , 

ibient /nMn ttvonghout the eouDtrj. In' 
Blractlon tor the bar aconta fnoladed the 
mdlmonta of mllltarr training, eampinff, 
eooklac, algnalling, woodcraft, aanltatloo, 
firat aid to the Injured, awimmlng, boatlns, 



by 



Special aehie" 



Eondltlona 

the flom- 

The federal jndg* held that 

. determlnlnc the nnion'a aetlvKy 

waa not nnmlty to the cODplaloant bat the 
ImperaUT* naoaaaity dor proteetlss theoi' 
•elTfla Ihnmgh aatabllihlnB nnion atandarda, 
and that the tnjnnstlon prOBWa conld not 
be InToked to pnniah ciimea. He Indicated 
other waya in whieh tha complainant coold 
proceed anlnat organlied labor, bnt pointed 
est the dannr to eqnity Jnatlee by lagal- 
IiIqK the BctlTitlaa of trade nnloBa, 8ueh a 



paranunuit ImperlaDce of hnman rlcbte a 
hnman welfare. 

■07 SoMt ICeTMnant — <19il, pp. lae- 
898) Bxacali>« Oonndl directed to eon 
llnoe Inreatltation of the Boy Beont move- 
ment and It* aoonomie, and other Infhienees, 

{ISia, pp. 1ET-2SB) Thb npoit of (he 
EiecatiTe Ooonctl and Iti recammendatlone 
w«re adopted: "Tha American Boy Bconta 
waa Intro^oeed Into thii conntry lome yean 
ago. The moTetnent originated In England. 
Thie moTeraent waa traniported In Ita en- 
tirety and wlthoDt any ehangea. The 
■oonta were i^uiied to leara mllftary drill ■ 
and naa (he riBs. The eoont organliatton in 
England originated wt(h Llont(enan(-Oeneral 
Baden-Powall It followed cloaely the Sonlh 
African War that had alarmed England ai 
to her fntnre fighting ilock. The moTemen( 
appeared to be military cabal, a« the icond 
were being trained to anna and innred to 
the prlTBtroQS of camp life. There are about 
400,000 bora Drianiiad In England and In 
her colonlea. The fonndera of Che 
raent in thla eonntry inggeited tbo 
liatlon of the American Boy Sconta 



connection with organiiatlan. auch aa enllat- 
inff and recmlting, dmmmera and tmmpet' 
ere were Qnconraged to join tbe organ] aa- 
(lon. In addition to the gamea and drllla. 
there wai the boy aooot lair, wblch, with 
the acont oatb, made np the code. The' aec- 
ond aeetion of the aeoot law contained Out 
following lentencea; "A aeout la loyal to 
hii parenta, to hla anperlon, to hla eonntrr 
and to hla employera. Ha moat atiek to 
them through thick and (hin agalnat eTeiT- 
one who la their enumy or eTen talka badN 
of them." Thla organliatlon of the looafa 
beeeme Tory popular and attracted much at- 

ainu and pnrpoBea wag not ceDenlly known 
The attention a! organimed labor waa at- 
traeMd to the movement by two charaoter- 
iatloa: Iti tendency to foater mlUtarlam and 
poialble Interference with organlled labor. 
1(1 military tendenelaa wera emphaaliad br 
the QipreaalDua of thoaa who were backing 
it BO that Ita chief porpoao aeemed to he 
that of a feeder to the army. Ifititarr tdeala 
ware beld np to Impreailonable youtha. TIrt 
POBBlblllty of lU antagonlam to labor organ- 
iaatlona by niing and trainfm^ tbe boya ai 
Btrlke breakera waa bronghl oat by two II' 
InatntlouB, At Dee Meinea, Iowa, b^y 
BcontB were need to break a itrlke of boot- 
blaeki who wlahed to IncroaSB (heir prlcei. 
At Ironton, Ko., a icont muaicat band^waa 
organlled which competed with a band of 
irganlied mnalelBBa. In Chicago, acme of 
he (eaeheni In tba^pablic jchoola who were 
organiBBd I ~ 



andancii 



tlon, 

pointed B eommlltse to Inreatlgate ,_ 

ganliatlon and Iti purpovaB. but thla earn- 
mtttaea waa not permitted to attend anr of 
the meednga of the olHelala. AccordlngW 
the Teaehera' Federation, after making all 
abaer*a(lane and InT'eettgatlon poaalbln. 
adopted resolDtlona condemning (he organ - 
liatlon. becBoee of Kb mllllary nB(urB, and 
baeanae It appointed aa teBchera of imma- 
ture boya paraonB not required to eonfom to 
the UBual qualiflcatlonB and atandarda, and 
becanae it placed Initnctlon that propsrlv 
belonged to the pubUe BcboolB under ontalde 
Jnriadlctlon. The Chicago Teder. " 
LBbor alBO paaaed reeolatl<— - -- 
tha mOTemant. At the May 
Eiecutlye Council, held i ~ 
reaentallTea of (he boy b> 






data filed brought out tbe follcwi 
There are in tbe United Btatsi 

ScDuthg and the Boj Seonti ot America. Vt 
Idealg and actlyltlea of the Boy Scouta ( 
America are tor peace and the building n 
ot body, mind and obaracter. Tha rlftg 



T.Gooi^lc 



■hit in tbe UDncblnf o 



PEDBRATION 07 LABOR 



At to tha ipaBiflo chargeg ol hoatllity to 
labor ornniiktloiii. the following rtpliu 
ware mait: In legird to the Da* Moines 
Incident, II vh uid that the '-jootblBckt 
wwrs Greek boyi who were endoavorlnj to 



1 carelnllr edited. Ai ■ result, there 

■piiesred in the msnnal coniiderible qmpha- 
■U on milltarlim, and tbe lection Jnat 
qnoted whlcb ronied organlied labor, A( 
loon aa popntar crltioiam called the atten- 
tion of the EiecntiTe Board to theae objse- 
liona, the Board directed thai the platut sf 
"— *-iiok be ohsneed aa aoon sa pai«ll,la. 
..... _.... , J ^^^ allowed lo 
ion throagh oiaT- 



< matter 



r all t 



1 the 



leadert tW a shangi of ldei_ 

larr to adapt the moTement to Anerlean 
boya, Chaagei were made In aome of the 
•cant lawa and reqnlremsnta. Ihoae eon 
taining the raferenOH to Implicit lorslty 
aod obedience to employera. which were 



and Co hia oBIcari 

to them thronirh 
lyone who la their 
s badlr of them." 
^ acDQt la loyal, la 
....... y la dne; hU aoont 

leader, hla home and parenta and country." 
Another olaiue. Vhictt read: "A eront 



and I 



erlaad t 



with on 



aod Ideate i 



conid e 



to a fair, and increaaed tt 
who was TBI bur Indlgniint 



ent. be obeya hla parenta. aoont maeter, pa- 
trol leader and all otber duly eonatltated 
aathoriliea." WhateYer the rcaaon for tbe 
change, tba rerlaion remoTea the aefloua 

to breed ,atrlke Jirrnkcn. Thr> ohlection to 
the Dzvanlaat Ionian the ground of ^acarifAit- 
Ing milltarlam la not <a eleary rafntad. It 
Ie qnlte rrident that though the letter of 
the conatltntion and by-lawa may not openly 
favor military training, the aplrit of the oi- 
ganl nation oould very readily develop that 



Ideate wlt^ a glnmor that would allure 

J an American bay. Then, too. the lec- 

tnre given in thla country by the originator 
of the movement under the anaplcea of the 
Boy ScDuta of Annrics 01 the aubjeet of 
"BcoutlDK in War and Paaoe," aeama to 
Indicate fylpndly relitiana with that ornn- 
iiaCion and to rlenrly emphulie the nlti- 
matp military purpoeea of the orgaoiiatlon. 
for which Oonera! Baden -PowwlT himaoK 
atanda. In a letter written by the bXeciiCIVo 
aecretary of the New York Boy ^conta of 

Sconta ii atilt In eiiatence. allhoush prac- 
tically all of tbe brancbei throughout (ho 
conn try bavs bejeome affiliated with this 



falllDK 
leali of 



■coat leader . __ 
the attempt at what he 
impulilvely aaieited that he oonid aoppl; 
enough bootblacka from hia boy aconta to do 
all the work at Ihe old price. The -^locutive 
aecretary aaaerted that there waa no atilke 
or labor dim cully involved and that the 
apeakcT did not Intend to Imply any avowed 
policy of oppoaltlon to laltor organliatlona aa 
Buch. Tbd incident waa purely local and 
did not repmanl the Ideali and pnrpotea 
of the movement. Referring to the Xronton 
band, he atated that ho had known nothing 
of Ihe aJTalT until the lnci*int waa called 
10 hi! attention, aod that it waa not the 
purpose of the organlaalion to encourage the 
orgnnliation of aeont handa, and It certainly 
did not approve of the organlaatlon of aurh 
handa for thf anrpoaa of competition. It 
waa airaply a caae ariacal authority falliaj 
to carry out the aplrit and the '■— ■- - 

TBiolntton* of the Ghloago teachora, it ia 
posaible that In thl* caae alao the ground 
for oppoaltlon waa oocaaloned by lack of 
harmony between thp local antharltiaa and 
the avowed purpoapa and Intout of the or- 



portlon of the achoola ontaide of the large 
cttlea do very littlo of this work. Thla ia 
due to lack of fnnda, and to the low ealariea 
paid the teacher*, ao that well equipped 

While to tncorparate all of theas linea In a 
full and complete education may be the Ideal 
toward which the achoota are working. 
very few have attained thla Ideal anil 
there aeeme no present proapeet of ita 

theae difTervnt objeota can be worked out 
by gome ontgida organiiation, their practi- 
cability and feaalhllity fully damonalcated, 
Ihelr uiefolneM In child davalopment fnlly 
illuatratad. it will be much eaaler for the 
public to demand that they be made part 



Baponaibillty of Inali 



1 carry. At pregeot 
> the boya and glrlt 
inpervialon. During 



Juat what he impliaa hy laying that branches 
at that old organiiation have alBliatad wttb 
hia orgBDliatlon. It li not plain wh.nber 
or not these affiliated branphfa have c-wisd 
all connection with the ald«r organitatlon. 



.. _ aupplemeot 

thia moral and ethrcal initmetlon, the Amer- 
ican achool boy will be the gainer. Under 
the recent organiiation a great majority 
ol the teacbera ar« women, and It would not 
b« practicable to expect then to lead the 
boys In croaa-coaatiy "hlkea," ontdoor 



byCoo»:^Ic 



HISTORY, ENCVCLOPEDIA. REPERENCE BOOK 



Bnt It (hoDld be notad CIi 
leadan of (he b07 leonta are the trained, 
active and sfflcient men (eaehere in the pub- 
lie acbsoli, ID Itaat alter all the ichaol idU 
hai an iDlluenca In the bor icaat moremeat 
whJeb ihonld be Increand and dsT eloped. 
The boj (Ctnit moTement leems to he one 

of"oBr'i'B<:VeatinglV'eoniplai dvlllialion and 
method of IItIds. The Idea it (a get bach 
to the elemental tUnga, to cIobb contact 
with the eaith, forest and water, to develop 
a itrong Tigoioaa phTaique lO that the boy 
mar know the pnie Joy of mere llTing, and 
■a a atrong healthy animal be able to take 
sare of himaBlf nnder all Dlrcnmatancaa 
withont artUeial aiaiataace. Oar artlfleial 
method of liTing and the atrain of modem 
Indnetrr have ao taxed the phyali 



purely local. On the whote, howOTer, (he 
oUclalB aaem amenable to auggsation and 
deairous of doing what (he public' demsnda. 
The ofBciala have eipreaaed a de>i» to 
shape the ideali and praatieoi of the moTs- 
ment to aeaord vith iit alma and Ideala of 
organited labor, TIra boj aeont moTament 
la now in the fOTmatlve period; it la dally 
gaining in popnlarltf and icfluenee: It prom- 
iaea to haye great power In boy life, for 
good or btII. Whether this power aball be 



peace and olTic and aoci 


^^fi,h 


be detarmiaed. The mi 




and tendeneiaa that c 


an now b<i 



I ot the rata that 



BDtlata 






deraiop the best 
humanity, ahould endorse the m( 
will ha within their power to he< 
acDut movement away from mil 
the dUwetion of pnra, wholesome 
we keep in touch with the raofemi 
be able to shape and direct it: 



aaily d 



I the 



OBT pbyileal reaon 

tarloiate. The boy aeoat morement rightly 

dlreeted will help to (olva thli problem, An- 

•Ihar pnaent ideal of the organliatlon ia to 

dsTelop all of the good ijnamiea rrauUlng 

trem military life without tha atlandant 

erlla of miUtarim. To gain Ihaae reanlta, 

boys are tanCht to regard aa aporta the m mo lanu, 

stalklDg of aolmals to Isara their cnatomi, edneation ihi 

to eatoh a pletnm of them in their natlTe to needa of 

haunta, uploring, ate. There ii mneh about achoot may r 

tha aetlTltloi of the organiiallan thai would of the miad 

aerre ai a aehool for training the Imaglaa- ahall train th 

tiOB. soeh aa the emphaali laid on leganda, trol Iheir re 

animal life, the weird mystery of the earap moral; that ll 

flre, the long nighta spent In the open with for future llfi 

only the a(ara oTMb-ad sad the winii tell- — ■ -" — • ■- 

ing Blrnnge alorlra of the ilream and forest 

and hitlaida. Theaa thlnga bring out the 

poetry of II** and the poetry of the world. 

and aerve aa an antidote for much of our too 

practical elTiliiation, The moyameDt aeiiea 

the keeneit intereets of the boya of the 



and i 



thereby aiert a far reaching and potent 
mnuence to boy life. Much ol the work 
the boy icoat li doing, might and ahould be 
under the control and inperrlaion of the 
public aahool lyatem. There is a growing 
demand throughout the tengtb and Jbreadth 



t the 






I of 



cbanneli, child life, 
and Ideals. The poaal bill (lea optn 
ihool for Inflneneing atandarda of 



Bdoletcent age and direota them toward 




pure and simple Ihloga, and In thla way 


and moral facultiea he alforded to every 


keepa thvm away from mnch ot the evil and 


child within our country. We are Juat be- 


Impure that would otherwise occupy thalr 
thoughta and time. It deali with the prol>- 


ginning to catch a gllmpae of the develop- 


ment po»ifa)« under proper direction and 


lema of child (raining by the aimple process 


control- Thla ia the full duty of the achool 




and crowding ont what would be detrinrental. 




Tha liata of actlTidea. any one of which 




each aeout may pursue in ordsr to win dls- 


trary. the oScers of the A. r. of L. abaH 


tlnctlOD, Is a very wide one, and includes 




ahnost every form of useful hnrasn activity. 


so aa to prevent ita activities of parpose* 


The l*eala of the movement aeam to ha well 


being directed toward any military wow- 


ehoaen and calculated to develop polae, teif 


ment. or militarism in any form, and (hat 


reuAdance and comradeship among the boya. 
Of conrae, in any organliatlon of such a 


in nattera affecting the rights and Inter- 


eitt of the working people. Ihat the hoy 


alio and tcope, there is a chance for the ma- 


acaut movement be argsid to a constantly 


ehlnery to be mlsoted by soms of the sgenti 




telseted. This is tme of any organiastlon. 




for only Ifaroneh the human agency can sny 


gle for the achievement of a higher ma- 


ideal be realised, and In dealing wKh each 




hunaa agent the personal equation will 


for'the'h.il'e^of°o"r ooinlry'."' 


modify more or leaa the purpoaea and in- 


Bribe TakiDC— (lOOS, V- S02) An iio- 


latad case of bribe taking does not war- 


Is a great chance for good to b« done there 


rant the conclnsloB dishonesty on the part 


Is bIbo a great chance for evil to re salt 






the contrary, we are convinced the repre- 







obvGoo<^le 



AMERICAN FEDBKATION OF LABOR 



SIS) Wblla th< tingle ortuiistion of Ihe 

Iha fuDda caDtriboted bj the internstiDDil 
untoni in cum ot Inde dlipntei. decides 
Bt ill conTaallons npon tin policf relaliTe 
to anr proponed sctg of OonEresi or the le^ 



Suck'* atOTS 



f Foundry Emplofei cbarcine Tlio 



be A, F, of L. A mlnoritf recommsnded 
adoption of tbe report, tfaeae reaaona 
IE ciTsn: "Tbs attilude of the preaidenl 
Ihe compinr Mwaidi orginiied Ifbor ii 



■gonelea. fbe General Federation of Tradei 



If-prolaEtion agiinit empLoylni 



AnraricB by the a late : 

Ir. the promotion of lawi 
The Trade Uuion Oon 



The political 



praaldent nl 
mtlmenti al 

-*i In agr^ 



holder 



(he Hanae of Oomm 

Ihe ' 'block" which haa aubaerlbvd to 
compact on a working pUtform on labor 
faira. The reat are. in nin. In line ■ 
iho Liberal Party, and in olhen indepsndi 

labor bill! 



Within the "b 

marked partiano dilTerencea. 
paiied la the Honae of Oni 

cepPed hj- the Liber; 



Part)'. The 



30 ati^e. 



ilh 



[which theT worked under lor wighteen 
monthg) to ten per day. Mr. Van Cleaie 

Arm that had done hli work for a year 
when it granted (he eight-hour day to iti 
employea. and iaiDBa a circular to ail buai- 
nea> men calling upon them to do the same. 



preaident of the Mationar AaaociatlaD of 
Vanufactnrera. la preaident. bronghl auit 
againal the A, F. of L., tbe unmbera of ita 
ExecutiTe Oonneil, both olHciallj and iDdi- 
Tidually. and olfleeri and membera of union* 
attached to intern atlonal nnioni affiliated 10 
the A. F. of L. 

pp. 14-ZlT) December 18, IBOT. 






(he United Kingdom doubtleaa repreeent. on 


StOfe and Range Company nrer had anv 


the nhote, a moTement netesiary to Ita 


diapute with labor or oyer had been re- 


working people at the preaen( time, Tbe 


garded >i unfair. 


Taff-Vale decialon eToked a ipiriteH po- 


(J90B, p. 1T> The Injunction proeaed In ga 
of the Buck'a Htore and Rangs Company of 


litical pro teal from the wage-workera. What- 




St. Loula, Mo., of which James W. Van 


and Uck of cobeaion among (he political rep- 


Cleare ia preaident, againat (he A. F. of L., 


reaontativea of labor may e.iat in the Honae 








America. The difBiulliea with which the 


tice Gould of the Supreme Court of the 


wage-workura in politica in tbe Kingdom con- . 


DIatrift of Columbia: the other, the pro- 


tend are many and Tarloo. The atate paya 


reedinga (or contempt brought againat Prea- 


no aalariea to leglalatora. Forty per cent 




of the wsge-workera in aomo cltiea are ci- 


H Itch ell and Secretary Frank Morriaon. 


cloded from franc hi ■*. while property qua 11- 


An appeal waa taken by the American Fed- 


flea Ita bolder* for mulliple Toting, The 


eration of Labor on both raaea. Owing to 


hereditary lorda and the partlaana of the 


the refuaal of the Bnck'a Bttrn and Rante 


crown are Interealed enemiea of democracT; 


Company, of Bt. Loaia, to continue the ninp 




hour workday to the metal poUeheri in tt< 






real eat ate taiation. aa compared with our 
American methoda, la groaaly partial to on. 


bwrahip in the union, and deapite etTorle '0 


uaed land holder.; the working clataea are 


harmonlie and adjnat the dlfFerencea eiiat- 


only beginning to makia their Tollng power 




tell on (he old party organ iiatlona. 


Bt*' L^nl. l\tle""t pJod'o'l 0" the* B^rV°. 


Buck'i StoT* uid Bulge OompMij — 


StoTe and Range (i)mpany on (heir "Wb 


(1990, p. 801 Hatter of the boycott on (hi- 


Don't Patroniae" Hat. Application wa» 


Buck atoyea and rangea referred to Eaecn- 


Bade to the American Federation of Labor 


tlTe Oonneil, (p. 46) Eiecutlve Council 


at the Mlnneapolia convention, 190B, (0 en- 


delerred action on the boycott until for- 


done the action of the workera parMenlarlv 



jyGooi^lc 



HISTORY. BNCYCLOPBDIA. RBFBRBNCE BOOK 



■DMter «u Talentt hy ths canTgatlon to 
the BiacDtiTe Ooiuell lor tha parpoM of 
iDfUtttatlon mnd. if poiilble, sdjultment. 
Ths XieentiTe Oauaoil mlniMed Iha miller 
to Tles-Preitdsnt VBtaDtlns to ub hli b«( 
aSOTti in the dlriKlloD Indliatwl. At ■ inb- 
■eqaant mHtinc of the EiMutiTa Oooncll 
Tlee-Pnaidant VitgiDtlna rap«rtad that ha 
had nne to tha limit of bh oppoitiiDltisi, 
ud (Caflnltelj UD«rtain«d that any nfTort an 
Ui p«rt DT on (he part of ■n;oii( eUa to 
untar with Mr. Vm (^aaiv npon the «oh- 
jaet wonld be nttsrly Irnltlau, and tboufh 
Mimo of tha than aiiiplo;ei of tbe Bncli h 
StOTo aad Ran (a Company , who miibt b« 
■S*et«d. were awmbara of the Inn Molden' 
Calon of North Amarica, of whkh Ur. Vat- 
aaUne ia praaldant, h« eoald nal eonaei^n- 
IIouiIt inlerpoas any objaetlon to the alii- 
tade of the voikan and ortantiitloni ■(- 
Cli««d or to tbe full nnriannm-nt at Iha 
■ppllcation of oar fello 
the Bock's StoTa and 



pnnlabad therefor. Th«T war* haraaaed tor 

montbi. couniel and wllneaaea bain; re- 
quired to travel IbronghODt larce Hctiona of 
the conntrr to take teellmonj. Sljl upon 



UeMTi. Qompera, Hitohell, and Horriion ai 
WaihiBBtou. Practically the hlalory of thi 
A. V. air L., prlolod, written or unpobHahed 
waa made part of tbi ' 



the ' 



I Federation c 



I Patrol 



Labor. 



Ranm Company on 
e" llBt of the Amer 



I leatlmcDT. The oonrt 
_.„._. . ._ .joaiel OB Wh sldea aa 
w bother the defendaata, Oompert, 
Uitcbell, and lloTriaon, wera cailty of con- 
tempi of coort. And while tie appeal on 
the original inlnaclloD waa pendini, Ju- 
tica WrlEbt on beeamber £8. 1908. adjndged 
them rullt; ol contempt of eonrt and Im- 

and one y^r'a impriaonment reipectlvelir 
upon "Uorriaon, Hlichell, end GompeTi.' ' 
Thla paailne comment appean apropoa. 
II ia that an anprajndlced. impartial Jud^ 
might well bBTe doferred a declaioc in - 



alleRinc 



ilidllT 



Buck 'a atoi 



load from Joi 



tha A. F. of L., tbe membera of tbe E 
tlie Ooanell, both offleiallj and Individ 
tbe ottcera and memban of local and 
" ' ' a afflllated to the A. F. i 
patbJiera. or 



asllohil BUlona 



■el. rorblddlnc I 
print, write, ti 
cata the fact t 



r that 



Tbe I 



Jnaetton prebiblted tbe pnbll cation of tha com- 
panr'anamenpoa the "^'We Don't Patroniie" 
liat of the A. >. of L., directly or Indinetly, 
and all were forbidden to atate. declare, or 
aay that (here eilated or bad been any 
■ ■■" ■ r hind belwei 



hlrher eourl. and further, tbal tli« nDpr« 

in conBict with the aplrit and plain proii- 
alon or the conitltntion aa being cmel and 
unuauel. Tbe lanKnase and manner of Jus- 
tice Wri(hl In dellTerine hia opinion npon 
Ihe Euill of tbe men charged with dtaobey- 
ing the terma of tbe injnnctlon. the (act Ihnl 
he had glTcn hla opinion, or permitted Ic 
to be liiun out In adTance. tbe whole mock- 
ery and formality ol aaklng ibem whether 
Ihey had any reaaona to laalgn why aenlence 
ghODld not be pronounced, when he had 
determlDed on tin lentencea in adrance; all 
theae, M well al Ihe matter and manner of 
Ibe arrangement for the Boane and the de- 
IlT<ary of the opinion and aenlence Indicated 
(he Dafllneaa of Ibe man to wear the jnd<- 
cial robe and occupy tha jadleial poaillon. 
What were the offeniea for which Oompera, 
Ultcbelt. and Hoiriaon aentenced to Iodk 
months of ImpriaonnHnt. and Che ignominy 






aaified 



They 



the company, Ihe A. F. of L or any of lt» 






aa men and aa cltlieni, despite tbe injun'- 


aoowr. Hearing waa had before the lam- 


tlon o( a court which aooght lo invade the 


porary Injunction waa laaned by Jnallc^ 


Tight) of free tpeecb and tree preaa se- 


Qonld. He declined later to modify It or to 


cured to the Anglo-Baion people centnrien 


explain 1(1 lermi. On December IH the 


ago by Magna Charta and clinched by (b- 






coming sflectlTO December 2B whan the 


stilntion ol tbe United Btal>ea. And what. 


Baek'a StOTe and Range Company died Iti 




bond. apprOTed by the conrt. Tbe tempo- 


lire Wright held Ihe defendanta gullly of 


rary lajunctlon waa made permanent Uarch 


violation of (be terms ol the injunction? 


29. 1908, by Jualice Clabangh of the lam^ 


When the Injunction waa iaaued and went 


eonrt. npqn the antbority ol the Norfolk 




Contention of the Amsrican Federation of 


they propoaed to lest the princlplea in 


Labor an appeal from tbe Injunction waa 


votved before the eetabllshed legal tribunals 


taken to Ihe Oonrt of Appeali of the DIa 


By InalmcClon of and with aathorlly from 


trtct of Colnmbla. our main contention being 


Ihe BiecntWe Oonndl tbe name of Ih? 


tbal the terma of the binnclion were in tIo 


Bock's aiOTe and Kanee Oomnany waa re- 




moved from tbe "We Don't Palronlie' liat 


and gnarantee*. and that il waa, therefor-. 


la the American Federation i at, Vlce-Pitsl- 


iDTalid and Toid. -While thla appeal w-.a 


denl Mitchell, It was alleged, ylolated tbe 


pending before Ibe conrt. ao haaty and Tin- 


injuncllon by allowing certain acta to be 


dletira waa Ur. Jamei W. Tan OleaTe. of 




tha Bnck'a StoTe and Ranie Company, that 


and alao. that while prealding at a conTon- 


he petitioned tbe court which iaiued Ihe in- 


tlon of the United Mine Worker* of Amer- 


Prealdent If Itehell, and Becretary Morrlaon 




delegate. calling opon Ibe membera of that 


gnilly of Gontempt of court and lo require 





jyGooi^lc 



16i 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OP LABOR 



apon ths product of tho Buek'i Stoia uid 
Bufa 0anpBD7 vu aabmittod bj Ur. 
Mitchall to Ih* d»legatw tor ■ TOte. Seera- 
■u)' KorrlMB wu chanod ■nbitantiilly 
with hiTiDK TioUtad the tcnu of ths in- 
InuetlOQ in lo (ur u thmt ke ■enl. gr cantod 
to be NDt OBt copiM el tht printed offleial 

SroeaadiDp of the piVTioiu eooTentlon ot the 
. r. of C ooatitnlnB oOoen' mai eoDunlHoa 
TBporli Hid rMolBUODi of tbe eooTentlos 
nUtlTe to the Bnok'i Store and Ean|« Oom- 
pu7'i injnnclion and copiea of tho Ameri- 

eneoa, eircoU™. appeala lor (unda, aod edi- 
torial* written bj Praaidanl Ooinpan on ttK 
Injnnotlon abnie. The a1 legations charglaK 
him with riolatlns the tarma of the IoJiiuk 
tlon were that he did, or anthorliad. or di- 
rooted to be done, theie thlnft; becaoae, 
by aathoritT of the eonTentlon and of Ihn 
EieontlTG OonDdl he eent lo tellow-worken 
and friend* an appeal for fnndi in order that 
Iher mifht b« la a poeltlan to defend them- 
lelTei beforo the coarta In the Tery InJnnF- 
tion caie InTolTed; becanae In lectorei and 
OD the pnhlic platform, dnrinc the Prealdun- 
tial eanpaiin Preeldent Gompar* made ad- 
dreiaea to Iha people (rlrlng the reaeoni for 
tbe TOte aa a cltiiea be wee lo eait at thr 
then pending Preildential eleellon, and be- 
canae he dared editorially to dlecmi the 
fundamental principle! Iniolnd, not only in 
the injiLDCtlon pendlnf bnt the entire abnae 
of the Injnnctlon writ. Aye, becanae hr 
pabllabed In the Amedean Federatlonlat the 
order of the court to ihow came why we 
ahoold not be puniihed for contempt of the 

upon which Jiutice WHsht deiemed it Im- 
portant to hold him rullty. Immediately 
after Justice Wrlsht declared the defend- 
anta gnllty of the Injunction and Impoied 

and bonda farniahed In Che following ■umsl 
Gompera. (8,000 ; Mitchell, 14,000. and 



Uarch 1 



leOB — that 
"Fright li 



ariy (oo 



llai 



B. Hul; 



Thii 



OUnl 



leph S 



man C. Poppe, Arthur J, WitUama. Honii 
B. Oooper and Edward T.. Hickman, In, 
lidDally and as repreaentatlTea of the Ami 
lean Federation of Labor, their and each 
their agenia, aerTanli and confederatea, 1 
and they hereby are, perpetually realraln 
and enjoined^ from ^conspiring or comblnl 

r daclari 







plalnanl, and from 


threata 


any boycott again i 


It >a<d 


net, and from abe 


tling, a 




.11. and 







Ins aoy peiaoo er'peraon* whomaoeVer frotn 
buying, aelUng or otberwiae deallot in eom- 
plalnant'a product, and from printing the 
complainant, ita bnalneaa or prodset In the 
'We Don't Fatroniae' or 'UnWr' Hat of de- 
>f any boyeott 






comnlalna 



act. a* In aald 'We Don't __ 

'Unfair* liit In foriherance of any auch 
boycott. The eoata of tbla appeal are equally 
diilded between appellanta and appellee." 

The court which handed down tUl "modi- 
fled and afflrmed" deelaion la oompoMd of 
three Judgea, each of whom dellrered dit' 
ferenl oplnlona. One Inatioe irho oonounwl 



e diffare 



for alleged . 

Court of Appeala at the Dlatrict of Oolum- 
bia handed down Ita deelaion on our ap- 
peal In the original injunction. That ronrt 
greatly modified the terma of the injanetlon. 
holding that no publication could be forbid- 
den except In furtherance of a "conspli^ 
Bcy" tn boTcott. The Injunction ai modlflpd 
and anrmed by the court ia aa followa: 
"Tt U adjudged, ordered and decreed that 
._.__._ . Frank 



la diflenlt to read Jnitlee Tan Oradol'i 
concnrriag oplnton and reeenolla it with hie 
eonclnaion to afllrm the Inlimetlon even la 
modilled form. Ohief Juatlca Shepard db- 
sented from the couclualoa of the court. We 
urge upon every wage-earner and exery one 
interealed In the dlaonaalon of great rights 
and prinelplea inrolred to read the deelaion 
and oplnlona of the Jnatlee* rendered In 
thli eaie. The oplnlona and deelaloD wert 
published in the April, IflOfl, laaue of the 
American Federationiat. The Court ot Ap- 
peals did not Uke any original testimony 
In the case, end the Jadgea were somewhat 
in error in their salimate of the actual facts 
In relation to the hoycoti of the Buck's 



Store and 


^Bangs 


OompK 


ny. This 


la nader- 


atandable 1 






fact 


thsl the 


Americao 


F»d oration 


of Labor 




no time 




detailed defenae 




the 


allegatlo 


na of the 


Buck 'a Sto 


re and Ri 


inge 


Oompanj 


■, ailbough 












Imporlaat 


partien'lan! 


o" 






SfTta^ 


(nndameo- 


tal lasuss 










ee speech. 


which wen 


Jnrol 


>ed 


in 


throrigii 


lal Inlunc 


















t Ihle t 



of llH i 



1 iaa 



by t 



r than 



detail* of the arlclnal trouble with the 
Bnek's Store and Ranre Company. Judge 
Wright'a prejudiced and mialeadlng eitracta 
from the. original testimony, and hia Ignor- 
Ini of t<«s(imony. also tended stilt further to 
1 the facta. The Court of Appeal i 



.aid that 
he Bnrk'i 
enjoined fro 



only T 



1 Ihe 



blleation of 
'We Don't 



entered Into and that "threats." intimida- 
tion and coercion had been used on Inao- 
rent third pariiea. On this wrong assump- 
tion the modified Injunction was aflrmed. 



guilty of unlawful eonapiracy and eonrclo 
and Intimidation— and they were not- 
aurely there ahould be some more adeqna' 
punlahment than by a proeeaa of lajanctto 
In fact, ciiatiDg lawa do proride greati 



— ^jfore a jury of tl . . 
peera ana ii losnd goUty punished as tbe 
law proridea, rather than be anbjecled (o 
the caprice of a judm who aolely deter 
mine* the anfllclency of the eharie. the mill 
of Ihe defendant and who Impoari pnnlah- 



b,Gooi^lc 



HISIXIRV, BKCYCLOPBDIA. REPBRSNCE BOOK 



. __ _„ .. tSa DUtrlol of 

Colnnibla, tha pmoiuiel of vhieh hu nnder- 
(Ona DO chufe dncs tha randarlnc ot tbs 
flpisloB modllrliit (ha InJuictloD, that the 
■ppaal Jn the sootampt pT«ea*dla(i wu 
made. It aar ba IntvrasttDf to know that 
Jnatiea Wrl(hi aUMtad "Oompan. Hitohall, 
■Bd Uarriaon" In Ifea nm of «1,600 aa eeatt 
of tha lajuusUon proaeadinfa acalnat than. 
From tbia dacraa an appaal la alio pandlsc. 

(1»10. pp. 3»-llB-lfl) An appMl wai 
made to tha Biqnrana Osnrl sf the V. B. In 
the Bnck'a StoTa and Banfe OompaDj'i lait 
for lalonetlOB. aad alao a potllloD. lap- 
ported bj brief, for the iaaoanee of a writ 
of eartlararl Id the cod tempt pmBeedlBn 
BBder wUeh "Oanpan. Hllchall, aad Mm- 
rlwB" wen held aa lailtj of saBtampt of 
CBort (or an alleced ilolatlaB of (be Id- 
Janetlon and lenteBced to ImprlaoBnent. 
The petition wii pmsnted to the «ourt No- 
Timber 20, IfiOB. Tba petition aBd brief 
are iBcid aad iBterullnB. Tbe U. B. So- 
preme CkiBrt took the petition uoder adylao 
Bleat. BBd a weak later, that Is, on Decern- 
bar e, panted tba petition- It ahoald b* 
atated tfaat the eounaal oppoeed to na alao 
appealed acalnit the modified InJBBotion of 
the Conit ot Appeala. and tbat after the 
EieDtlns of the writ of certiorari tba U. 9. 
Bnpnma Oonrt directed the two braBehea 
of the caae to be eoBaldsred and diacBaaed 
al tha aame tine. It la (ratifylnr to re- 
port oflciailr that tba isdoatrlal dlapQle 
helwaoB ornniied labor and tba Bnck'a 
Stone and Banco Oonpany wan, In Jalr 
Uai. adjuated upon mntnallr bosorabla 
. The deeeaae of the PraildeBt of the 
n ClaaTO, cctb the oppor- 
..I manarar of the eorapanir 
ur carry aii> nia IlfelOB( poller of (rlBBdll- 
neaa toward and eo-operallon wftb orffanliod 
Inbor. ABd now tba opportDBilr la afforded 
In dlirtoae the correctBeaa of tha poaitlon 
which we took In the eoBtampt procvadlBr" 
tbat Ib to aar, the A, T. of li.'a repreaen 
tiTca made earnest efforti to come to 
honorable nndsratandlnr and adjoalmect n^ 
the mattOTi in dlapnte batwesn the Buck'i 

labor before the companT'i prodBcli were 
placed on the "We 6oB<t Patmnlie" lUt 



ot Labor raqneated that thoav pTorlilona Ib 
aeetion 4 of the aaraament b; which the 
DOmpanr waa to wltlidnw Iti attOTnera Iron 
the oaaaa paoding In tlie ooarta, be Bnllifled. 
Tha eompasj readllx afraed to the raoneat- 
It will be ranraibared that tha oonnael op- 
poaed to u In the eaae ii retained br tba 
ao-ealled Aati-Boreolt Aaaociatlon, and hat 
appeared for tin oompanT aa a member of 
tbat aaaoeiatlon. UBdar tba old manage 
maBt and pollcT ihla waa a(raaabla to both 
teompanj and aaaoeiatlon- Oni attoraaT' 
adTjjad u that If we deilrad tha U. 8. Sb 
preme Oonrt to paae npon tba principle 
nadariTinc the Jnilleiai oontmTera)'. It 
wonld be uwlae to laalat apon the «om 
panr'a withdrawal o( Ita Bttornaji of rat 
ord in the eaee. Ib Tlew of thla (act. and 
the further fact tbat the altomexa of record 
oppoaad to na ara eoBaltj with na fnilr IB- 
tant npon liaTlnc theae fBndameBtai prin^ 



vJatS 



hi the 
lad to ai 



U. 8. aaprenr.' 
■ I of 



point, it baa been the porpoae of the A. r. 
oF L., oTer aince iBlBBctlgna of thla char- 
acter baTo bmn iaiBsd to bsTe the V. S 
Supreme Oourt paaa JBd^meat upon ttaem. 
The; are fundansntal- Thar alrike Into the 
Terr bottom of the prinelplei of peraOBal 



haTB aTolded 

developed in « 



during thene antlra proceediDfi 
HTfl Taam when wa Bonid Bot 
iQt there bad been 
if labor and bnalneu 



which they nndertook to deny to the work- 
ins people of onr constr; rirkta which are 
accorded to all other cUUene. The iaane 
waa clean-cut. and we baie been (lad ^f 
tba opportBliit]> to moat it. For Teara we 
haTa BBdeaTored to make tbia laai 



repreaent^- tba conrti. The 
ind Rai 



deaired opportnn 
well a> npon t 
of L., advBBtage 



e Oomi 



I the 



inek-a 



• injBii 



afforded the 
\t our own wiih, M 
ectlen of tba A. >. 
taken of tbia iBjBne- 
mishl be made 






ectly , 



,ted with tha 
afforla ware 



_. of laa. 

. the eompaoj we feel JDallflad In 
lal the efforta were made tliroiilth 
rojtaa and Oribben, tba than aieeu- 
n of the Katlenal Btore Tonndara' 
AaaoeialiOD. of which the Bnck'a 
I Range Corapi 



and Mr. F. W. Gardne 



the 



t chair. 



and the 


Bnek'a 


atove and 


Range 


Comp 


•a. nnbl 


iahad 1. 


1 >he Septei 




BiO, !• 


of The J 


America: 


n Pi-deratio 


Siat'' ai 


Id a I. 








lered inl 




. Loata, Sei 


ntembei 






cllon w 


Itb the pub' 


Kihed 1 




attention 


ahonld 


be called 




fad 1 



fnll and completa and tha line tvited be- 
fore the aaTaral Jndlclal tribBDala until It 
had reaebad tha U. a. Bnpreme OobtI. Tn- 
aamBcb aa the oppoilnnltr u afforded equallr 
to Labor'a opponanti. wq faal aOnfldent that 
thej alao will be glad tbat tha qneitioaa at 
taane ahall be determined bj onr hlghai' 
Judicial tribnnel. 

(IBtl. pp. 89-278-284-200) Bfnea the liat 
report much haa happened In connection 
with tbe contempt proeeedlnga and other 
litigation growing ont of the original action 
ot tha American Anli-BoTO't AaioeiallOTi 
brought in tbe name of the Bnck'a Stora 
and Range Company- An adjnatment haT- 
ing been obtained in regard to onr former 
difflCDlIlea iwilh that Fompany, when the 
appeals on tha InlUBCtlon were reached In 
the Supreme OooH of the United BUtee, 
that conrt Indicated its con dual ob that 
there wai bo longer a real legal dlapnte 
betwoBB our organTaatioB and tha corapanT. ■ 



t woBid be 
ich waa f 

I intlmatli 



then I 



.Goot^le 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 



ths eoati to b« eqnallj c 
tUd to tha unntBinnt r.M 
aompen. Uilf 

Juilim Wrigf. 

tba Diilricl of OatumbU. bid touDd *ll gaiUj 

pBri'*t'o™yM?''ln ilil,'"Mr, Mit^elfto ninii 
monlbi, BDd Mr. UorrleoD to aii monthi, 
tbey, tbrenih ■Itorneri, iWDlideriiis tbe de- 
cialon nnjiut, taok an appeal. Tba attor- 
nejia re^rdad tha petition filed b; 



itiffa I 



appasi wa« ■ 



ciTll 



ita 



ranged iMOrdlnglr. Upon Ihi 
bsirlng In tba Conrt of Appeal! ol tbe DIs 
trjct of Oolninbla, tbat conrt oonHniied ibi 
■•atencM of Jndc« Wrlgbt, and beld thai 



S 

bean the 



1 7 legal mattei, wtii< 



of thn 



: adraotagH of tha daaiaian ol (he 
appointed a commlttea. conalating of 
tornayi in tbe original injunction and 
apt cua. to make an InTeatlgation and 
whether than be good cante for 
ing tbat Meaarg. Oompera, Mitchell, 
tfnrriuin woie guilty of contempt of 
imillae" formulated charge* 



and piaaanted tbem 
tba]r ibonid noi 



itabed tor conlei 

era aought to > 

ilbar Judge I 



Tbe doteadi 

tbe eaae tried before *n< 

Joalice Wright. Tbla wi 

Freaidenl Gompera had teitlfled before 
committee of tbe United Slatei Sanate. d 

br Juitice Wright was bronght by bim 



tba Seoalorial 



__ what i> Wchnie*; 

1 btll of exception*. The; I 
piled to the Boprema Court of the Unit 
Bute* for tba iaaaanee of a writ of cei 
orarl, i^preaanting to that body the 

tode of tba eaae and tbe I 

queation* InTolTad. Tbe , 

granted tbe writ, and tbe cue. on th^ir own 
part ai well aa Ihrair appeal In tba princi- 
pal eaae, wai argued at great length. After 
a full bearing, tbe Supreme Court of tbo 
Coitad Statea upheld the canientloai of 

ciTll in their natnra, and that the appeal 
to tbe Court of Appeal* waa properly taken 
In the manmr it waa. Following largely 
the llnea laid down in the argument of 
coanael, the Supreme Court held that the 
petition in contempt, originally Bled in Ihf 
name of tha Bnck'i Bton and Range Com 



t bad in the prailODB eaae 
.Ind wBi blaeed against 
.„A because of hie la teat 
> Preaident Gorapert, 



1 br tb« court aaked Juitice Wii(ht 
>r the taking of teatimony In tba con- 
proceedingi to an Eiaminer, Defend- 
counael oppoaed. and urged that (he 



ia expected tr 



obeyed, and that 



□tver la aipecled 



.._ . anftered and desired to he cured. Con- 
aldarlng, therefore, that tbe company had 
aaked for aomet: 

its nature, wbe _ - „ . 

Ur. Jostire Wright was a imply pun it lye. tbv 
Supreme Conrt reyaraed the decision -' '- 



"The joagr 
is rerarsed < 
directions lo 
Supreme Oour 
and ramsnd tl 

tuted by tbe Buck's Btoye snd Range Com- 
pany be dlimisaed. but without prejudice to 
the power and right of the SupiVTue Court 
of the DIalrlct of Oolumbla lo pnniah by a 
proper proceeding contempt, if any. commit- 
ted agalnat It." On tbe morning after tb- 
dwIaloB of tha Snprame Conrt of the Dnlb?d 
Stataa wa* orally rendered, and before anv 
onelal or anthentie copy of the fl*<^slon 
was obtainable by any one. Jnatlre Wright. 



of tbe Court of .^ppesh 
the eaae remanded wltl 
rae the Jndgment nf Ihi 



„,„„. „ .. might ba thai 

lompara, Mitchell and Uorrlaon had balI*Ted 
hat "the ininnction waa not binding" upon 
hem because of what they claimed to be 
heir "conatltntional right of froe apeech 
ind free presa"; that It might be tbat. now 
hst their contention bad "not been aua- 
ained by tbe Bupreme Court of tbe United 
Mate*," they might be prepared to make 
inch "due acknowledgment, apology and 



oyGoo»:^Ic 



HISTORY, BNCYCLOPBDIA, RBPSRBNCB BOOK 



luted 35 dkTi, dnrlns ill i 



principle InTdlved In tha cite U nhether a- 

not an order U Toid when iMosd fay a dt- 

■uthorilf. Tlia In] unction iuned agilnst 
ihi defendant) in this caaa wai declared by 
Ihe Dlitrlet of CalanbiB Goort of App«a1i 



. bn in 

ine. The Injanction. 

lurt eaniorihip oTer Ih 



impleled 1 
-niha IbK 

igfal dell. 

ted. he [ 



e eonitilntlonal pr 
■ U pravloni reitri 



moniha later, that li, on .lain 34. . 
WriEfal dBllTered hla declalon. Ai n 



in (nlltf of contempt of coTirl. and mn- 
fed Ihem to ImpriBonment tor twelTe. 

■ ' ■■ -'rely. ThB deel- 
immsnt beeanap 

_ _. . ._Bht had allowed 

DpinloQE and feellnga to determine 

■ B. Onr offlclala hayg ttood flrmly 
iqniTocally In defenaa of the rl(fat 

apeeeh and free preia. In tbat 



Btitntionof the United Stale*, and in the 

ron()iiatIona of lerery one of the Stataa of 



Dourt. An appeal from Jnalice WHcM'a 
daelaioa and avatenCB waa talieD to tbe 
Oonrt Of Appeali af the Diitrtct o( Oolntn 
bia. 

(IBIS. pp. TS-SOO} The Dlalriet Ooort of 
Appsala gaya Iti decision Ha; 5, 181B. Tbe 
Dpfnion of the coarl, written by Jogtice 
Van Oradel and concnned in b; Joatlr'- 
B«bb, in«tained the lower coort )n flnding 
MMBia. Oompera, Hitehell, and Morrtion 
Eailly of coatempt of court, but declared 
the Bantencet Imposed by JoBtlee Wright a 
yiolation of Indldal diacratlon. Tha conH 
chancBd the aentencea impoaed from imprie- 
onment for IwelTe. nine, and )li months 
to impriBOcment for thirt; days lor Preai 
dent Oompera, and tSOO flnea for Viee-Preal- 
dent Mitchell and Bacretary Uorriaon. In 
jnatKrlng this modlfleatlon of sentences thf 



laid 





differences which i 


leeeasitated the 




>n have been selllpd. 


The sole pur- 


es 




;::■.';..!•. a 



iniui 



MlentVon tta boy^tt ha. eeaaed and the 
naceaaily for tbe injonction no loneer eiiated 
at the time this case was tried bolow. \ 
penalty, therefore, irhlch wonld haie iMen 



Had 'the eonrt bi 



iTBDt further deflan 
court but for the b( 

low impoaed penalties 



Jch w. 

. would not feel Jnstlftid 
In'holdini that there had been an abna* 
of diacrelion. Sinee, howe»Br the panal- 
tiea imuosed are so unreaionably eieeasiTe. 
and ie are called upon to modify the Jud? 
mant, m prefer to err, It at all, on th- 
read ''thl?''rBcoTd"' without being eonVlneed 
that respondent Gompen had been chief 
factor in this contempt; hwnca, « sayerer 
punishment is merited In hit case than In 
the casea of the other raspondenta. 'n 

this aa in the Brat eonlampt case. Chief 

tion, did »ppi? " tti* R'"'" {i':.,';?;f™f 
■>"■?'•"■' "ff. »?:.:'' „'BS.',";r.' ."i 



that ia, that onr eollesenes. Oompen. 
Mitchell and Uorriaon. eyen thourch th*y 
maT have to aaffer imprisonment in this case. 



Lt f« 8e;Ve"ber. IBOB. Th. Chief Jnalice 
added' "As to thla the charje la too gan- 
■ - -• the party p-*" t,nHi.« A^ 

TItea a—---' 

JusttM Bhepard c.._ _-. . 

of the BTldence prodneed r 

latlon of the inlnnetlon. 1 

eludes with I " — 



vitb oar moyemont. wn eonld not refrain 
from entering Into an ■rraamani vilh thp 
•nmpany which had obtained the Injonction. 
Thrreforr, th« appeal on the Intonrtinn wa<. 
dinmliaed and nathins but the appeal npon 
Ihe ronlempt caae was hefore the Rnpreme 



■ of tbe defendanli. 



On the contrary, it aeemi 



DigtizeabyGoOgle 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OP LABOR 



the natnnl condnet ot ■ lelt-reipuctinE min. 
HitiUB (varn thit faa limd niltbBr dluibayed 
nor Intfoted to diiobsj the m>iid*t« of f^ - 

would ba a ... 
Inry. UDreavar, tbe den 
be aeqaalDtad 'before theae pioeeedingB 
cIdbb with Tonr cooTietlon wbalhar yoo 
aacbt and whether yon hereafter expect to 
leod idhaFence to tbe daoreaa of Judicial 
tribnoBla of the land In nuttara somraittEd 
b7 law Id their jnriidictlon and power,' vaa 
entlrelT oftaide of tbe oSanae charged and 
beyond the power of any oonrt." TlM opin- 
ion of the Diatrict Oonrt of Appeale did not 
fflie a dacialan to the tondaiaeiital laane* 
opou which orgulied labor had been so 
. IdDf aaldng a Jndleia) rallDg. Labor wlahad 
to know what poaitton the hlghait eonrt of 
the land wonld tah upon the matter In 
TOlTed — namely, when a coort tranaeenda thp 
power delMated to it by law, and taiaei an 
order foTblddint perienB to do that which 
the; hsTa a lawfnl rigbl to do. righta which 
■re ipeddeallr gnarantced and protected bv 
the wrtttaa Oonatltntion, la that order nnll 
and Toldl Orgaulaed labor bad been pro 
hibiled the right of tree apaeeh and of free 
preae — the rights eaientUI to the preaenla- 
tlon and dlicnaalon of grleraneea and abnies 



enttiOD of Labor were I 
petition la the Sapreme ( 



cted (o flle a 
of the Dnlted 
i iP obtain a 



reriew of the eate by the blgbeal tribni .. 

the land. The modlflcalian of aentencjn 
made by the Diatrict Appeal Oonrt wai dla- 
plaaalng to Judp Wright, who filed * peti- 
tion aakio; the Bnpieme Court to revera*! 
that part of tbe decialon which redoced the 
aenteneeB, Tbo petition, charging tbe ao- 
peal eonrt with tranigreaslng the bonndi of 
iU aaihorlty, la an Incident nnlqae In the 
hlBtory _o( Juriapmdence. The Sopreioe 

aadlnga in the Sa- 



hletory o( Jurlapmdence. 1 
Oonrt of the Vaiiii StataB. 



with regard to it. So far doea the courl 
go In thla direction that It atatea: "Main- 
tenance of their authority doea not o(te?i 
make it really neBOBaary for oonrU to exert 
their own powsr to pnnUh, aa la ahown by 
the Engllah piaetloe In nore lioleat day* 
than theae, and there la no more reaaon loi 
prolonging the pniod of liability when thev 
lee HI to da bd than In tbs c 



eeded > 
The deciaion 



L the 



of the ^gllib law trial by Jury waa cua- 
lomary in contumpt caada. The court aald: 
"Theae contempti are Infractlona of the law 
ilalted with pnolahnient at inch. If sach 

the moat fnndamental charscterlitlc of 
Crimea aa that word haa been nnduratood 
in Engllah apeeeb. So truly are they crimen 



minated and will 
hlndrancu to effo 



I in other dire< 



. alnd of the proaect 
time he began hia faroeli 
— ' •-- againat Maaan 



Judge . 



Gomi 



jmiljgated 

I, Mitchell 



of the pvblle to certain sbnaea In a way 
more emphatic and mora convlncinE than 
bad fTer been atUlned and the rEiolt of 
"iBB certainly been adtan- 



ica 

of Ihla 






tnliB 



md of the world, and now. a 
e find that neither 



the 



9d; that la, by writ of error, appeal, n 
petition for certiorari. Oar petlllon 
eertiorari waa recognlied aa proper. 
May 11, 1B14, the caae waa decided in tf 
of the respondenta and the judgments 



will he that he may be r*- 
membcred aa the man who tried, bnt failed, 
to pat three labor leadera in Jail. 

BnOdlng BnplOTaa— (ivie, p. 14S) The 
IntereatB of the Janilora and eleTator vm- 
ployea wonld be inlnred. not helped, by the 

apparent Ita mair' 



the decialon of the aupreme Oonrt tenda to 
anatain certain contention a of Labor the 
importance ot which can acarcely be dtcf- 
■■-"•*■ ■ argued on behalf of 



nated. It haa t 
criminal i 



peraonal to the court Itaelf that they might 
not be the enbjact of jury action. For the 
PDrpoae of contempt the court waa regarded 
aa a law unto itaelf, and ita action not to 
be limited or reatrained by legialallTe 
power. The decialon of the Sopreme Court 
la directly in the teeth of thla »!** and 
ahowa that a proceeding for contempt doea 
not dlfTai in iti eaaence from any ordinary 
charge of crime, ejen thouph it inay_ not he 



tin enatom generally 



though 
to allow 



Bunding Tradaa Oannell, National — tlBBT. 
pp. e*-96e) Alt DOlona were adTlied to 
dlaconrage formation of a national bulldinr 
Iradei council, for If peralated in It wDald 
endanger A. F. of L. A conTentlon for (he 
purpose was than In waalon In St. Loni*. 
hut as It was not organlced on the basis of 
"one for all and all for one" it erentnall.* 
failed. (IBM, p. ISB) Declared lofl 
building tradea council* of greet benefit, 
bnt the National Building Trades Conndl 
- ■ luund an atlltude otjlTalry >nd ho«j 



ility, not 
oeal nnions 



of aailatea bod lea 



anlagonlie regular organ lii 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



HISTORY, BNCYCIOPBDIA, KBPBRBNCB BOOK 



Kuloiul BnUdlng Tr»d« 



(1000, ,. .., „, 

OouBoil itlll holdB Itiflif aloot t 

a"f "f ¥"»«»'"■"" *" ">• pmpOMi at t)ra 

BuMn ef Bn^nTiiif Dlnetor Bwnorad— 
(1BS8, pp. TB-ne) Ch»r(«. mada aialnat 
Director Olande II, Jahnaon and repeatad 
In 1890 (p. IIB) robmittnl with proof tD 
Saerolarj o( Tpaatorr, who parmiltad bin- 
to reaidi (IBOO. p. 37). 

OanaiHan I«bar Horamant. — (ISOS, pp 
M-Z34) Ths Caaadiao Trade and Lthot 
Concreaa io IBOa, the largMt and nunt rsp- 
raaeEtatiT* of an; BTer held, inaarted a 
clearcnt declaration in Iti conilltntlan In 
fiTor of tba eloiBit bond of nnltj lod fn- 
lomlty with the A. r. of L. It plaaed Itielf 
aqn»rel7 on record In aacord irith tha prln- 
elptei of InternatiODal trade oDlonlira. <p. 
2251 Be1ie<ed that parmitting tha Canadian 
Trade and Labor Union Oongrau to charter 
federal and loeal nolona would haia a ten- 
dene; to dirida the labor moTgnieat and It 

(190B, pp. 31-B2) Progreai of labor or- 
nniiatloni In Oanada gratlfjlnt. (p. 15B) 
OoDdaraned the "Rational Tcadei and Labor 
OonKTsea," whoaa motto la "Canada (or the 
Canadlene," whleh vai foatarad br Oani- 
dian emplOTan after the Tradaa and Labor 
Ooo^eie of Canada had eielndad Indepand- 



inlena and 



aaaambllai i 



(1»09, 
mandifd fc 



aid gire 



(1904, p. 20: IBOS, pp. IH-IST; 190e. ,.. 
16; 1907, p. SS: 190B, p. 11) Oraat gnurtb 
of the Canadian tabor moTement reported 

EiecotlTa Connell eom- 
■ganlilor Cana 

-- , — r ly the Yrench- 

■paaklng raes in the ProTlnce of Qnebeo. 

(ISIO, p. 270) OonTention adopted: 1. 
That the Tradoe and Labor Oon^eaa of 
the Dominion of Canada haTe the tale ricbt 
to ipeah and *ot tor organlied labor In all 
political and legiilatlTe matlen in the Do- 
minion and all of Ita proTlneea. 2. That tht 
antOBDm; «t International Uniona In trade 
mattera be malntaliwd aa hsratofoTo, 8. 
That tha Canadian Tradei and Labor Ooo- 
creai ahall hare Ibe eole right to iaane 
(eartifleatee of afflllatlon) to prOTln- 



r loe 



That Canadian pratlnolal 
holding eharten from ' 
and Labor Congreaa 
tlon alio hold charter 
Federation of Labor. 
(1911, p. 278) Inte 



1 bodiea in 



Canada. 



antral 1 



ian Trade* 
r at their dUcre- 
rom the American 



inloni 



nreed I 



have 



them alUiatc wlt6 tha TTada('"and' Labor 
Congreaa. 

(1912, p. 16] Reporti from n*ry Indoa- 
trial cantar ahow that either by collective 
barealninc or the nag of the atHke remark 
able profreu haa been made in ibbrtenlng 
the vorkdar and Insraulni wagea. Organ 
Itert reported the T<aar wag the beat In th< 

hlatory of the labor mo' ' " 

and that tha attempt to 
Canadian type o( trade Qi 
tallnre. 

VauadUn Lkwa— (1B9T. 
KiecDtlve (Tonnell to pay 



«"for'ia*^i.Jl- **' APr'P''"'^ *"0 • 
■ar tor lecialatlTa axitatfan in Canada 



LboT Ooncreaa. 
Ififi Pmu 
ed capital ^™_ 
ToltiUB pracltee' 



O^M P nnlJiM an l (188B, n 88> De- 
clared capiui pt^iahment a fc.rb,™^ and 



Otnani S&owi— (1908, p. 208) Oanlral 
bodle. warned agalnat makli^ oontract7lrith 
camWal .how,, which In e-rS, in.lanc, h.1 

?ct*^;"T;;;lki*""" """ """•* ■""•"■ 

t^JU, Abolition of— (1B04, p, 187) Th. 
i^„ ."fi"" ?"»°"»i» 't'lda &i the aboll- 
.1... ^i , 'v" P™"t. 7et pr«T«llinj opinion 
«|"«^,1»» iMi than a cltlian, and haTnot 
the fnll right aa aach. It andeaTOra to eatab- 
Hah on the Inibutrial fleld aneh equality and 
aach opnortnnlty aa haa been granted on 
the political field, not only theorotleallT, bnt 
in fact, aa llTed and ezperiaaced In eTefT- 
day life. The growing nnderatandlng of the 
moTomant, In Ita leaaence. tha nndentinding 
of lU Jaw of growth, and the growth itaalf 
^J^h »*'"*• •":'' worker fn the move- 
ment hie or her greateat iDoantire to con- 
tinued effort, and to tba friende of labor 
and nrogreaa erarywhera ■ great canao of 
aat afactFon. It natnrally nnrto. thoaa who 
f"diluS^° ' ^'^''^P"""* W"'* Indnatrlal 
Oanraa— (IBBl. p. 40) Indoraed hilt for 
inruanentcenane bnroatt nndor direction of 
the Dmartment of Labor; that the ennmera- 
tlon of the poptdatlon eonld be aaeertalned 
early and annonnead Immediately. (1B9S, 
pp. 18-43) Keafilnned. (1909, p. BIB) 
Amendmenta had been aeenrad to the oenaus 
bill providing all printing be done Is the 
government printing oDce, '*" — *"" *" 
performance of the work ' 
tlona and npon an eight h< 

Oental Bodloa— (1911 p. ail) Befn 
to make mandatory the formation of a c 
tral body in a city where there are one 
or to Join anch a b< 



eby I 
r lair 



if 



e la in e 



Oentnl Bodies, Loyal^ of — (IBOE p 
a45) If central bodies are loyal to the 
A. r. of L. they will abide by Ite deelalona. 

OentrU Bodr for Twn or More Ottiaa — 
(1698, pp. 69-88-127) Beaolnlion providing 
for only one central body where two or 
more cltlee ana divided by an Imagiasrv 
line waa defeated. 

Oentnl I^boi Bodlei — (190E, pp. 16- 
308) Onr local central labor nnidni. aaeem- 
bllee, and federallona ere aooompllihlng a 
vaat amonnt of good In the Intereita of la- 
bor and tbe people generally. Theae Iocs' 
central bodiea are, to their reapective local 
Jnriadlotloua, what our American Federation 
of Labor la to all America, a parliament of 
the wageeameri, whera the needa of the 
hour and the work and hopei of the mor- 
row are reconnted and formnlalBd; where 
the beat method* ar« daviaed for making tbe 
bnrdena of the tollara lighter, their homei 
and Uvea better, and for the npllft of the 
eommoB weal. It may not be amlai to call 



(ibyGoOt^Ic 



AMERICAN PEDBRATION OF LABOR 



Atteotlon .thmt 1»™ aod tlnre s centn 
body, br thB pnrenit of ■ conrae whollj' r 
pugnmt »na foreign to the interMM, H 

Mlicr. mnd thn pnrpoiei of the tnde unle 
moTeniMt, m«7 ibspe »• conr»e to [li ow 
deeimBtion In connection irtlh this «obje« 
ititstioui 



■talei (orbiddlnc thp implarnient of chil- 
dren nnder the age o' 14 >n anj cmpicltv 
under penaltj of fine nnd impriianment." 
Thp plank waa nniucceiifully oppcwed Ip. 
in) on the siound its eDfotcvment "iiould 
*D Interference with indlyldual riehti." 



mother 



bor hodiee ahonld adopt a conatilntlonal pro nnder the Jwavena than of 
Yiaion .peciflcallr letting forth the time drea in factonea; that chil 
whan adjournment of the meeting ma.t take .nto iactorlea by hnital fal 



lildrrn are drive 



th^''bod?''«hiir b«"hoTd within twonly-fonr 
henra from the time of any regnlar meet- 
ing. Bach a ptoviiion wonld reUeve them 
ol the complaint iometiinea Indolsed ia, 
whether Joatifledly or not that maatinm 
are aometlmee prolonged far beyond a aoemly 
bonr when a large nomber of membara or 
delegntes are forced by circnmalancea to 
laaTB the meeting room, and at which lime. 
It ia aliased, aoon ol the moat important 
legialation la tranaaeted. 

(1908. p. 320) Cantral bodiea notified 
they mnat refrain from taking part Id ad 
inatment of wage eontracta or diapntea of 
losal nnloni nnleia the law* ol the parent 



(1B14, p. t»2) One reaaon aailgned for 
iMk o( hannony between the A, t. of L 
and eome central bodiee and their failuri 
to obei the mandate! of the lederation la 
(hat national and International nniona 40 
not aecnre the alBllatioD of their locale wllb 
the central bodMa. Thoae recnrring oom- 
plalbt* are the e.n.e of the frtelion. It 
was teeommsDded that a rapreieatatlTe of 
tlie A. F. of h, Tlalt each international 
union cODTention and nrve lagialatlon In- 
alating on local! afll latins with central 
bodlei. 

(1S15 pp. 80-4TT) Bieeatl'o Coancil re- 
ported recommendation had been carried out 
and couTontion adopted aimllar loilruetiona. 
. .Oharter Knit Be BnmiUlved by Union — - 



ind girls for prosti- 
tatea. Charged (hat little children of S and 
T yean of age had beun aeen la the- middle 

in ^ew York City stripping tobacco and 
toiling trom dairn oatil late into the night. 
tl)*SS. p. 81 New .Teraey prohibited em- 
ployment of infants, and Maine children 
under 12. Michigan enacted a compulaory 



to all Indnitrial e_ 

(1884, p. a) Childran 5 to 8 
working la Bhade Iglsnd ml II a a a to 74 
hours a week for less pay than glreo li^ 
UassachnaettB mlUe where (be ten hour day 
wsa adhered to and children nnder 10 not 
permitted to work and thoae iNtween 10 and 
14 were compelled to attend school 20 weeks 
in the year. Condemned "pernicions system 
known aa child labor." Urged ^»deral 
amendment limiting bonra for femalea and 
minora in leitlle Induatrlei. 

linsS. p. IB) Demanded children under 
edncated and not allowed to work in 






sadud eooipnlaory edH- 



iSI Instructed otilcers to tak 
ohitdren being taken fni 
ig to etber itaMa and pnttin 
[ in mines and workshopa t 
of their moral and phytic r 



1 In the mills, tac 
all the 



ahip that had not spoken on the question. 

Ohaiteia. Ho» Isaoed— ( ISOS p. 20 

Oertiflcatea of aBlliation ah all be grant. 

by the Preildent of the Federation, by ai 



158-229) The ^-- 
issue chsrters wIthOBt r 

''"oiart»r*""Be»oc»tron'"of^(19l2, p. 401 

chaiterl coold be re>™ked only by a tw. 
Iblrda ™te of a conTentlon. » it won1 
permit any central body nr atat« feden 
lion between eonventioni to be anhampert 
in the admlaiion of all aorta of riyal. dna 



'of the paaiiage of iaw» in the 



of the 
roice In thei 
lanlied wnrb 



kera hay .. 

efense other than the ( 
(p, 34) Called on nnio 



Ohlld Labor and Oompnlaoiy Education — 
(1881. p. 8) ?"■'- •'-' — *'"- ™ "•"'* '" 
1^K Brjf '■ 



iTored canititutlDna! amendment forblddinc 
nnloyment of rWldren nnder 14 In fsc 
.Ties, mines and mercantile cstabllshnieTite. 
(18B1. p. 40) Reafflrmed. (pp. 18-40) Be- 

•olulion for a conatitutlonal amendmen' 
as not presented. <p. 82) Again inaiale'I 



(1892. p. 46) Declared for eo 
education In all slates. 

(1863, p. 15) Tlie damnable syi 
permits young and Innorent chlldrfl 

factories, mills, workshop! and 
nno nf the Tery worst BTiflTances 
hi- reformation of which 1 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



HISTORY. SNCYCLOPBDUt REPBRBKCB BOOE 



■TtTonnd 

luT, tnBDt. 



uid compDtury education in eTarr itaf 
lerritorj ud tha Dlitrlet of Calnmbi*. 
(18B4, p. SIJ Baatllnned. 

(ISea, pp. 05-127) R€fniad to indatiF 

SO ptr oant en all HlabliihinsaU where 
thildreu nnder 14 are em ployed or mi nan 
or women are required to work more than 
eilht houn> a daj. or 48 per week; haliend 
t» 'ould act u a Ilcsnuia and lh<iiefore 

bj rieorglB legislature llmitln( honri of em- 
ploj'ine'it of children. 

(1900, p. 28) Alabama had Tepuled » 
law [orbiddins the employment at children 
and limiting the honrg of Ubor of all minora. 
Oreanliera ««ro erealinc lenClment for a 
now law. (p. ST) Regretted defeat of the 
eeorgia bill. Thoncb defeated, it beeomei 
our duty to undertake an aeltatlOD for the 
cKation of a haalthier public opinion— to 
aronie the conaeienee of the people of 
Oeorgla. ao that when thl> humane pnipo- 
altion ia again introduced, it will be enacted 
into law, and thne preaerfe the health and 
MTO the llTBi of thouiandi of othorwiae 
helpleu children. 

(IBOI. pp. leiTt) Of the many Injua- 

■o IrHieuaable aa that of the emploitneiit 
of ;onng and innocent children who ahoolii 
be in the achootroom. Ibe p!aT|Tonnd or the 
home; dersloiline their phj ' 
moral well-belnB. Burelr, 
the wonderfol prodnetiTe fonna of aleam 
and eleetrlellT. and the UrhsH dcTeloped 
machinery fonnd anywtnre on the slobe. 
' there la not eren a aembtanee of an •icoie 
. to exploit the labor of children of lender 
ysan for prDlIt and pritate gain to the di- 
riment of the manhood and womanhood o' 
our day. and the future of thoae who are 
now too often dwarfed Ihroneb the rapacltj 
'ete employeri. From the ear. 
nr modern trade nnlons haTs 
a the forefront to demand the 
protection and aataty of the children. Inalat- 
Ine that Inaamuch aa they are liable to th« 
npidity of the proflt-moogera aa wall at the 
Ifnoranee of isme parente. they iboold b» 
regarded «• the warda of tin alate: that it, 
with Iti power, ahonld atep In and aee lo 
It that itt (otnre cltliena. man and women 
alike, ibonld not become mental or pbyiical 
deformltiea or derellcta on the body politic. 
(p. 187) It ii a sad commentary upon our 
Indnltrial ayatem that the tendency la erer 
to taka ibe woman and child from the home 
and immure them within the factory's walls. 
For the protection of tSe woman we con- 

ther extended the beneSts of orRanitalion. 
tp. 317) Keoommanded state fedorationa se- 
pore leglMation srainat child labor. 

(lOoa, p. 32) Kentucky had enacted »n 
affedWe law and a pnblie sentiment had 
been iroDied In ell etates of the union th-t 
would result In the adoption of sneh benefl- 

(180B, p. 28) The A. F. of I., has be»n 
enceeasfnl in secorinir child labor laws in 
OreiDU, Teiaa and Alabama. The laltsr's 
law is not one to (Ire satisfaction but ia a 
beginnine on which _ we "" Jo^'.^ '.J!^; 



Heat period < 



1 be BigBged in i 



iraproTed. We „. .., 

pralaeworthy work than .- _., .„ ,,„,.- 
dren. to protect their llTes from the ex- 
ploitation of aTarieiooi employers, to gain 
for the children of onr time and of tiri 
tntuie not only the right to live bnt the 
right and opportunity of an education, of 
light and annshine. and of play, that tbev 
may physically and mentally grow and mor- 
ally expand, that they may become stnng 
men and women of the fntnre, ready to en- 
joy the privileges and perform the obligit- 
tions devolving npon them in their time. 

{ISO*, p. IflO) We most earnestly eall the 
attention of the public p»ei, mlnisteT*. 
teachers and all reform bodlee to lake up the 
cauae of the child, 2,000,000 of whom of 
tender yeara are employed in the various 
indtutries of the country, the cauae being 
the greed of employers and poverty of pa- 
retils; that child labor shall be forever 
abolished and the child placed in achool 
where it properly baloan. 

(IBOS. pp. 77.288) Competent authority 
declares that not only Is Ibe employment of 
children the eanae of their premature "tak 

" at them. 

in their 



losis. 



™placentiy_; 



the 



moral conception, which permits a . ... __. 
ting out Us drignat for the children of the 
poor. We cannot permit the machinationa 
of greed to grind the bodies and lonla of 
our children into dollars. (p. 189} The 
child of today conUlns the cltlien of to- 
morrow. No country can afford to squander 
the poaeibillties of its young tor commercial 
gain. For both economic and ethical rea- 
sons, nnionlam demands the abolition of 
child labor. 

(190e, pp. 80-1T7) AppiOTed Joint reio- 
lotion of Oongresa direeting the Departnunt 
of Labor to make an investigation on the In- 
dustrtai. social, moral, educational, and 
phyalcat conditions of woman and cblld 
workers in the n. B. President of U. a. 

ch an Investigation would be an 
ry duplication" of figures gatb- 
e Oenaua Bnrean. He Inslstui 
. . nielve aoeiological investigation 
shonld be made. Under modem condltlona 
of Indnatry, where so many wonven. and par^ 
tioalarly ebildren, are employed under con- 
dition) which not only stunt the pbyslcaT 
and mental growth and development, bnt 
undermine and destroy the moral and aoolal 
tlbrv of those who ahonld make op the man- 
hood an d~ woman hood of the people, the 
oltisenihip of the future, it la essential that 
a tboroQgbly oomprehenslye Invest igstlon 
ahonld br — ' " --■■■•-- — 



to ihoi 



• that the o 
nally k 



be made so that 

„ ., ^nrsned as ahal1 bett 

lafegnard the womanhood and childhood of 



snch a course n 



0bvGoO<^lc 



AMERICAN PEDBRATION OP LABOR 



mant to •altminat* «Uld labot In the <ndiu- 

..... . ._! _— .,_ (,( p^j, (dontry 

___ la dratlned t) 

TfliDlU. In the eailf Itii- 

, .. 1 •fforti to obtiin tUi and, 

w« wars met by ttn blltereat and moat »- 
lentleai antaipnlnB. Onr motlTea were ae- 
paraad and our effort! rldicnlad Jiut aa ar« 



hiint atlU batter 



eilrtante 

■ hall be InTCHlljiatnd and 
■nflh laBiilallon aoaeted aa 
■hall take the children from tba factory. 
the vork-ataop, the mill, tha mina and the 
tttan or anywhere thay ara amployed (or 
pMllt, and (iTa to them the apportnnillm 
and adrantafaa of the home, the lebool and 
the playixoQOd, that Ihay may Imbibe thn 
annahlna and the Il|tat to fro* Into the 

Ehyaieal and mental manhood and woman- 
ODd of tba fnlnn. (p. SST) Reaflrmai' 
demand for ehJId labor leflilatloa In Tarioug 

(IBOe, pp. 2B-21B) Law waa eaaated for 
blddlnf the labor of children under 14 yeara 
at are In the IMatrlet af Oolumbia aftrr 
treat effort! had baan made to prevent the 
ace limit beln^ fliad at IS yeara. Thla 
proteat made hj the prealdent at the A. V. 
et h. to Contraaa pTomnted tba aca limit 
being Sied at IZ yeara: "Tha heart and 
the cDDicience and the t(ood 
people bare baen araniad aga 






f young and li 



thia 



igalnat the gre' 
ig from tba lab- 

Udren. So far i 

moTVment haa gona, In S5 < 



I injui 



vaulting 



1 the 



mllltatsi agaln>[ tha progreaa of thaie wi 
igra by organiied effort. Wa favor the 
pointment on orery atata commiaaloa 
uniform lawi repruentatlTaa of oriaal 
labor to tba and the worat atale lawi ' 
ba pnt on a lerel with Ibu beat: that 
moTament to uplift the women workara i 
abolitb child labor may be carried on ii 
more nnlranal mannar to that elate can 
ba naed againat itatB. 

(1»0», pp. 2B-81B) Tha moat praei 
heritage of a nation )■ ita children. 1 
ruth ii aearcely yet fully realiaed. One 



the 









1 the ( 



aponalbUlty 
be KhiKad. 



The _ 

kabla dii( 



an not and moat not 
y paat wai noted f«r 



. . >t tba great economic and 

tniy will be noted tor raocb ^«ter aVd 
more aignllteant adTanae, the importance o( 
the dlaeoTsry ol ohild nurtope. the valae of 
childhood. Tba acienca of railing and train- 
ing children haa only Jnat begun to appeal 
to the great maai of the people aa a aeriont 
— -)oaitlon. Whan Ibe young l»ada, hearts. 



■nioda 



ind bun 



rained li 



i> Intelligent 



lughter of the innoeenW will 
itad and thay will In their 
aarred, cnltirated and de- 
fulleat mental, moral, and 
1 tira pait it waa the policy 
uiiiniuiiiiis to play the backwardaeai 
atata againat another, and under Ibe 
hindrance ta economic and iDdnatrial 



.1 welfi 



What 



proTidea the K-year age limit and in only 
nine ia there a law providing for the ISyear 
age limit. If the Oongreaa of the TTnlled 
SUtea ware to enact a law by which tbo 
age limit of the labor of children would 
be act at 12 yean, it would be the aerereat 
blow which (hia hnmana movement could re- 
raive. Here in tba capital of the United 
Stalea. with Oongreaa laglalatlng upon thl» 
■ubject, It would eeem that even a fair con 
caption of right and dnty would permit the 

pBrmittipg dhildren to work in thp indus- 
Iriea of ^aibington at not leei than 14 
year*. The fact that there la no law upon 
the atatute hooka relating or limiting ttic 
labor of children In tha Diatrlct of Colnmhix 
ia a aevere nftvclloo in Itoelf. To now rn- 
act a law that wonid aat the pennlaaWe 
age at 12 yeara for cbitdren to labor would 
not only be a eeriona mlitake and rontribnl* 



ereai would not enact a law upon the sub- 
lert at all than to paaa the hill reported 
hj- yonr comaiiltee to the Hooae." Conven- 
tion directed a bill he drawn providing for 
a snlBcient appropriation to pay Inapeotor* 
and Dfllcera to rigidly enforce the law fn, 
177) Siitv per cent of the 800,000 teitilp 
vrarkere are women and children and thla 



loreat lawa In the 
he ataadard of thr 



Let the elTorta of all- ba dire-. 
thia aaggeitiva plan tyatamatic 
«TiI of child labor will be men 
•ffeetlvely eradicatod from oi 
dnilrial and commercial Ife. 
,(ieiO, p. 85) The peralat^cy and patlen 



nf the 
chlldreii 



.miied 1 

t the nation t 



behalf or th' 
leing rewarded. 



. beii 



tion by the gradgrinda of indnalry. 
of nlllraate aoccena gradually hu< a 



I a other Influentii 
9 atlaat, after < 

ced that 'i 
refection for the child. They (.., . 

1 behalf of l»tter child labor lawi. Thi- 
I aa it ahonld he. and aa It ahanld have been 
eara ago. If It had been ao. onr newV 
iscovered aulliarlea could more conalal- 
ntly claim credit they ara now ippranrlat 
ig without atlnt. Thia ia another rvidenn- 
r the truiam. "Nothing anrceeda like suc- 
eai." The period haa now arrived when 
le average Member of a Iiegialatore ia 
rood if he can make a good record on 
'child labor leglalallon," (p, Mi) Bill pro- 



oyGoo»:^Ic 



HISTORY, ENCYCLOPBDU, REFERENCE BOOK 



Tldlnc for » "Ohildrau'i Bniua" In On 
Dsputmant at Oommarcs u4 Labor ntcTTtd 
t« BitentiTa ODnnclI. 

(leil, p. SS-3M} The InTwtlcalion tha 
A. ¥. of I>. had indiued tha FUtr-Blutli Ooa- 
zTsn to maka WM aneBeaatnl. EIctui Toluaei 
at the Tsanita *eni pnbllifaail, tha lut 01 
"AieidaDli la tha Uvtal Tr*dw." eontslaa 
Ihaa* Bti apaeiflfl eoBclutaiii : 1. The hai- 
ard to mrnai] in these ludoalrle* ti dlitinct 
and eonaidvrable. 3. When man and women 
voTk at the ause taik it> danaera menace 
th« weioen mooh more ■aiioDU;. B. The 
enplornwit at eUIdran hare la general onlj- 
Ihoae dannira eommon to all rsctory Tork. 
Their emplormant at deneeroni laaka la rare 
end aaeaa to be dacreuine. 4. KeBU(ence 



o-empbaalie 



danti el moi 

larnlT ptarenti ,„ _ . 

action on InatitatlnR a Chlldren'i 
waa vcpeetad. 

(1912. pp. 40-B45) Lav enacted prOTld- 
Inr tor a Ohildren'a Bureaa In the Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor. The nraai- 
nre iraa oppoaed b7 some ao-called "ehild 
welfare onaniiallona." A permanenl Bo- 
raan of the Federal Gonrnment will be en- 
abled t« DBtataln contlnaona aDparriilof. 
>nd thua educate 
t. ITnllorni lawa 
: IvicUIb- 
tlon ranlatins the empioyuani of iromeo 
and eblldreB can be enacted In all of the 
Stale*, if our orRanlistlont In each State 
act aa Tlcoroatlj and fsillifntlj In the Ininre 
■a th*T haie In tba paat. The meaanre 
aitabllahing the Federal Chlldrea'a Bnreau 
ia wlthont donbl the ba^nnlns at ■ great 
reform. It ia a ireat aatlataetion to know 

in saceeufnllT preTaltlnc npon OonETeaa to 



(leiS, 
rectef 
laUtii 
tabor . 

(IS14. 



1 that 



.7-398) Bierut 



9-34S) No diTldeni 
compenaate for the wai 

•1 child labor. The irreal 



dream. It robe tham of the chance 
attain the tulleat daTalopment of manL... 
and womanhood. It leaTM them with ■ 
aenaa of the world'a Injnatice homed into 

Ohildrea wUl become better eitlHna vbea 
the wroDt of ebild labor ia aboliihed. Thu 
wlU become healthier, mere capable mea ud 
women when nninjnred by prematnro otot- 



The; will become greater 
women Vina remOTed from aaaoclationa 
degrade and Injnre. 

Child labor ia not eaaentlal to aar ii 
try. An indoetrv r"' ' - " ' 

ebly 



that 



(hant ualnc ehild labor 

._ ._ aocleti and ia abhorrent 

lo the aocial conaeienee. Uen and wonen 
with toaarta do not wlih to eneoDraie or to 
tndorae in aor degree thoae who proBt by 
ehlld labor. Bnt often they are plaoad in 
Iba unfair poaitloo of giTing aeening ap- 
proTal throngh palronan becauae they do 
not hare aogeaa to isionnallon that will 
enable tbem to act in acooidance with their 
aenae of Jnatice and their conTlotion of 
right. It la doe lo thoae who eameatly de- 
alre the welfare of the natian'a ehildren that 
they ahonid haTe the opportunity to help 
in the conaeTTatioa and protection of the 
children. II ia a moat aolemn obllgntion doe 
th« children that all or«enlaatiani for hnmaa 
welfare ahould nae every aTailabla agency 
to promote hnmanlty'a progreaa. 

Therefore, the A, F, of L.. the gresteat 

clarea that any who profit by tbia toil of 
children at all or by the labor of other 
minora required to toll more than eight 
bonra a day, ia antalr and nnworthy of the 
patronage of tme patrlota and thoae who 
doaire haman welfare, (p. 7S) Bill lalio- 
duwd in Oongreaa prohibiting Intaralete 
Iranaportatlon of prodneta in the production 
of which the labor of children undar cer^ 
tain agea are employed. A joint reaolntion 
alao waa iulroduced propoaing an amend- 
ment to the n. S. conatltutioo that "th» 
Congreaa aha it hare power to regulate 
throvghont the United Statea tha employ- 
ment of women and peraoaa under ai yeara 



more deaidly certain way lo undermine ni 
tional powar than to deny ita chlldr: 

meat of heart, mind, and body. Child 1 
b«T deniea theee op port unit lea. not only ' 



IB 



' fntur 



effect of the wrong and waalo la enmnlallTO. 
aapping the liffrfotee of the nation. 



aapping 1. 

Hany iodnatriea In our 
leaa eorporation* aa heartlea 
that were laid to eat chili 
taken theae little onu and nave auas .acii 
moat to tham. Thay hare aa( dreary, tire- 
lame teaka for little hand*, they have per- 
Utth feat to tread in dangeroue 
—•II that they might bare filgher 

""sutiatlca of child labor, however appall- 
ing are a moat inadequate method of e<r*l<> 
atlng the Inealeolable — the effect of chill 
labor upon human mlndi. bodlea. and Ideala, 
Child tabor roba children of a chance to 
grov. ■ ebanca to le»rn and a chance to 






Inclined to aat llaelf againat the enlightened 
public aenHment ol lYn people In behalf of 
better opportuniliea tor children. 

(I91S. p. 90} We conalder, aa an otgani- 
lation of thoughtful, devoted and peralat- 
enl adTocatea of gudlcioua leglalatlon that 
will protect the youth ol our land, aa wvill 
■a to oonaerre the beat interest poaaible for 
tha children yet unbom. tbat we ehonld eon- 
gralulate onraelvea upon the tact that due 
to the moat peralalent elTorta we have Anally 
will protect 



In 



chlldrei 



attorded by federal authority. The 
reoerai Child Labor bill baa been paaied 
and ia now a law efbaetlve September 1, 
1917. Evilly diapoaed paraona and profea- 
aional fault -find era have already attacked 
thia Child Labor law. lie aponiora. the party 
In powor reaponalble tor it and (he adminlB- 
(ratlon DlRciala, with the broad elatamenl 
that it ia B "gold hriek." Tlriy dallber- 



obvG'oo<^le 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OP LABOR 



ktel7 klUck ths !■« Bnd either IpiorsntiT 
or duiBnedlT 'lil to dlitlngniih bstween 
prodneini pfuils, Bhoiii or fdCtoTlei ind 
wuretiDDaH or itorebDiuu which, ot coarap. 
treqaantly are and alwaya maj' be located 
under the lame roof » (he prodaclns plant 
and Btin be abaoIuMlr diatlnet under the 
meanlss et Ihe proTiaion, prohibltinc (rom 
interaUte commerQe an; prodnet removed 
troin a plant la which child labor had been 
vmplared within thirty d%j» prerloDa. 

(1917, pp. in-tlB) A bin waa inlrodnced 
In OongrMB to poatpone ths dais (or the 
ojwration of the Child Labor Law —•" 



addition a 



I inJBnel 



of I 



Qughl i 



North Carolina to reatrain enforcement of 
the law OH the (jround it i« oneoaatilntlonal. 
RODald H. Daganharl declared hla two lona 
worked In the cotton milli and that ht waa 
to receWa their waeea nnlil they beeame 
of as*' Federal .lodge Boyd declared the 
law nneonstilutional, thua makine the meaa- 
ure inoperatiTe in that dlatrict. The main 
Isana la baaed on the contention that the 
Uw la an intBrference with state right.. We 
lh>ll do all In onr power to haTe the aw 
auaMlned by the Supreme Court, (p. 41S) 
The A. F. of L. la nnaltereblr oppoeed to 
emploTment In gainful oceupkllona of chil- 
dren under Id. 

(leiB. p. 
>o the Supr. 
IBIB. bnt I 
fore the con 
8 the Buprt 



form of child labor. JoTealle bandj ahoald 
not be exploited bat eosBind to the Initlts- 
tion* /or purely educational purpoaea. 

fTlrlnim Brnploylng White Qlili — (1B18, p. 
BTO) EtIIb arlBiUf from the employment of 
femalea in eatabllBhniBnta owned by OhlDeae 
and Japanese eonatitule, both morally and 
ecDuomically, a (erloua menace to aoclety 
and ihould be abollahed by law. (1S14, 
8e«) iDdoraed bill to prohibit femalea work- 
ing for Aalatiea under any clrconiitailcea. 

OUiLMe EiolnalDn— (IBSl, p. i) The Srat 
conivntiDn declared BO yeara eiperienee of 
Ihe Paclfle Ooaat with ChlDeie had prored 
their competition with white labor WM Ihe 

be afflicted: that pnhlicltr aa to Ita true 
character be dlBaemiusted throughont ihc 



had beei 



ned, (p. B16) Juno 
e Court declared the lair un- 

The A. P. of L. urged the 

ttoiemment to Iminedi Italy cauoa an order 
to be iaauBd. haxlng for ita porpoae pro- 
hibiting the tranaportalior ' " — "-'" — 



lanufael 
r Int 



which 



hild lab 



1 "in the_ Uw held uneonitltntlonal by 

reparad 
, ..tabllah- 
^ept of onr 
,1 right to folly 
tafagoard the children of out nation The 
flrat Bhock ID the public (caoaed by the 
deolaioB) within and without Ihe labor mOTe- 
Dient. ia cauawd by the direct blow against 
the eoDBerratlon of onr manhood and woman- 
hDod of tomorrow, and Ihe Aral effort mnat 
he toward limiting the dlaaetroua ellectfl of 
the decialon u 'far aa may be poaalble 
pending new leglsUtlon. Bot m hope that 
an additional reanlt will be the placing of 



Tectl' 



_ __ jn the power of five 

_ -jllify the leglalallTV enactment, of 

doly corBtitnted repre " ' 



lOO.OOO^OOO free people: thia com 
■tracta the Ex«callTa Council to 



g for wagea In the Slati 

The axe limit was ine 

1 12 after nrgent requeatl 



-{m08, p, 189) 
__■ bands of musician 
1 14 rear* old living In elei 



claiona of a gowirnmenl official and judgen 
of California, (p. ITI LBifialatiTs Cotnmll- 



(1S8B, p. IT) Demanded 
lawi by Gongrsaa to prey eat 

gratlon. Efforts of the at 
of San Franciaco had beei 



■eyor of Ihe port 



>p predated by 



(18BB. p. IE) Preaident reporte< 
-antly Tiolated while all which , 
ntereala. notably Ihe tariff, an E 
forced: that declalons of coutla ' 
ier and the influence of the C 
::ompanles could only be appn 
:hoBe who have lived in Ban Pran. 

(1892. p. SS) Indorsed aland af PaclHe 

itatus aa Chinese, A1<sd Bbkcd Treaaury De- 



(1883, p, 18) Influenced by the Chinese 
: Companiea. Chinuien delied tbe reglt- 
tlon act and goTemment oAelala did not 
lort them as reqolred by law. This gave 
■m ItK idea the law waa not to be en- 



gotialed a treaty with the repretenti 
df the Chlneee government In refefenr 
Chlneae Immigration. The eiecntive co 
after due conalderatlon of f" " 



J the beat legal advi 

einded that the treaty was a departi 



.nd inimical 

of Chinese "iminigration subject to treaty 
atipulalion with a foreign goremment. It 
had taken yuara Df agitation and education 
to recover the right by which onr people 
rould legialate npon thia aabject, eicluslvely 

without IntarTanlion or queation from the 
Chinese government. There la no antijiathy 
on the part of American workmen to Oil- 



j,Gqoi^Ic 



HISTORY, BNCVCU)PEDIA, REFERENCE BOOK 



pMpte wUck hu allowed eiTilltation to pah> 
them by nnlovched and nnlDflneneed, * pso- 
nls whb itlow tbeniBelTa> to hs bBrbinnil; 
Urannlied oter In their oon couBtrr. ind 
vho menace t)» progreal, (he eeoaamie *nd 
Mtclal It an ding of the worken of other 



own iDclufcd. In view of (h«e tact> 
Seiition of the maty. , and slthoush we 



etaphu: 



aily , 



ConfTSH by i 
deB^encr bill 



mint 



■ hlrt 



■rd or 11 



to Chinue cheap labor. ~ <p. IBSI We all 
tranl the fnlleal and fre««t oppurtD[.<ty of 



itlon be iirahibit«d to our island poa- 

,. ..jcluded. nailed on Preaident of U. 8. 
lo inatmct Department of Labor to itop Ihe 
Tiolation of law by the employmeni of^Obi- 

ean aail. bnleu airOHenu'l tn'mlgntion 



Hay 5, 1902. 

(IfiOl. p. Zl) Convention inilmcted bx- 
'emlite Oooneil lo concentrate ftll the re- 
aonreca if the A. P. of L, upon a aupreme 
effort to fcecnra Ufitlation excluding the 
Ghineie. 

(1B02, pp. 20 1«.S'22E) QccU-.ed danger 
(rom Chineie KreXei than ever aud re- 
BOmied demaad for neeeoaary leniilalitn. 
Also orderei) inTBSllgation of (he donier 
from Chinese eompetillon in the Philippine 
lalands. 

(190S, pp 20-103-21)4) Through A. 7. of 
L. «fforta s Chinese exclolioa law li;^ bei-ii 
enacted, bnt althoufb a proclamation bad 
been iasued profalbiUns them from emigrat- 
In; to the American poseessioni sttempli 
iud been mode 10 have it appear thvy were 
nMeoaarr to the industries there. The Uon- 
foUan question had also arisen. Condemned 
employment of Chinese and Japahese in the 
laundry department of the Navy. Urged 
teglslstion sgalnsl limited immieration of 
.Japanese and Coreans (o our insnlar poi- 
leasiona >■ anzrested by the Preiidenl of 
the U, S., ss ft would be a -syatem of 



(leoe, p. ZB) Preiideut of V. B. bad 
recommended to Concreas to place Chinese 

preachers sad the like in Ihe excepted elaas, 
which if enacted lata law. would specify 



119] ConTention i 



ReafBrmed action agaioat 



migration and 

bB repealed 
in of Ohineae eicapt ineh pnt 
.y relate lo the nattirallialiOD 
section 8 provided that amon; 





ral list ion, unless otlierwii 


.e provideti 


r by 




by sgree- 


:;%,; 


IS to psssporla," etc. The Execu- 




!e\(r°«""tbe bill' laV 


sitlta if !■ 




a Isw: "The T»aties i 


DioTlde for 




nC^ui'sion of Chinese in ' 


Ih) ab>eiii.'c 




.in specific flndiuES o( f. 


act by tbe 




cst'on Ini 


sed ( 


in the Immigration codifl 


3175 


) thst the Congress shall 


repeal the 



pon this action 



tag people bnt a menace to Ihe ini 

of our eonntrr." 

(IfiOS, p. 20) Warning was given l>int 

behind the sugar planters of Havrail, placing 
them In the position of asking for a -noili 
hcniron of the law lo permit Chlneee iinmi' 
gratian to that island. We sake no pre- 

.(cal.gronnd. 



ronaequcnt upon the srEning ol the Burlin- 
game Treaty of ISSS. The modlflcallon pro- 



ant o( tbe t 



ril and this suiendox 



sons of Chines' 
Chins or subjei 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



176 



AMERICAN PBDBRATION OP LABOR 



leu othsniiie pro*ld«d toi bj ailitiar msr«- 
meoti u M piupoTti, or b; trsitloa. oon- 
vsntinns, or ■ireenanlf that mi7 htlealter 
ba gntBTed Into." The biU paued. 

(1S14, p. 4tl9) Trade nnianUU anil their 

tftBAo't.'^d I^Mdriea, '" " " '"' '"' 

(ISlfi, p. lOB) Owluc to tbs fttTsnuneDt'i 
objeelioni to nof ehann In tha Ailatic im- 
migzatiOD ragulationi Cneaiua of fain of 
iatsrtarenca with Japaaiae traatf ri(hta it 
w«( found impoaaibta to make tnj progreai 
in that direction. 

OUnan ImmlsraUon Drulng War — (IVIT, 
p. Ml) a«poita that an effort vonid be 
Diade to aacnn tetltlBtlon t« permit the 
importation of OblneiB cooUet dUTllts <>ia 
irar wara ordarod iuTaatiKstad ; that in the 
«Tent inch lerialatlan li pnRWaad in Oon- 
XTSU the A. r. of L. vlll hold to the otrict- 
eit aeeonnt thaw raaponaibie for aa traitar- 
oui an aaaaolt on its intaraati in thia moit 
critical hour of ODr pablle life. 

OhoTcb and LabOT^(lB05, p. ITS) Kec- 
ommendad all affllialed itate and coatral 
KnriiM uTohanini fratBnial delsfabda with the 
md oily monieipa] miniaterial 



1 the 



Ini 
f the c 






1 the lah 



^..-K^.^ —iL (1S08, p. 88) rratm- 

nal delepita from that oreaniiatlon Mated 
wlthont Mte. (1908, p. 363) Urged onions 
to aid in lectiting large andleneaa for the 
chDTchea on Labor Snndar. (1313, .p. 2ST) 
Seattle Aiaoolatlon of Congregational 
Chnrchea and Miniature tranamitled reaolu- 
tions it adopted "reeoroillng in organiied 
labor a great allr of the charch In lifting 
the ataadards of llvlag, aiiimllaCing the 
■lien and especial I7 in lecnrlnj: world 

OUnn Sannna on — (ISST, v 31) Con- 
demned agitation to aboUab internal rere- 
une tai an cigars aa tha iratem had the at- 
feci of booming the Indnalrr, 

Olicl* Ohack Syatan— (18BS. p. el) Con- 
demned circle check lyatem. Employan of 
union labor had been dnped into paying 
trlbnle (or patronage whieh they woald have 
«nd were ealitled to raeeire; while 00 ttaa 
t>lher hand unfair concent gladly aT.iled 
theraielTBi of what they Imagined an in- 
doraamant of their nonnalon prodnet. This 
brooght good name of labor Into diarepata. 

dtfiana' AlUancH—dBO*. p. IBS) Aaaa- 
ciationi of emplayera In the last year or 
two had been organised for llie apeeiflc 
pnrpose of opposing trades anions. Their 
spokesman annoanced the principles of the 
alliances were: "Open shop, no sympsthetia 
strikes, no limltsllon o( notpnt or reitrtc- 
tlan of apprentice! and vaforeemant of law. 
"We claim that as workmen we baTe the 
absolute right to refuse to work for or with 

Intereala. "V., ,u.. 

emplOTers the most effectlTe weapon 
It to withdraw oar labor natil tha e 
leray is adlaeled. Tha nonnnion iho] 
miti the omploTer to destroy eiUtlnf 
-dillons and reduce wi 



plaoe organlien on apeeial dnty la loeall- 
liea where citlaena' alUanoaa are oppoalag 
nnlou. (1807, p. ZST) Aa aflllated orgaar 
lationa had laffarad setbacks by EmplcTWe' 
Aaaoclationi and Oltiaeni' Allianees, we rec- 
omineDd Ibat ao employer of labor shall be 
■lloved • seat In a central, state or na- 
tional body. 

OltlauuMp — (laiT, p. 8SS) Instmoted 
BiacnllTo Ooiuiell to prepare a meaaara to 
govera Datnralliatian of alieni before loin- 
ing anions. (1818, p. Bfl) It reoommandsd: 
Tbst ss trae democracy reqairea all shoald 
bear eqaal responelblUtiaa in the defense of 
onr re^>ectlTe ooantrlaa loeal anlona aboutd 
conildar incorporating ta thair eonatltntlost 
thli proTlso: "That man coming from 
-" --' — -' United SWlBS i' " " 



, or are bom hene of foreign nsretta. irid 
ira they mske sppll cation for membar- 
>, or are admitted to membanthip In tha 



ada, 

befoi 

ship, . 

respective organliatlous, th«y ah all < 
be citiiens of the Cnlled BtatM or -' 
ada, or shall have orelMly and i 
aaee with tho law decisrad tbelr . 
of baooming clttam^a." 

Oltfia&iMp, BlshU of — (IBll, p. 



t of 



the right to o_„ 

iaanod eieeatlTa '"gag law'^ orders 1.— 
bidding aaeh amployaa to patltioa Oongreai 



V prealdents had 



taining the conaent of the hoada of (he 
departmenta. PeaaUy, aammary discharge. 

(181Z, pp. *3-3*S) On Janaary 35, 1B0S. 
an order was Istaad by Prasldent BoomtoII 
forbidding Oofemment amployei. directly or 
indirectly, iadiridnally or throDgh aaaocie 

iu£aerice or attempt to inflnenoe in their 
own inlereats or throngh legislation before 
Congress or lis commllteeB. or in eny way 
sate tbrongh Che heads of depBrtn»nts, on 
penalty of dismissal from (he OoTerament 
serrice. This order arbitrarily deprived tbe 
employes In the GoTarnment lerTice of the 
riglit of citiienshlp gaarsnteed to them nn- 
der tbe OonitUatlon. Tbe departmantal 
Ooternment emnloyea wer« sagged and their 
handa tied, wifhoat any means of radreas. 
Tha only channel throoch which they could 
appeal for a remedy of any gria'anoa was 
throagh their immediate saperior oflcert, 
who asnally were the loorce and cause of 
SDCh grieTinee. On Nommber 26. 1810. 
President Taft isBned a sapplamentary or- 
der extending and making more rigoroae 
the order of January 3S, IBOS. This sap- 
... __.__ >i.j ...,. — bureau. 



of^™d'Jrsion"Vhleiror"eab'ordii 

■tstioni 

either 



Ws'shiagto'a. shall apply to 
at Oongrei). or to any eom- 



d reduce wages at wil 
In Bt rutted Eiecative ( 



of Gon 



President of tbe A. F. of L. immediately 
anterad protest when the eiecutlTe order of 
ISoe was ieiaed. and amph Belied tbat pro- 
test upon the Issuance of tha snpplemenisrj 
c.ii-rutiTD order of IBIO. The conmntion 
of the A. F. of L. in IBOS took action de- 
nouncing and attaoking the order, and da- 

ordci cr legislation at tbe handa of Oon- 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



HISTORY. BNCVCLOPSDIA, REFERENCE BOOK 



eiHDtiTS ordtn forblddlnc anploTH of tt 
PMt-OSot D«pkitmeat to icak rwlrcii • 
eri«Tine« llmnBh dlmt apiinl 10 Oui 
CMu, ■ lafi* niunbvr of (ha raUwaj poat' 
clarka urnaliad aad *BIU>t«d with ths j 
F. of L. TUi eflarl va> made in ordar 1 
anliat tha aialatanes of tin A. F. of L. i 
an effort U> aeenre ramadUil lerialatloa. 



. ._ . ' tbaio orfaDiiatian 
1 by tbB Ameriean Faderr' 



tham. Men «mploT«d L — - -— --- 

TlctiaUad and eompellad to aeek other em- 
ploymant. Raaliiing lira help1«i>aeu of tha 
ralfwBT poatal clerEa, and daalrlng to Ten- 
der tbam all tha uilatanFS poaiible, the 
A. 7. of L. aeeDTsd tha intradDction in both 
Honiaa of Congraai of bllli which, It 
adopted. WDald nallifr tha obnoiioaa execn- 
liie OTden to which reference ii hera made 
and rettore to all emplojH of the Qoiern- 

nhile (b«e biTli did nol reach coDildera- 
tion br either House, Tel br an nltesdmnt 
to the Poat-OSlce Appropriation bill, which 
in row a law, tha richt of petition, a righl 
coarantaed to all oitliona, waa reatored to 
all punoui rmplored in (he civil tertice 
of the C7 S. BspreaantatiTea of orgkniied 
men in the claslUled cItH leTTice and in 
other departmanta of tin (JOTernment, ma^ 
now aeek lagialatiTe relief from Dueniaa con- 
diliona for tbeae ampioyea. The elPact of 
Ihia Bmendinent to the Foat-OKce Appro 
priatlon bill will be Iar-r«*ahlng and wilt 

K-Bclnde the poaiibllit; of tha foat-09liT< 
eparlmepl aasnmlxs Ull men in the em 
ploy of the GoTemment who organlie lor 
tha protection of their lnl«reat(, h>Te no 
Ticht to Join Ibe Ameriean Federation of 

(IBM. p. < 



agalTiat any c 
tfona which a 
ployed by oni 



msiile tba woiken t 
mm ant and lol&lly p 
Dartieipatlon In t 



political acllTltiea ol wag 

Wttiani Onl7 on aoranmeiit Work — 
{1891, p._aS) Oalled 1 



t lawa proTldin, 
ahonld be employed in 
lie bnildinga and that 
Irade nniou " " " " 



(leil. 



that anl7 citiii 



leible. 



I permittod 

poaltloni paying • •mi'<i<4 •—« 
the union and he revoked tbL ._ 
mla. (p. 201) Indoraad eivil aarriet 
beeanao they took the place ' " * 

from dlaeharge for any raaao 
Id perfonD Ua dntlea aitiafi 



laws 

if (he "apoila 

enept ability 



(IWO, p. SIS) Oomplalnta were mode by 
empleyea ia different branehaa of Ike elaiiBi- 
Had ■KoHca of tha United Btatea that by 
arbltratr ciaenllTo mliafa they had boon 
deprived of Iheir cirll and pnittlcal rlchta. 
OonTenlion ang(e«tad this bi- added to MC- 
tion 17S8 of the law: "PrOTiitiKi, That per- 
sons in the elaaslAed aervice abali not b« 
reat rioted in their freedom of apeaoh or 
praaa or in the right to praaeni tb«ir griaT- 
aneea to Oongreaa, and no parson shall be 
orad or othsrwiae pnaiakad ezoept altar 
- ,._ , therefor and 



dMt™ '^"•» notlw ot the 



Federation defeated. 
) unargei made ajcainat the 
: Padoralion were repudiated 
aa mlaatatemanta of facta and reaolationa 
baaed on tha falie premiaea were defeated. 

OMl 8«TTlra — (I8S2. p. 4S) Fanirad na- 
tional, atata and municipal elvll aarrlin re- 

{ISCn. p. 271 Froteata had been made lo 
thePrealdant ot the United Btatea that foreiain 
map engraTera nndar an order leaned by him 



.. nily f 

(leiO, p. 124) EioentlTa ordera lisned 
rigidly oof ore ad In the Foat 

-■ 1 than In •ny other. Km- 

t>iu7~ u>n uvK poit bnlletina, clrenlata In- 
formation, naks oomplalnta to or petition 
Congreaa for rellet from injnilics or to ae- 
enre ImproTed eondttions; they osnnot Idsn- 
tifj themseli-e< with city central bodiaa or 
In any way eipreia diaapproval of onarona 
condition a ander which they are eniploTad 
without riaklDi diBchaTgo. Silence la Im- 
poaed upon them and implicit obedienea la 
rigidly enloreed, (p. BBS) We protait 
aninit eiacDtiTo orders deprii-ing federal 
eWII wrrlre employsa of ibelr coDstKatlonal 
rirht as eltiaens to petltioD Oongreaa for 
a ledreaa of grlsrances and the right of 
tree speech. Eieculive ordera now in al^9Ct 
and part of the rules and regnlationa of the 
federal civil aervice forbida and prohibits 
all fVderai civil aerriea employae (250,000 la 
nnmber) from In any way attempting to 
inflnenee leglalatlon, direetly or indiivctly. 
in behalf of better working conditions, and 
which orders prohibll eren the right to peti- 
tion Oongreaa in behalf of anob le^alation 
and raatrlcta freedom of apeeefa in that a 
civil aervJco employe Is Arbldden to re- 
spond to requeata for information dealrad 
by a nnmber ot either hoase of Congress 
or a eoninilltee of Oon gross . unless Srst 
grsnted permission to do so by depsrtmen- 
tal heads. Offlciala of the Peat OMco De- 
partment have removed umployea becanaa of 
alleeed Tlolatlon of aneh ordera. and In one 
psHicolar laatance did aommarily dianlas 
from the service a member of the PostolBee 
Clwhs' Union on tha charge that ho at- 
tempted to influence legislation in the In- 
terest of better working conditions indi- 
rectly through the Legialative Oommltlee of 
thii A. F. of L.. and buoBuae of hie boIIou 
In Introducing a resolntlon In (he Chicago 
Federation of Labor. The A. F. of L. de- 
nouncea aa nn-American and despotic eiecu- 
live orders and rules that prohibit or re- 
Blricl fedural employee from eierciaing to 
the fnllest extent the inalienable right of 
free speech and free preaa and the right to 
pielltion Oongreaa. 

(leil, pp. 82289) We emphatically 
protaat agatnat orders prohibiting eivil aerv- 
ice employes petit ionlng OoBgreas or any 
eommlttee or member thereof Cor padreae 
of grlBTsncea. When a parson enters the 
eivll service hi dowa not thereby resign his 
rights aa a cltliaa. If the condltlona under 
which he labors are not satisfBctory ho has 
the aame right to quit, either aingly or eol- 
lectively. aa If he bad huen employed by a 
private individual. Tliat anch a atoppage of 
work would he more far-reaching than ■ 
strike of employes ot a private concern mast 
be apparent, and that Id Itaolf g|irea 



obvGoo<^le 



AMEKICAN FEDERATION < 



right of 

■Dtg lo itiiks miut doI ba dtrnled, but all 
JD>t groasdi for itriklng afaonld b« remoTed. 
Etsft sffort to aACUTB legiglition on the 
gnbJKt hid (>ll«d. (p. 308) Indoried bill 
rMtorina: to taduml cHil Mrriea cmplojiM 
their inlereDt rlsbti u citiieDs to pelllion 



(1912. pp. tS-atB) Bj an amendment la 
ha PDitoince appropriation bill, now a law. 
ha right of petition, % right gnaranlaed lo 
il] cltiiani. waa laetorad. The elTect of the 
aw will preclnde the poialbility of the Poit 
>Soa Departnant aaanminf that men is thg 



Dodarr 



denDT, inbaerrienc; aad ajrcophancy 
la repacnut (o Anieiicani who are 
lo boaal that thi* la "the home of 
rave and the land of the free." We 
to gtata that wa flod in many of the 
trnenti Iparticalarlr (he Poat-ottce) a 
iitloD to Ignore and at timea to raiast 
>irlt and Tetter of Ihe new law wa ae- 

'" •-*-" -• -,er freedom for fad- 

. 1912. It appeara 
!■, eapeclallr Ihoie 
In reality only gse- 



%Ti'. 



B bj t\ 



be? Hure ino col at ed ^ 
■ «nd Tad" 



ordara, plainly evidancad by their arbitrarr 
•cli and their hanh Iraalmonl of luhordl- 
nate employee for alight offenaea or infrtc- 
liona of Iho deparlmental iron-bonnd mlea 
for Infenora. (p. 810) The A. P. of L. 
reglatsn ita nnrBlenting oppoaltion to ani 
■ehenie or ayatem which deniea freedom of 
apaeeh to any dais of cltliena or to any 
man; that forbidding the civil aenlce em- 
ploye! of the Uare laland Naiy Yard par- 
lie paling In poilOca or holding o«ce in the 
Vallelo Tradea and Labor Council (contend- 



s the 



I furthered. Rule No. 1 of the Cl*ll 
ice Kn>aa and Regnlationa dapriyaa the 
■Brvlre emplojea of bacomlnR candi- 
<aee, aagaglnt in any political 
_tam dlitribatlng llleraiare bar- 
ing k polltioal pnrpoaa, addraaainR nrsetlnga, 
contrlbatlng anlelea for the preaa on politi- 
cal qaealloni; oHIdsIa of the poalal depart-, 
menl tlireataned to diaebarga rtilwajr nail 
' ' I If Ihay patitlond Congreaa to pro- 



date* for oBee, 



hi bit I 



(laifi, pp. 97 

many of the poaltli 

menUl or neer 

aerrice Oommi 



292) It I 






employment 
praetleally el 



■hop for colleRe gradnatea. 
belnH ataadlly aitended. and 
not ahow the allghKeat 1n- 



of a college a 
9 lime la hcl 
Iha Congreaa 



acllTltiaa withoD 



able, practical kaowltdfre and Tirtually I 
blackliat them from gorsrnmeni employ, coi 



Joying -iill f«ad'om of ^^e^^b." " ""° "■ 
(1916. pp. 1D5-2S5) Becommended con. 
tinuanee of afforti in behait of cItII aarrice 
employw until e.ery right under the bill 
of righta la accorded Ihem. (p. 8G2) fa- 
Torad anactnenl of a Jaw proyidlog for a 
conrt of appeala of the United SUter lo in- 
Teat i gate complaint a of eraployaa of the 



. 3Sd-41e) Aiked repeal of a 



ihall be tranif erred 
to another at ineraaaed 



the only of dUlillariea to other 



w appolnteea, Parored a 

placing interna] rareni 

civil jHrricc Inatead of h 

iacharge a( the pleaiure 



which impreaa the preaa 
!nt la deprirad 'of the 



pcutiia Council. 

aitjttai .Act— <191t. pp. eS-BSl) The 
ireateat leglalaliTa Tietory aeenred by La- 
hor during the year waa the anaclmont of 



obvGoo<^le 



HISTORY. BNCrCLOPEDIA. RBFBRBTrcB BOOK 



.the labor aaetlana of the CUrton Anlttrait 
Act, (eeurlBf t« the worker* o( Amerien 
thoae fdiidemeiit*! principle* of ladulrlml 
llbartj which ware amont the eblel tea- 



Ihe American Federa 

nied in ISOe. rnm (he tlmi 

lion wai flnl dlieoiiad (hem ' 



irlDB organliatlona of worlcera noder the 
iroHilona o( aooh leglalation. The repre- 
oDtAtWe* of orfanl^d labor were eon- 
tantlT on *bt alert to prarent the coninm- 
nallon of thai pnrpo**. The Sherman antl- 



.irodoeea . 

and ths throtlVa he pull*: the carpantar and 
the aaw he naea: the printer and the trpe 
he aeti. The jndicUl pBrrenloDe of Jn>- 
tlre Irnora ths fact that labor ro<rar in 
iaieparahia from the hodr and penonallty 
of l1ie worker — thai it ii part of hi* rery 
belnt. Labor In the aneech of commeice and 
■Koaonie tfaeorr wonld not infreqnenil; im 
plr *B inanimate aomethlnc to be botisbt 
and Bold aiaetlT ■■ an artTcTa of trade or 
commaree. Labor la the irreal, creatlTo, pn- 
dnetlra force of the nniierw. It la that 
which (iTea dignltr, nabtlllr. and purpoar 
to human life. The worken through their 
organliation have be«i nrglnK Ihla principle 
*■ the reaaon why tmal law* ahoold not 
apply to tbem. Dpon innnmerable occaaloni 
in wrltlns, In pnhlicatlon* and In pnbKr 
atatementi ha* thia principle been praaaed 
home upon the mlnda and the conaclencea of 
the cItUen* of oar land. It haa been -argiA 
in the fonn of demand! for leirlilatlon upon 
Iha political repreaentatlTea whom the peo- 

Kla had placed In offleea of reaponalblllty 
or twantf-four yeara t^'- '— * '- 



hr twonij-fo, 
eallon and aj 



affltat: 



•'fS 



Now the renilt^ of that oampalKn are ap- 
parent In the TlewB of all manner of pnhllc 
repmantatlve*— Judlrtal. eiaentlTa. and lei- 
lalatlTC. Thoie *lewa are manlfeat In ppblle 
apeeeh and oOlclal action. There can be 
nolhina more rratlfylnR than thIa common 
and Implicit areeptaner of the fundamental 
prlncipki for which Labor of America haa 



nation. ° 



Iti 






^ceptan 



ol our 



the law «t the 1r _ 
repoita to former conrentlona ita proireaa 
haa been recorded aa ahown by the ifflrma- 
tloD of thia principle In amendmanta to the 
tmat aectiona of Snndry CItII bllU. prnvld- 
in( that the fanda approprlalsd tor the en- 
forconnnt of the trust law ahonld not be 
Died in tha proaeenlion of a worker 



anr combinallon or arresmeii 

Tiaw the IncreaalnR of vatrea, 

of hour*, or bettering the 



haTinn 



Inl 



did not aocnra to the worken the toll pro- 
taction to which they were entitled. Fnll 
and complete )aatleu coald be done only by 
removInK tbem from the proTialons of tha 



which by lerlalati 



m the pro Til 
■labllahlng t 



the hill 



1914, Prvaident Wll 
lutad 



'1th 



.. .. bor pioTiil_ 

aplandld Jlctory for ornnlied 



Preaidant 

Ibe bin a , 

labor. A few day* » ._ _ „ „„ 

Praaldent Wllaon wrote the lollowlng aa hi* 
Intmpratatlon and nndaia tan ding of thsm. 
which Indoraea the prinoiplaa for which wa 

"tnci dentally, joatlcs haa been done the 



labor la n' 



onger l< 



Bot eonrta by Intarpretation perrcrtc 
law. Intended to apply to 11^ prt>diicia or aat cnak 
lahoF— perrarted 11 to apply (0 the human than the 
labor power of the workcra thCDiaelTea. By > la* n 
theaa pBrreniona of the law the coprta plated 



if It war. _ _ 

nmerce diaconneeted from the fortnnea and 
. hDman bidng. to be 
oblect of aata and barter. 
aa It |g, la hardly mora 
■nd Ineritabla corollary of 
a jaw wnoee oojccl la IndlTldnal freedom 
and Iniliative u agalnit any kind of prl- 
TBta domiDBllon.". The labor aectiona of 
tha Clayton bill, aa finally enacted, are: 

S. That the labor of a hnman being 



Dodlty D 



articli 



Nothing contained In the i 

be conatroad to forbid the exiatenc 
operation of labor, agrlcoltaral, or 
cnllnral organliatlona. inatltated for tl 
poaaa of mnlnal help, and not having 
atoek or eondncted for profit, or W foi 
mtraln Indlvldaal msmbara of anch i 
aatloaa from lawful iy cai 
mate objecta thereDt; no 



T the 






ahall a ._ „_ . 
— her* thereof be eo named 
iblnatlon* or conapiraclea In 



to be illegal . . 

raatraint of trade, under the 

Bee. SO. That no reatralning order or in- 
Inaction ahsll be granted by any court of 
the United State*, or a jndga or the lndgea 
thereof. In any caae between an employer 
and employe* , or between employer* and 
employei, or between eraployea. or between 

ployment, inTolring, or growing ont of, a 
diapnte concerning tema or condltiona of 

rep*rah]e injury to property, or to a prop- 
erty right of ttre party making the applica- 
tion, for which Injury there la no adequate 
"" ■ " "■ jroperty or prop- 



larit, fi. 

writing a 



I ahall prohibit any peraon or 
llher alngle or In concert, from t 
any relation of employment. 



r tron 



nendlDg, i 



work or to abatain 
ceulng to palroniie 
lueh diapule. or 



, and iBwfol raeana 

m paying or gl»ing to, oi 
m. any peraon engaged li 
r itrlke benefit* or other i 



.abyG00»:^Ic 



FEPBRATION OP I^BOR 



01 thinn Df Tahu; or from pMCMbly ■iiain- 
bliDi in I, Uwfnl minner, *iid for lawful 
porposei: or from dQlng »ny act or thing 
which mlfht lawfully be done lo th« abaonoe 
of aacti diipnta br any party tberato; nor 
shall any of ttw acta ipacilied ia tliil para- 

of any law of the United BUtea. 

See. 21. That any paraon who ihall wlU- 
fDlly dfiobay any lawful writ. procaiB, or- 
der, rule, deer«B, or command of 'any di)- 
Irlct eODTt of tl» United Stalsi'or any 
court of tha Diatrlel of Oolnmbia by dolns 
any act or thing lliarein, or Iheraby far- 
bidden to b« dona by him. if the act or thing 
■o doi» by hla be of inch eharaclar aa 10 
' eonjtltBle alio a crlntlBal oflenae ondar any 
alatnta oE ths Cnltad SUtei, or nnder the 
lawa of any alBta In wblch the act waa 
comodtted, itaall be procaedad againit for 
hla aald contempt aa hereinafter proTlded. 

Sec. 22. That whanarar it aball be made 
to appear lo any dlalrlet court or jndffd 
tharBOf, or to any jndsa therein littlng, by 
tha rolora of a proper ofllcer on lawful 
proceai, or upon tha aHdaTlt ot eoma cred. 
ible peraon, or by Information Bled by any 
dlatrlct attorney, that thara ia reaaonable 
gmnnd to belloTe that any peraon haa been 
guilty of auch eontsmpt tha ooort or Judge 
tbBTMf. or any judge therein altting, may 
iani* a rule requiring the aaid person so 
ehergad to show csuie upon a day certain 
wby he ahODld not be punished therefor. 
wUeb rule, together with a copy of th^ 
aSdaTit or information, ahall be lerred upon 
the peraon charmd, with Bu0ci«nt prompt - 
neaa to enable him to prepare for and make 
reluTD to the order at the time flied themn. 
It upon or by inch retuni. in the judgment 
of the conn, the alleged contempt be not 
an«e>»ntly purged, a trial shall be directed 
at s time and place fixed by the court: 
ProTlded howBTer, That If the accused, beinu 
a natural person, fail or refuae lo make re- 
pel sn answer, and In ease of his eonllntifd 
failure or retuaal, or II (or any reaaon It be 
Impracticable to dispose of the mstter on the 
return dsj, he may be required lo Kije rea- 
Honsble ball for hla allendance at the trial 



In all caaaa within the pnr.ie* ot thi 
act, auch trial may be by the '^'"'rt;.''' 
upon demand of the acensed, by a jury; li 
which latter etent the court msy Impana 
a Jury from ''>\i«"'' '*^" '" ?' '"^-l"" 



meanor; and auch trial ahall conform, aa 
near ai may ba, to Ibo practice in crimi- 
nal cases prosecuted by indictment or upon 

information. . , ,,. . , „, 

If the accused be found guilty, indgmeni 
sball be eoterea acMirdlogly, 1>™'^7'"|L ' , 
pnnishment. either by "!«," '"Pr'jl'""S!,"h 
« both. In the discretion of the coort. Such 
fine shsll be peld to the JJ"'"* ^tstw or 
fo the eomplalnant, or other party injured 
by the «ct constituting the contempt, or 



may, where more than one Is io damaged, 
be diridsd, or apportioned among them aa 
the court may direct, bnt in no case ahsl] 
the line to be paid to the United States ex* 
ceed. In cass the accused is a natural per- 
son, (he sum of (1,000, nor shall sncb im- 
prisonment exceed the term of ill montha; 
ProTlded, That in any oaie the court or a 
Judge thereof may, for good cause shown. 
by afldavit or proof taken in open conrt 
or before lach Judge and filed with the pa- 
para In the cage, dlapanse with the rule to 
ahow canae. and may iisua an attaohment 
for the arrest of the parsoD charged with 
contempt : in wlileh BTent each person, whon 
arretted, sball be broniht before snoh ecnirt 
or a jodga thereof wlthODt tmoecMatiT de- 



the charge or for trial for the contenpt; 
I thereafter the proceedings shall Iw the 
ne as proTJded herein in caae the rule 



That thi 
FudJ^nl of 



, cuaed may be 

ined b^ bill of eiceptiona, and any 



r In all r 
I criminal 

may require. Upon the granting of ■ 
writ of error, eiHcutlon of judgment a 
ba stayed, and the aoouaed, if thereby aen- 
tenced (o imprlsODmsnt. ahill be admitted 
to bail in auch reasonable aum aa may b« 
required by the court, or by any Justice, 
or any judge of any district court of the 
United States or any court of the District 
at Oolumbla. 

See. 24. Thai nothing Inrein contained 
eh all be construed to niste to contempK 
committed In the presence ol the court, or 
so near thereto aa to obstruct the admlnis- 
Iration of Justice, nor to eontempla commit- 
ted in disobedience of any lawful writ, proc- 

<n soy suit or action brought or prosecDlcd 
In the naitie of, or on behalf of. the United 
States, but the asme, snd all other eaaea of 
contempt not spec IS call y embraced within 
HBcIion 21 of this act, msy be ponlshod In 
conformity (0 the nssges st law, and In 
Ity now pWTSlllng. 



■bill b 



tuled a 






of the 

scf complained of;' nor shsll any auch pro- 
ceeding >e s bar lo any criminsl prosecution 
for (he aane set or sets: but nothing bemn 
contained ehsll affect any proceedings in 
contempt pending at the time of the paaaage 
of thi a act. 

Coal Shortage— tlBl 8. p. 240) KreculiTv) 



the 



there is an acute shortage ot coil t 

.id thwm In secuilBg cosl. 
Ooerelon of Doolsions— (1802, pp. 17.1*4 



Feder. 



I Labor 



refuse to psy its proper financial obligs- 
tlona to the 'American Federation of Labor, 
or that It win withdrew from ths Amerlcsn 
FedersdoB of I.sbar. that In any aneh case 
the officer, of thu Amerlcsn Federation _ of 
Labor ahall be prohibited f 



1 pToeeedlnc 



obvGoo<^le 



HISTORY. BNCYCLOPBDIA, REFBRENCB BOOK 



tniihar npao tha mallti InTolrtd in any man- 
Der wlutHaTai, ud the ornsliatlm aliill 
ba daprlnd or ti» right of lapreioatatlDn 






a of ths America: 



Fader. 



•riaimai In accord- 



oblifBtloDi haTa bean ,. 

ance wltb the eonitltatioa, oai aiav -amu n 

baa withdrawn anch aotlea or daaUralloii. 

OoUati PntaiMiTi' lAborAWtod*— (laos. 
p. ZSl) InToatlCBlion ordered of attllade 
of eollace proteiHin toward labor branght 
thia report In IBOS (p. 29) eondenied Inin 

polata of Tiew are faoneatly rapreuatad by 

onr college and nnlTenlly taacbera, and 
aome are procraailTe and leak to lc»«p In 
tosob with labor, monopot;, and taxation 
problema and kindred topic*: while othen 
— ,.. ... . pnrelj- "^ '- " 



hlatorlcal labjecta. 



doaa not bafa a chance to appreSai 
the Indoatiial pivblema of tha day. at » 
liTfn^ on a Axed aalary, which dooa not 
Tarr from jaar to yvar, while hU poaltlon 
la eomparatlTelT flzed and Independent of 
erlies, atrlkaa, trnata, etc., which ao titally 
enter into the life of the day. f- — ■ 
nan all]' eonneoVad with aoma 
which rither obtain* Ita tdndi fro 
larf* vaaltb, who are maklSK man 

in eonnaclioD with apeoial ^Tilegea, or '. 

> Stale inatitntlon which dapenda 
'elopmant npoD State >ag- 
iBiHurBi, wnicn in tarn are UrgelT con- 
, tmlled by corporate Intereal* that hate aome 
aie to grind. All thla cieatei an etmoapbare 
of conierTBtiim. Tha aooial reUtiona of a 
collefie or anlTeiilty teaeher are llkewlte 
nanally amone those net largely In aympatby 
with t)w proDleme tbat yon baie In mind. 
(4) There has bean, daring the laal ten 
year*, a growing tendency ■Tunni tmniui 
of both pnbllc and priTale 
•electing n<ew men to take I 



r ita Onaneial d 



ititnllon 
man of 

rapidly 



raltles In 



nori^d 




anything 


likely to an- 




pouibU don. 


or.. Oon 


eeqnently. Ibc 




cted, while 


In moat 


case* elncen 




likely lo ba 


men cf i 


t coriaerratiiB 


point of 


Tiew along the liiw 


f applied eco- 
Inffnencea tb( 


nemlci. 


(5) Deaplle 


all tbeae 


college I. 


tacher ineili 


tably imblbea some ol 


the (piril 


. of the age 


and can 


not teach his 


inbject witbODl callin 




m to aotm ol 


the beat 


of the lihe 


r'al'bMki 


I and articles 



and what in Ita jndg- 



pawer of the militnry 
alii an ea had bnt the 
make aa to It) wiabes __ 

mmt constltnted the l«w, 1. „ 

eraoT of the state order the Inwps 
moat conTanlent point to ezecnte whi 
accepted as a decree. OItII go>»mme 
beoD let at aaaght. aod conslltntlon. 
natural righla and goaranteea wantonly 



'P,,?*'!.'''" .""' ""'' "■• '''>>'• »' '••»" 

tlTlliied loclely, may not hers be aula* 
r*ara ago the Oolorado lerialatnre 
Bd a la* limiting the hoar* of lalior of 
who worked in the mine* and la the 
lera lo eight per day. The doorta of 
stale declared that inaamaeb a* tbare 
"" ......—. ,mi,oriiy ,„tBd in the 



- - - inch a law. The aoisuu* 

■i™n r" ""bmltted to a Tote of tha people 
of Oolorado, and It waa ratided by mora 
than 47,000 majority, and thereby b»oama a 
part of the Mate conititnlfon. The leglsla- 
lare which had this direct mandate from 
the people nttarly failed to comply there- 
wltb, and It Is aalhorltatiT«1y aaserted. and 
not daoied, that tha goTsnor owed hie nomi- 
nation and olectton to tha offloa he ooonplea 
npon the distinct nnderatanding and agrae- 
ment with tho prima moren of the ao-oalled 
ciliiene' allianee that he wonjd preTent. if 
possible, an sgreament by the two hoose* 
of tha leglslalnre upon any eight-honr bill: 
hlB eBon' '"""*" "" ' "" 

It WB. n .. „ 

rlgbl of Tcto. inosmnch as his elFartg to 
preTsnt agreement in the passage of the bill 
made the eierciae of that fnnotion nnneee*- 
aary. The indignBtlon of the people gener- 
ally, partloalarly the working people, at thla 
political manipnlatlon and triokery, wi* em- 

Ehatir, and a keen asnsa was clearly mani- 
■ited thai their rights aod tbeir Interest* 
bad been Sagraatly betrayed, IMepates 
sroie resnhlng la the ellort to enforce by 
"iriTste Agreement what the lawraaken, the 
nis representatives of the people, had fsIHd 
a do; that 1b, the establlefiment at an eight- 
strikes 



_ .. . ... e-BlB) rur- 

(ien thst this ttatemenl of facts is absolnl^ly 



Ooloiado Btrault 

(1904, pp. as-isSi 

of the so-called citii 
Its fullest fmltlon 



The inlqaltoas policy 



_..r workday. „ 

otenrred; soma directly for _„— 

day. others In sympathy. At ones a sys- 
tem of pHsecndon was inaagnrated by the 
employers' associations which assnmed the 
tllle of cltliens' alUances. Men against 
whom no chargt nf wrongdoing conld be 
made were dragged from their home* and 

slates. Pnbllc oIBcialB, elected by the peo- 
ple, were snmmoned before secret meetings 
of these greedy monopolleta, and simply be- 
ranse they refused to acqnieice In the em- 

ily deposed from oIBce and the agents of 
the employers directed to asarp theee oHees 
and perform their tanetlant and datle*. Tn 

WBs loBsed at the feet of aa officer of the 
local gOTemment. elecbad by the people, with 
the choice glren bim of peremptorily resign- 



I the fnll I'm other 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



181 



AHBRICAM FEDERATION OP LABOR 



militMT ra1«, applxlDg to dlatileti, irithoiLt 
antbomr of law and In ooofllct wltb tlio 
plain proTtaloDa of tba couatltntloa of Colo- 
rado, Imt h> STBH demianed UmiBlf to (ha 
axircfae of tbat graat powar to appW to a 
aln^a indlTldnal. Man char^ad with no 

rallad, and vKh tht bntt end of a gas or 
ftt tbe point of a barimet diivan Ilka cattle 
Into a bull pan, wUle otb«n varo bodily 



imtbaT t 



o( OoK 



of the iBEiilat 
declare o " 
ho! dins n 



tDTll. 






iDUwfnl c 
■nd tba 



Jnall 

blnah~of i 
t againit ■ 



ndnct. 



1 will not 



B tba Inititotioi 



■Wa bar 

. jne wlm 

lore llbarty am 



apnbllc; the 
■ faeaa, and 



and disnitj' > 

.„. _„ . la blot thai ■ roci. 

pnblie oScar, creatiiTa. and pappat of i 
did ETaad, abould haTB ao tNamlrohad 
dallied the proud Tocori and ham 
of i toTareUn ataM. It waa tt 
onrpoae of that anholj combinatl._ __ .... 
eitiieaa' alliance with OoTernor Faabody to 
deatro; the indapandencs ' • ■ - 



I OTldent 



ood of 



Federation 



a not din 
of I/aboT 

igoDlatn < 



br maklnB 

deatroj oraBumu 
r declaration tbat 



ia die; 



Ted br 



the aniiated coal mlnera of thi 
they will fall in their deatmeiire laciiM, 
aye. that the; hare alread; failed, la eri- 
denl from Ih« faet that (here are more 
workmen organliad in Oolorado today than 
at any time In Ita preTioiu hlttom thai 
organiiatlona fomwrlr in rlTalry with each 
other faaTe aoialtamated, and a greater bond 
I fralernit)' "--- '-— -~ 



The ExecillTe Coanc 



1 efPacted. 
lirealar to 
anclal aid, 



afHIlatad anlona. appeallnc lor 
BO that the onosr* of the Weatem r bob 
tion of HlnCTt might haTe the meani 
bring before the htghul federal eourta 
ear eaantrr the auertlon and the teat of i 
oatoral and eooitttational qmatlona ■ 
rlfhl iDTolTed In the ontraraooa condnci 



Colorado'a offlcUU. Wa are tralj of the 
opinion thai the higheat Judicial tribunal of 
onr conatry will IneTltably teverte a coorae 
■o deilnictlTe of the reT7 fondamantal prin- 



it they mi , 

or law, and bettor than all, be ■ 
nnmben, pnrpaae, and aplrll a* 



If that aUth 



H90T. 
and centr. 
Itibute to 



a Denre 



Inlldiag 



I in naU- 



booka lawi for t' 
before tba duly c 
of their peeri a;- 
of law aa mi'- 
The tyrant o 
Ihoie from n 
baniahed, or eiiled 

Joat and nnnatnra' 

cently aboliibed — -. — . - 

malnad tor the nnapeakabla Peabody. goTOi^ 
nor of the great atate ot Oolorado. to raTJTB 
and pnt thii benighted paDlibment Into aie- 
cntion: and thia, too, In aplte ot the fast 
that tbera la not In oar country one aclnlilla 

to dc^rt, banlah, or eiile a elf' — ' — ' 
"-'- -■-•■- — • "■) country. 



clooa aDila bronght by the l_ 

ancaa to compel Ibem to apend all thulr 
money in altomeya' feea and conrt cDita. 

(IStB, p. SlOi 1S14. p, sea) Reported 
mlnera tonrleen moniha' atrlke due to non- 
called upon the Preaidant of the United 
Stataa to Inilat thai Oolorado coal aperatora 
immediately eomply with bli plan of aettle- 
aent. In the antnt tbey refuge that necea- 
lary itepa be taken to hare a recelrer ap- 
pointed to lake OTar the mlnea and operate 
them In the Intereat of the people nntil 
each time aa their civil and political rigbta 



-, ,_ atrlke in 

conditiona eiUted like 
ing dlatrictl «" 



ganlmd, 






* from the tendal 
Blntaimid by (he aperatora 
rar of ownerablp of Immenifl . 
ta of land. Bat the atrlke 
I Tain. With or wlthont the 
coal operator* ot Oolorado 
I organlia. The CODrte did 
lelal action anlDtt violence 
•■-- -■- -iwnera. but on 
ware indicted 
* reapODaibilily 




OoBuaardal Onlan With flonth i 
(Iftld. p. aai) OonTentlon deelared It eonld 
not coaalatantly Indorae a commercial nnlon 
(■ propoaal vhlch alio prorldad tor eatab- 
llabaeat ot ateamahip llnea to nn between 
North and Sooth America. Bnanced by bonda 
leaned by the Unltad Slataa and to make 
loana to tboia oonDlrle*) without ladoralos 
the iainanee of goTemnnnt bonda and far- 
ther indoraing the propoaltlon tbat theae 
bonda, toaathar with other flnanclal obliga- 
tion*, ahail be guaranteed by the goTem- 
ment. Such prineipht make for war rather 
than It* prvTenllon. 

Oommlaalon on IndnitrUl BdAUona — 
(iai2. p. 186) Oongreia enacted a law cre- 
ating a Oommlaalon on Indsatrlal Relationa. 
among Ita .dntle* being an Inquiry into the 
general condition of tabor In the principal 
Induatrlea of th« Dniled -Slalea aud aeak to 
dUcoirar the underlying cauaea of diaaatla- 
taction la the Indnatrial altuatlon. Two 
raembera recommended by the American 
ITedarallon ot Labor had been ap- 
polntad. (1018, p. 373) Oommlaalon 
orrad to Inyeatltate eoDdlliona on the 



obvGoo<^le 



HISTORY. SNCYCLOPBDIA, RBFSRBNCE BOOK 



nllnad. (pp. SB-STfl) Noted 



.ion. (1914. pp. 108-847! Fa- 
ld«t pBbUcllT ol the tegtlnonr 
Isnt of the A, F. of L. (lOlfl, 
auDod that claTen Toliunea of 
iei suh of the rapart woold 
(p. 273) Indoreed leport of 
■dvoeallng ledsral eaci-arafe- 



paimat fo 
toT citiisn 



Ki prOTide thi 
iTine* banha b< 
I ha parpoie 



lais. 



building 
-(IBIS, 



2S0) Praaident ahonld havs thu 






littHi. ai 
erabla of 
^eniDpliah 



t hardahip 






their sleclic 

th« tin* at the » 

nolUns ol b«B*at . . 

OMip«lty SMtm — (IS&S, pp. 07-13S) Ooi 
denaed evmpuiT atore tjtttm whera eo 

RIoTM are rampelled to par eierbiUnl prlei 
ir intarloi nrada, "Oparitloii -' 

clotM iralem la worW-- "^ 

maur hnndnda dI (hi 
rallr niponalhla for 
tireen mlnera and theii 
ni»de (or lawi to wl 
ciaapmaj atore eretunt. 

OOBpolaoiy Lkb«i ZAwi — (1018, p. H2) 
OsmpnlaaiT labor lawi for the avowed por- 
poae ot praTeotlna idleneaa and Tatniicy 
dnrlng the period of the war were enaeled 
in Weal Virginia, Maryland. N«w Jeraey, 
New York, Bbode Taland and North Dakota. 
Tba Weat Virtinia law Kppllei to all male 
rsidesla of the etale between 16 uid SO, 
whs mnat work at leait SB hours 1 wwk. 
Flnea or work on pablic Blteeta the penally 
for oflenden. Uaryland law appliBa to all 
malaa batwaen IB and 50. Peraona aelf- 
anpparUng by rvaaon of property or income 
moat regTater. Wagea thall be the lame 
as paid othera in lame ocenpatlon. Pro- 
poaed SB a wsr nieasnre »e da not f»e1 
jnallAed la opposing a taw primarily In- 
home la all ciliaena the necesslly of doini; 
their part in the war. 

Ooncnaraiai], Arenc* — (lOOS. p. 20) 



win then ( 
24) In ( 



1 Haunted bj Faar- 

ibliiblng ifae new 
m who reared tbo a 



lbet« dspartmrats was designed t< 
eiorelsin^ snprem* and eiflnaiv 



o show the whole world tl 
a or coald ever be wise e 
ugh to control the desllnii 
of other men. Thai ca 
be clearly anderstood 
in of the baalc principlec 



mant. The rentral Ihonghl was that the 
daadnies of the people of the new nation 
shoDld be left in the bands of tfas paoplr 
themselna. For want of better machinerr, 
with which the people might eipress (heir 
will, the old Eagllsb system of eiprssalng 
(heir collectite will (hrongb repreaentatlTea, 
oor represent at iTe form of goTemment, wai 
ealabllahed. For yean the fathers wrested 
with this gruat problem of SBlf-gOTerament. 
The spirit ibit had called forth the aenO- 
rnenls and principles of the Declaradon of 
Independence slraggted and con(ested [or ■ 
popular goTcmnnut in all that (hat onirea- 
aion implies. The opposition, (earing to tn- 
ln»( the people with fnll sway, exerted 
(heir grea(e*t elTDrls to limit (he people'i 
power. Yet all agreed upon one point, and 
that was, that (he soaree of all power, of all 
new legislation, of every vital principle of 
1a«. ahoald reat in the hands ol the people 
IhroDgh their representatives in Congress. 
aye. and by a two-thirda lots evvn over the 
veto of the Preaidenl. In abort, the CoO' 

1 (In Senate, waa charged specl- 



a the 






I llecat s 



and are required to yield obedi- 

bruiclHa on Ihia point being not 

Inete. but snbordlnate. For eiaraple, 
granted no enlhorily to 
" ial <kiipartm«^t was 



n it w 



and 

~a dminraler' i ho 'l aw~ as~"it ' (o un d 
it. and (he eiecutiTS ahould eieente the law 
aa it was clearly written and Interpreted. 
If present conditions wvre not so seriou*. 
it wanld appear absnrd that at this late day 
such a restatement of fact and principle 

ffint paa( not only Jnstify but compel c ' 



B alien 



When otheri 



ahould 



mpted in other lands. Thi< 
bom out of the Iron law of 
was ideal in form. althODEb 
in operation when 



allow the vital principles of Belt-government 
to ba eltber mleapplied or betrayed, II is 
time that the men of labor should apeak. 
directing the attention of their fellow-work- 
ers and fellow- citii ens to the evils that 
tht«slen. One of the gresteat dangers now 
confronting the people and the people's goV' 



-a(ond, but it Is a fact 



Is not generallr 
nevetthelMS, and 



jyGoo'^lc 



AMBKICAN FEDERATION < 



th* chUBcter and tbe compoaltlon of the 
Honn in the Iftit dae&dt >» sUeflj to 
bUuBs. For Hkfl of partj, at partj lur- 
monj; for patniiacii, or Iti poalible Iosb; 
tor the iska of • rn-oloctian, ths mcmlMrt 
h>Ts «it idly hj, flloiad tb<ir tjtm. lutattd 



ukDU 






cutom bj ReproaeL 

tiuii loDriai" for fur tb«r might 
aute vlth the Speakar whom thej pai 
oallj sDd machanlealli -'----j — 



Dlldered fault- dnden 
cilLed .■'lrTBgnl»r,' 



thair 

^^ aiibmlttfld 

feftr tha; inl(ht be 



a> Ihc 



PtmI< 



vida 



.hongh paralTied. Fear 

J'B tha ghoitly apparition 
ifa of tha BT«nc* Ooi 
a thla DD-AmaHean i ' 
lOEH, the dignity, tl 
llTo* of lerlalallDD, I 
lltBtlonal right!, tl 
imant o( Aiarleaa, f^ 

Si*e Ihli nation bi 
, »nd holy eleniB 
n« frsdnallT sllflaaCc 

Niffann'''Mid all that 



white "tliia"no-AmBrlcan" "^- ■ ''" "-- 

priTllegfn, the dignity. 
mgatlTo* of leglalallDn, 
GOnilltBtlonal rlghtl, me lunuiuuei 
qniremsnt o( Aiarleaa, f^thftil repraa 
that Ea*e Ihli nation birth — (heae t 
ralaed, »nd holy eleniBnta of Ube 



Fe«r| Fearl 
Llii the 



L ths 



now left of the 

_. ._ _ thaoratical reoog- 

by the olbar department* that tha 



nation o 



railed i 



That 






r la 



Oongraia, ICamban Of — (ISM, p. 105) 
BapreasntatWai of OongFsai ibonld take 
their leata within two mODtlu after their 
eleotlan inatead of thirteen. 

OonaerlpMoD— (1917, p. S5S) Farored 
lagiilation or traallei with oar allies to 

tha United Statea to either bear armi In 
dafenae at onr eaantry, join the fonna of 
their own conntry. or be deported. 

Oouaumtlon of KatnriiaMOBioo*— (1909. 
p 28S) The eonaarration of the nation'! 
natnral raaonrcei le a aabjeet of tha most 
Tltal importance to all inr poopls. Arara- 
donanes! on one hand and _ ' ' "'-- 






> the otfaar 
pnrt ft - 
sell wae 



nicted tl 



I which has 
tor its object their protection. (190g. p. 
10S,.1S11. p. IBB, 1912, pp. 140-268, 191B, 
p. 268. 1914, pp. S4-S46) BeatBrmad. 

OonMrratoiT of ICnile, National — (IQlfl, 
p, 819) Kndotaed moyoroent for a National 
Oimservalory of Mnaic to be !apportad and 
managed by the gowmment, making thle 
eoonlry independent of other nations In 
matid snd art and the center of thoaa ae- 
eonpllalimBnti. 

OoniplrMT !*»•— (1881. p- 4) Demanded 
ropeal of all conepiraay lawa appllBd to 
labor organiiatlons in tha reiralatlon of 
wage! and hoort of employment. (1888, p. 
89) Daclared object of conspiracy laws 

was to deny right of working people " 

gadlse and be represented by < " 
ajnnti of their own aelectioi. 
With employers in relation to 
wagas. (1991, p- 8»> 



iraittaas 



II, p. SB) All nnb 
1 of eonaplney 1*' 



a^lnat the polltlsal and economic right! of 

Oontraoti, Labor— (189S, p. SI) Urged 
thli amendment to IlllnoU canalitntion: The 
lagialatara shall hare power a 



205) Plan to hold conTentlon in Hilwaokae 
of d«legalee from central labor bodiei was 
declarad dangerooB to the ganeral labor 
moTemenI, si 11 might daTelop into a rlTal 
to the American Federation of Labor. 

OonTantlaD City— (1B07( p. 800) En- 
juatsd plan to hare EiMntifa Oonnoil aeleiit 
eonyaDtloB city from tha three receiTing the 
hlgbast Domber of Totet. the choice to be 
made before Joyy 1. 

OonveiitlOBi, SpMUl — (1904. pp. 2a-lT0) 
President reported: "Daring tha pait year 
i haie bean raqneited on tiro aeparale oc- 



Bck condition! 
notinc^ onciala,' 'to devlae ways and means' 
out of certain eilgencla), etc.. etc. Theae 
apacial con Tent ion! , or bo- call ad congrei!. 
were not called. My ealleagu«s of the Ei- 
ecullTB CouDcll were in pnt&e accord as to 
the atter tatilily and uawladom of any such 
conrie. The labor movement ef Anraric* la 

and thnngh an mtraoTdlnarv Bm^riarrT msv 
arUe where a iihcIdI 



con fen 
issary, the 



sable I 



DioTemenl woald degenerate nni 
regarded as a grotrsqoe farce, 
movemaal to lie perrcrted by t: 
ciai, and fantasiei of a 1 
gathering of men who i 
without anthorily, who watil 
responaibUlly, and who eonl 
leaa or indifferent a* to 
of their Q- ■ 
d 1 

,.. ._ __ _._jtry. Thon 

of unions are b«Id nightly In which the 

of labor giro expreBaion to tfarir ladgment 
npon aU qneition! affaclinE tham and their 
fellowa. There are not lata than TOO oon- 
Tentloni (city oantral labor nnlDn meatinga) 
held ererr week or two la ai many cities 
md towns in the United State!. The central 



tinioos 



f delai 



the different nniona In their reapectlve looal- 
ities. men coming from the factory, shop, 
mill, and mine dnly ered'^ntialed by their 
most intelligent organiied fellow craftsmen, 
who there, in Joint council. In central bodies. 
which hold Togalar ni»etinga or conrentloo!, 
enreaa and maalfeat in no nneertain or mli- 
laken tones the beat opinions upon labor's 
rights and last Indignatian again it a"' 
wrong! committed agalnat their fellow mi 
Our tntematlonal onion! In tnm are in t 

I in t 

arly » 

oogk 



HISTORY, SMCYCLOFEDIA, KEPBRENCE BOOK 



oTderW hdd, the b«»i oplniona and judgocDt 
and tbtit uprSHion In tha flltarod, digcaled. 
*nd trjritaUitcd Uuraght of mli. Wc oui doI 
•Iferd or Hrmit tbe oidwtj protrnt. 
XTDWth, knd dBTelapm«nt ot our D10^ni«nt to 
bn rUkfld, mnd purupa dutnTad, or at may 
r*t« rsCiirded, bf tbe ■poradic, hipbuurd 
onlglTlDn of tlioncbtleu knd urMponiible 
m«i. Thu p«E« at the tulj hittarr of the 
labor mOTamml are du-kvnad bj the dire re- 
■nlts of inch ploDlen, chaotic catherlnn. 
The A. F. of li., OTfuiiisd In 1861, la tlio 
drmt Inataneo of not only a conitantlv frow- 

bnt with aaoh racorting **" "1 Iti unKr* 
aiittnice it hM (trWen I 
■eire the gocd will, < 




. ant ■np«TiDtandenle and no f 

gontraata ba fiTeD; that all caiidldali 
Coureaa who do not pisdge IhemaelTet to 
abolilh the fonlract BTatem ba oppoatd at 
lh» polla. aa it haa a tendensT to drag hon- 
eal labor Is a cODvict'i cell. 

(1888, p. SB) Reqneated Ooniresi to 
abollah eontnci labor on pnblle work be- 
cabae m^nlj inferior workmen are employed 
at radoeed iracaii while tba federal eighi- 
honr law li ifnored. 



to inTeatlfate 



jinbllc 
(18ST, DP. T4-BS) Die 

wSen O. .. , 

them, tkna doing . _ 

hirh apeed. eapeclallr when 
broDght oDt by hand-picked 
llMman, 

(IBBB, pp, 4S-T' 



all 1 



Mela and aqnip' 



of ■ faderal bareao at pboto-ancraTlsg on 
lines almllar to the other branebei of the 
printing tradea. (p. 3ST> Eirlli of 



to the aiabt-hanr piVTiaion in the conatme- 
UoD of battleahipa. (p. 281) Drgvd af- 
forta be made to have ill naval vMaela for 
the U. B, be bnllt in goTersment naTy jarda. 

(1912, pp. 87-844) Article in June. 
ISIB. AmaHcan Faderationlal, proved eoD- 
cIoalTely tba eoat of eonatruotion vaa leia In 
goTemnHnt than private yard*. The ovldenea 
waa ao eoDVinoing Oongreai inatnicted tha 
aeeratar^ of tba Kavj to have more ahipa 
bnllt bv the nvnmmenl. 

(ISla, p. 379) RaaOlrmed polloy of ad- 
vocating the boildlng of all nava! veaaala |1 
Svernment navy yarda, (1914, p. 8TBI 
.Had on gavemnMnt to have the oonitne- 
lien and repair of veblelaa daiin by nnion 
man nndO' union eondltiona. 

(ISIG, pp. 04-398) Proportion of re- 

Eaira to nvemment veia^ la much greater 
1 federal than private yarda. Szaanllvw 
Council lacured thla clanae in the naval ap- 
propriation aet; "So part of tha aoma ap- 
propriated by thia act ihall be uaed to pro- 

aala, armaonnt, aiticlea or material) which 
■the navy yardi, goit taetoriaa or other In- 
dnatrial planta operated by tha Havy Dapart' 
ment are aqnlppad to aupply, anfaaa aneh 
nvemment plaata are operatad approi ' 
ly at (heir full eapael^ tOr not Iea_ 
ona regular ahift each working day." 

(1910, p. 08-158) Work In fover 
navy yarda Inereaaed. Honey approprlaie 
to eqnip govemnnnt navy yarda for tb 
conitructlan of battleahlpi. 

Oonvtct Oaedf Barrad, FCreiKn — (IBIS, ] 
27G) Eieentive Ooaneil anthoriied to n 
qoeat the Secretary of tha "naaaury t< 

country by conTlct labor aball not bn en- 
titled to entry at an* of the porta of tha 
TTnltud 8tat«a, and tbe Seeretary of the 
Traaanry ta anthorlaed and dlraated to pra- 
acriba anch regnlationi aa may be neaaaaary 
far the estoreeoient of thta prayiilon." 

OOBVlot I«bov— (ISSl, p. 8) Plank » In 
Bnt ptatfomt demanded repeal of all laws 
permnttng prlaon eontraot labor, which la 
' of alaveiy in Ita worat form, ( " 



been often demonitnted i 



nrkmanibip. 
Reanrmed. 



. which I 

... . -irtlolea and loerehandlae d 

'ed wholly or In part In a 



paniwrfw 



g labor. 






unfair Arm and give It (o an employer of 

(1609. p. 20) Enenttve Conncil axf- 
ceeded in havlDg renana renorta printed in 
the Government Priming OMce InatMd of hv 
private eontraat. (p. 2SS) Called on the 
Secretary of War to Inalal npon fair wait'K 
and eondltiona when piecing eontracta foi 
anppllet. (n. 258) Demanded that gavern. 
ment abollah practice of printing comer 
carda in envelopea free. 

(1911, p. 3(16) Urged rOTemment en- 
ttneer- ■■- --•■—■-- - 



>B of harbon. 
Including ord- 
t will conform 



. degradaa tba very 

criminal whom it employe. 

(1882, p. 0] Ohio home paaaed and aen- 
ate defeated priaou labor bill. 

(1883, p. 8) Kaw Jeraay Teqnlred prlaon 
made gooda atampad, PeDnaylvanla abol- 
Ithed contract ayitem and required prlaon 
made foods to ba plainly marked. Saw 
York anbmlttad abollahment of prlaon oon- 
Iract labor (o the pvopte and the leglalatlve 
committee (p. 14) waa Inatmelad to agitate 
for Ita adoption. 

(1888. p. 28) Endoraed bill In Oongreaa 
'of prlaon gooda to atatet In 
__., _.ii manufactured; also bill to 
aale of all foreign prlaon made 

(ISSfi. p. 28) I>ec1a>vd prlaon labor 
abould ba regulated or abollihad in the lu- 
terpit of free labor. 

(1890. — . - . ■ . 



; tley 



actired li 



Alat 



and pledged 
>ea1tng tbe lawa. 

I hav« forcibly refnied to permit 
to work In tba minea. Tbe policy 



Dij.zeawGoOgle 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 



bape ol redemption, I 
s few paltrr dollKri n 
it*M and that it and 



to proTlde work 

man Dur be Bung 
iriiad and dqinof- 
■ncaa berood the 



labor, (p. "il) Placed bnjrcod on 
made gottda until Uwt w- re enact 

pilaon prodacia to be branct^d nni 
of wage* to eonTicli ofter dadactin 
of their indivtdnal maiatenance. 
(1894, p. 4S) Uichigan aboli 



1 remoT- 
.mpelling 



farm a 






> the 



ing of I 



eqnind 



eonatltutional proviaion ol Cong 
conT^ta BhoDtd be prevented from 
Bed the following. 



auppi anted bj convielt. Ooiiort unit lea 
en Poneat llTelihiwd were being atolen 
tbem under the garb of a pDblic benefa 
and oconomj. fbe mlaers bed pleadei! 

(p/ae" Demanded release of free I 



13, p. BB) Broommnkexe eomplalned 
•let competition and a aid only way to 



tioaa. (2) Thai tbe conTicti eball be em- 
ployed in productive labor for no more than 
eiBbt hoare per day. (3) That all Indua- 
tnea undartaken In theia aeveral laalltollons 
ahall be carried an by hand labor, (pp. 

Tradea Council of New York egainat eatab 
"-■■'— - printing plani in any penal inali- 



ot that 



I. 24-64-t 
ted fay 



junlcipal 1 
■abl^ to 



; for 



ower againat eonvlcl labor competition , 
p. SS) Billa preaanted in Congreaa pro- 
■biting carrying of convict made goods 

(1869, pp. 18-SS) Petitioned all legls- 

ict made gooda in computitloB with free 
>hDr (p. 105) Where a atate federation 

enl of the A. Y. of L. 'or'^fmember oTth'e 
ifcntlve Board was initnicled to attend Id 
' t labor leflalatiOD. 



(p. 21S) Oondomnad tbe lua of imi 

(1908, p. ^0) Condemned mannt 



1 ordered by Oon- 



hibtliag their amployment on any worlr 
other than producing anppliea neceaaary t( 
the use of ttr:! dtiYMc Inititationa, ownc<t 



. legialata 
. ballot b< 



Ohio 



I InalitDtlons. (p. TB) 

r of Michigan to en(. 

violated by warden Ji 
SeT, p. 23) Repotte 
waa beat obtained, 1 

.T«l nnlv for Ita 
Inatitntlons 



ention 



9 line 



.rtnre of aneh a 



(1908. Vp. 2E-1T8) It may be neceatary to 
ipeat her^ briefly what haa tiftan,'beiBn atatad 
I regard to Labor's poaitlon opon the aob- 



; adopt it to 
All nnlona we 

.e propoaed la'.. — 

il they failed, to fight 



finding emplBymenl tor Ihoae confined in our 
penal in at! tat Ion a, hut we proteet againat the 
tabor of aoclely'a deiullcta and nnfortnnates 



! detriment of tbe 
of Il» people gen- 
orotest againat that 



in which the people haye either partially or 
wholly eolved that problem for IbemaelTBS. 
It atatet which now inconsiderately end in- 



on be confronted with the condition that 
9nld compel a better ayatvm to protect 
elr own people from that 9vll. 



„Gooi^lc 



BMCYCLOPBDIA, RBP&RSNCB BOOK 



(1007, pp. 4a-lTS-20BJ Condamiwd 1«M- 
ing o[ cDDTieU and demndad letiilmlion 
ftbolliblnc thi pnetiee. Oonirui hid 
(■ll«d to piH tbs blUs forbidding inngpoi- 
tation or convict made gooda (nun one Btatu 
Is BnotheT; and' luKtrucled ■Sllatrd nnlona 
■0 urss JDcorporatlon of tha conTicl Ubor 
qncstlDD la politlcil pirtr platfonu. 

(leos, pp. 20-810) The Hoiue commit- 
taa on labor tailed to coniider tha faderal 
cODiiet labor bill. RepraientaliTca of inch 
a ptaitic mold, who mAchsr dare to do nor 
dare to omnl; dan;, ahould be kept bome 
amoni tbeir nei(bban, aod labor ahould aae 
Id it that nan from Iti own raaka go to 
OoncraBB, men yha nnderttand wbil 1 



la and vhat 1 



and atupid. It 1« a dlaanca to o 
trained acfenllflo Iwe-"-"- — — - 

rapt It el; pretented to 



kBlTOa." 



aTiot' 






anght a 



that TThen he I* releaaed Ire c 

orable ampleyment at good vagcB. Not onp 
of thaaa alalementa can be incceufnlly 
ntlntaiiwd. Thar fall of Ihalr ovn velrhC 
when analned. In the Hrat place, the lari;- 
" r the ' ' " ' P"" 





defrar hia 






la. It doca 




. go to the oonviet 


himself. 


It goaa to 


"ha 


. tTiird pa: 
ereat wha 


rtr, Ibecc 




•ho haa no 








welfare of 






rll"' iBlerest ol tha 


atata. other 


tha 


in'"(o"add'' 




9]Ien profli 


ta from the 


nil 




of the crli 


Bii.al.'^ Cc 






'refon"ti 


on reeolta. 


. The pr 






1 deceived, 


i hardened 


i'":n5'?e. 




Th. 


FT beconii 


ni (0 halo 


lociitr for I 


ho crime 1 


locialy pji 


rmita to op 




ictleed np 




indar the 




law. Pnaeni 


era ahould' 


be emplo: 


raS"«°t "utV- 


fol 


imd prac 


tieal prodn 


etlTO toil. 


Tha labor 




the alate 









ahontd narer be eiplnlted for proBt and rer- 
lalnly naTer for tlio priyale profit of cor- 

onera In (he prodoction of the racaaaarla/of 



Labor mora faTorablr dlapowd to antlcon- 
Tiet competition billa. Of the enactment of 
viae leglBlBtiDn to protect society and under 
bnmana diaeipllne BdeqaalelT paniah the of. 
(end«rm tha conventtan aaid: "Priaonera 
abonld be required to work not for private 
proflle of contracton. nor etta tor tha flnan- 
cial pmllt ol (he state, but (or the benefll 
of their dependenti and for their own reFor. 
matlon. We are noaltarablj oppoaed to the 
labor of convictl being let oat to contract. 
Wi> balicre that the aUiinate solntion o( Ih4 
problem will come wb«n tha eonvleta are en- 



5 aged in tha wideal poaaibla divvraitj o 
uatrj b^ band labor f— "■ ' -' 

and i' ' " "' '.. . , — .... 

imprlaoaed a oppoaed ty for the welfare of 
BOcieir, and their labor which may ha atll- 
ried thereby ahould neiar be so handled as 
to beeooie a menace to toy portion of ao- 
clety. for the accompli a hment of thia pur. 

R. SSOl, requiring conTlct made goods 



conir 



riginal pac 



e aTorage congreaa- 



. ___, __ oiherwiaa." ■ Thia bill 

V Av.kd, |i. m^'otui On complain ta from 
Labor tha OoTemor of Iowa appointed a 
commltlQa to inToatlgata indaBtrlal condi- 
liona in tha penaMniTituIlona of that atata. 

latlon 

the main ._ , . 

ol the absolnte failure of the inaliti 
a reformatory." The cammUBlDn 



[> eoDtroI (and 



inflicted upon thbse InmaHes who could not 
or did sat aecompliah the tasks aet for them 
by the contnctora. Good, witling workers 
among the convlcta, who under ordinary dr. 
cnmataneea, under more humane and Jual 
alale requirements, would bare been paroled, 
were detained In prison longer than others; 
(heir parolei were denied becauBa they ware 
(oo Taluabla to the eontraetors to be re- 
leased, (p. 362) Endoraed bill before 
Tenneaaee legialal^re prorlding that nrla- 
oners sentenced to not more than tbrae 
yvara be employed oa the public roads. 
(1913, p. ST) Although a bill raqalHng 

of the states fnto wbic 

bad paaaed the federal , . 

in the Knate. All unions nrgad 



j"is:i 



paaa tha bill. (p. 

aentallTa'of the A.l-' 'ol L. ""NalbTfira 
aid in (he deTslopment ol a stronger aen- 

,blic roads, (p. Bll) Eiecoti»e Oouncil 
Birocted to urge tha anfonemenl at this 
iDse In the tariff laws: "That all gooda, 

red wholly or In part in any foreign coun- 



ent^ry'a 



11-494) 



. . insdtulionB: 
"The aala of Iha producla of convict labor, 
or the contracting or hiring of conTicIa to 

Eerform labor, by any oiHeer ol the itate. 
I hereby prohibited; but this shall not pre- 
vent tb« authorised office ra of the atate to 
employ eonnet labor to farnlah prodncta for 
the eleemoaynary Inatltntiona of the slalea. 
or (he political diTialoni thereof, or the con- 



nate but failed because unanimi 
aa refuaad for lU eoniideratio 
(1916. pp. 104-272) We ' 



b,Goot^Ic 



AUERICAN FSDERATION OP LABOR 



ine tha eontnet nitem Kbolithsd In tlis tol- 
loiriDK flftMii atatm: OalllDniU. Illinois, 
lows, Muuchuctti, MlaneioU. llODtani. 
New York, North Dikol*. Ohio, Peniu:r1 
T»ni«, Ut»li, VlTfial*, Wuhiniion, Wyo- 
lotiig uid in. HliBonrt ToitTiet«d to GO par 
ccint of the convlcta. Ws coiumand the 
■etliitr of our fcleiiili and auoclatca 
■■■iDit Ua eouLract «yitem in tha atatsa 
named and we trut thai orfanlied labor In 
other alBte* tIII be aa rlsoronalT active in 
their atforra to abatiab thia mtichiaroD) 
eompaliilie tohumB for the einploynnnt of 
COHTieti. The aarTej alaa ibowad that 
tha atata oae and the pcbllc wocki ifatema 
of eonvlet labor are beinE aitanded la aaT- 
eral itaKa and va hope thM theaa two mint 
dealTabla ayitema of emplorment of coa- 
Tiota may bcoome more faneral In all the 
itatai. State priion and penitentiary olB- 
elala are baeamlnr ovanealon* In behalf of 
tha pnbUe aeeonnt ayalera, In which there 
ii no Intarteation ol ontiide partlea ai jire- 
yalta ntider the eontraot ayttem, bot (he em- 
ploymsnt of the oonvlata in all reipaela la 

a couTicla labor aoid toi tba bamfit of tha 
atalo. If theae prodDCte wru-e confined and 









Hide of^ 



public 



count aralBin In whole or In pan are Cull 
fonila, Illlnoia, Indiana, Eanaaa. Loniiiana. 
Maine, lUuaehuaetO, UlchicaD, Minneeota. 
Miaalaalppl, HlHouri, NeTada, New Jersey. 
New Ueileo, Ohio, PanuaylTania. Teiao, 
Utah. Termont, Waabington end Wi«con«iii, 
We, tberafore. command and urfa immediate 
Bctien by the olScsra and delegates of atalf 
federationa and city central bodies to ciert 
IhauaelTfla a^iuAt the public account syt- 

{Loyment o 
ot that t 

brooght w'e' _ . .. 
and most eSectlie way, howeTer. would be 
to tako the profit lyatem out of a tonrict's 
labor, and stop prlion oflelale et well at 
□rlaon contractora front obtalnine the profits 

prlTata use and to apply *cch profit* to the 

iliaa, for the beneSI ot the coniict himself 

(191T, pp. 'lI4-za4-SgS) No federal 
idatlon to protect frve labor from coi 
compel it ion wai secured. Tbe bUla 
aeated aeek lo remaTc the obelaclee to 
eftactlTQ operation of the laws of the 



by t 



., .-J Inti 

(laia, 



iS) A bill Introdscvd 
I both houaea pioTidea: "That irbBn en 
omercency axlils or when war is Imminent. 
CTaatiajt • demand (ot lupplles which can 
not aaaily be produced or inpplled by pri- 
Talely owned or eotidueled fietorlei not em- 
ploying oonviet labor, that tha parol. aslug 
arenta of the goTommanl subject to the ap- 
proTal of the President, i-- '- 



Other l^ead af a 



supari 



manufaatuie, prodnetion aud dellTary ot 
anch nipplie*.'^ It i* pioTidad that the 
compensation to be p^id for tlHse anppiiaa 
■ball be fair asd )tul, and. In eo far aa poa- 
aible, ba the praTaillng price for Ilka eom- 
modiliea in the Ticlnlty of the Isatltutlou 
fuTaiahlDE them. The companaatloa and 
honra of Teboi For the Inmaftot of theae penal 
inilttntiona parformlnK thi* work ihatl be 
baaed upon the standard hours and wafea 
prerailins in tbe Ticluity, the pro rata ooat 
ot maintaining: tha prlaocer to be dedacted 
from hie eompenaatlon. It la apefllflaalty di- 
rected that tbe product of the lumalea of 
any penal Instiioticn sball not be contrtcled 
for or pnrohaKd tcom any private person 
or persona, ntiug tha labor ot incarcerated 
men. This prohibition inclndea all sooda, 
warei and marchaadlae manataotiired, pro- 
duwd or minad wholly or In part by con- 
vict labor, Bieaiit paroled oonvicU. Tbe 
bill confer! upon tbe federal KOTamment a 
special piivilen la the manutactDrinB of 
pTodncte, in that they can be Iranaportad 
ta Interatata oommane wilhoDt reallietlon. 
while tha prodneta of penal Inatitatioiu not 
nunnfaetond (or fovanunent nee, ahkU be 
anbleat to thq operation and affeet ot the 
lawa of the slats or territory in which they 
are mauufactuied. Thla provlaion In raallty 
la the emi ot tha bill; aa It li an enabling 
act eonfening npon tha atate and territories 
the power to prohibit the ahipmeat Into or 
iBle within their lorisdlctians of prodocls 
maanfactnted in panal Inatltutioni. 7he bill 
anthoriiei the Secrelarr of War to estabUeh. 
tiin 



It of the pr 






roads. 


The Bee 


t the Navy 












ly with le 




il InalltulioL 




nder 


hie li 


iriadlctlon. 




y, 




rei ol 


tba bill ia 


, Attorney 


"ral 


ot t 


he United 










Intain and 








mltentiarv. 


at Atlanta. 


G» 




Bclories (or the 


of. textile* 






*BCk> 


and other 



. _ luipmenl lor Ihi 

operate at the penllentUry at Leaveoworth, 
Kane., a factory for the msaufaeture of fnr- 
nilure and efflce 'equipment for tha U. 8.: 
and also to eaiabluTi at McNeil laland. 
Wash., a pulp and paptr mill lor the maii- 

for uee of the gOTemmcut." It i* .peeihc- 
allT provided that these lactoiiea are not to 
Ic operated so a* to aboliih any eidatlDg 



Hilling to undertake t 



ental 



Kovernmcnt nhall be baaed upon tbe etand- 
ard hours and wagi'S pievalling in tha tI- 
clnjty in wbioh tbe InetiUition Is located, 
while the actual coet of maintanance of the 
prisoner only* will ba deducted from hie com- 
pensation. The penalty urovieion of the 
hill ii to the effect Ihul "Whoerer shall or- 



ahall be fined i 



i,Coot^Ic 



HISTOKV. BliCYCLOPBDIA, BSFBRBNCE BOOK 



Biors than 11,000 or Imprtsmed tor not 
BLOTS (hui lix moDthi, or both, or tor lab- 
•oqQont offonAfl Bhill be Impriicmod for not 



_,_.,_ ling ii 

maaufketitra of ootlom (ibr 

Into th« prodaetlon of null lacki. etc. IDIb 
bill paued the Honia on Ifay 11. 101B. 
TCbllo tbMO bill* *T* dMipiklsd 



uldsntien of them 



■xe««dlDrlT difflcn 

_f them aj Oongtei 

I there U inch ■ tremei 



, convlel : „.. 

r hlMorie Bill of Grler- 
lecliladon. (pp. 117- 



S8I) OoDTiot labor ihonld m smpiursu 
onl7 bf tha atata aod far aute ass od];. and 
that departnro from this principle irould be 
diDcerotii to pnbUe welfare, aa well aa the 

SonTictSf wboae oonfln^nanl la priiurily 
IT nefonnatDrr ptirpoiec. We are of the 
opinion, kowerer. tbat such labor gbsnld 



onditlon 



nation.' 



pndtng 



80) 



deetadatiOD. This 
Is to inSueiiee the 



OnnlcM Mtrfa br Filwui Xethodi — 
(IMG, pp. 2S-1TB) There alwar* has been. 
and is now, proportlonstelf ta popnlallon, a 
Uriar noBibar of men oonTloted of erfme 
in Ihoaa atatei whleb pnran* the contract 
tystem of labor aa compared ta athvr italea, 
wbare tbe eonilet labor irstem Is fairer to 
the people and more bunana to conrlcts. 
And it la addltlonallT InterealinB to know 
tbat where a partienlar indoilr}' li carried 
on In k panel inilitntlDn. a very moch larpr 



and eonTieted of crim 


a of 


that part 


Icnlar 


IndMtry. In other wi 


ird>, 




alone makaa conTlcta 


of 1 


Ben* iVo*" 


wonld 


olberwiae and under other 






llnne to ho law-abidini 


I, bi 




is also to make conmOTi 


I mia 








and onini 






irnlib 


"coa*lct«" to perform 


the 


particular 


labor 


In the prisons. 








in the UlehlKsn leslala 


was 


%._».; 


Indlng 


Inra 




a,'": 



,, Doiationa. In 188T, (p. 

bill waa presented in Concretl to aid trade 
onion co-operatiTe ■oeietles. In IBSS (p. 
it) the conTantian ballered ■ "credit sys- 
tem waa danseroas. as It incnlcatea a oare- 
leaa method of boslDeas and the effect of 
boTlng witbant essh is fon 



ABIUted nnioni were nrgad I. 


.T„.i.n, 


eonalder the co -opera live prii 


>cip>f. 1 1 


1001 (p. 182) it was proposed 
r. of E. "pn>""ilgate a system 


that the A 


of cooper 


atlon, simple snd comprehensiTe. 


which wll 




1 and aafe 



nard tbe interest of tha nnloni end m 
ben both In snd onl of co-operati.a en 

eomprehenalTa snd tailed ot adoption. 
ISSJ (p. «D] disproved of the credit syi 
and prred nnlons Co itndy the Rochdale j 
tern or co-operation. In IBIS (p. SBB; 
committee waa appointed to conelder 



plan wat anbmltlad and adopted unaal- 
mouslr: 

1. That a qualified Irado nnioDiit co-oper- 
ator ba appointed by the Preaideot of tha 
A. P. of [•. to aerra ane year a* taetorer 
snd adTlser on tha praetlcal work ot Soeh- 
dale co-operation. 

2. That Ihia " " " 

room In the A _. __ 

Infton, which shall be tbe c 

the nibject. 

B. That ha ihall Tiail loeallties in which 
co-cperstlTe societies stu in proeeea of for- 
mation or bsTO already been foimed. and 
cIt* practical information to the oRleerB 
and members of inch ioeletles, making oot 

-"-Inlmon-'-'' — -"- ^ 

Thst 
tral labor naiona and local trade nuions as 
sneh shall not form eo-operetiTe soeiBtiet. 
bnt ehall appoint commrilves from their 
membership to act In co-oparation with olher 
citiiana who nt in ayntpathy with the trade 
nnion aoTeneot ia aasliting in the npbnlld- 



eontribnte II 



L. be reqneited 

In order lo eilaolisD anFcasifnlly Ihe Fed- 
eration hnrean for promoting and adiancinE 
the oaose of trne co-operation in tha Dnitad 
atales and Canada. 

Yonr committee believei the anbmisslon ot 
this practical program to he of more TUlne 
to tha trade Dnioalsia of thin country than 
an eitenbive turvey of Ihe eo opeiBllTe 
moTemenli at the world or any vxbauatlve 
dliaertltlon on the prlnclplaa of eo-upera- 
lion. which mlfrht ba made the subject mat- 
ter of a report, except to asT thst we hsw 
found that proleata, dennneiatlana. con- 
demnations and iniMlIgaiions are alike wlth- 
)ot power to influence employera to p"~ """ 



out power to influence employera to pay tbe 
rate of wages they ahould pay; proTlde aafe 
and healtlilul conditions of employment, or 
ealsbllsh the relatiassblp thst should obtain 
between tha employers snd ■the worhare or 
the ressonshle honrs that should constitnte 
a day's work. 

The only wsy we have been able to aa- 
sure these conditions has been Ihroogh the 
Mtabllshoient of the trade union moveaaat, 
a nowerful orianiiation of workers to en- 
force labor'! juat demands. 

This is last ss true of the merchsnts and 
business men aa it Is of other employan. 
Protests, denunciations, condsmnationi and 
loT4stl»allons wilj not enable "■ " 



"'•'/_ ', 









■rhieh we use 



-_ „ tut will adoompltoh 

this pnrpoaa eicapt oreanlialion, and tbe 
eo-operstive moven^enl Is the organiiatiou 
that is designed to protect the work era in 
their lalatlona with the mrehants and the 
buslaes ■ " 



union 1 
"-Sedl™ 



The 



I them b 



ment throughout AmerTea. comprising In Ita 
nerabershlp the workers thereof, thara 
wonld he less need tor ottelal goTemmental 
food control agencies. 

And without that kind of organUatlon 
established peimauenlly lo deal with this 
question there is no gaarantee to. tbe work- 



T.Gooi^lc 



190 



AMERICAN PBDBRATION OP LABOK 



Bra tlut Ibe eoit ot IWlng tor them and their 
tunlliei wUl b« permiiMDllT plBced on Iba 
bull tbit ihoald obtiin, ud It ii for thil 
retiOD that ve bellsTe Ibat the A. F. of L, 
■boDid U)lat in eatabllahlnt, bnilding np and 
alKngthfnlnK in every way poaaib>a a IbiI- 
limale arganliBtioii of bona Bde workerB In 



the 









ta loT the labor tbe; perform, thoT'aiar be 
•aaored in tmndine thoBe wagea Ihat they 
will ^t for them their fnU nine. 



9 bold that 



should fM ten dollars' wOTtb 
u* for hU wBiaa whan he 
la it ia that hvi sliould lel the 

.._ .hal be la entitled to for the 

labor that hs peifonna. 

We would also racommend that the 
IT. B. eoTemmenl be requeiled by the Ei- 
eentlTB CdbocII of the A. ¥. of L. to take np 
tbe quealion of Ibe eo-o;ieTBtive moiement In 

hi(h coat of llTlnc, nitb a ylew to ulilliing 
aa far aa noaiible. the exiating eo-opeiatlTB 

orfaniiationa for ininediBte purpoaei and 
eDConrsging lbs creation of addition si eo- 

needed and eondiliona are luilable. 

There haa been asieiubled in the afflces 
ot the A. P. of L. a eeuaiderabte body of lit- 
erature on the anhjeet. among which are the 
itandard woika, nporla from Tariona coai- 



t fait wdhln 



Df thla 



tend the bi 
*. Reject 



:aniiatloii. 

re ownenbip. 

D(a between the total amoii 
for Ibeir purchasea and tb 
of tbeas porchBge* to the 
ity: inelDdlnK amont the e 
and • reaaonable amonnt 



Intel 



e principle of proflts. 
t on loan capllBl. 
laible preferably to m( 



advisor on cooperation. The iiHeial eom- 
mltles reported tbe Oonnpiasloner Of Inler- 

oal Beteone bad decided that Bocbdale Oo- 
operallTu aoclelles wilt not he reqnlred to 
pay income tax on retnmed aailngi (so- 
caHed diTidende); that tbe only monen 
they will be required to pay taxes npon will 
be (be proSt they maira aelUni gooda to 
non-membera, which la a very amall iten. 
The eonicntiDn approred of an amendment 
to tbe federal Income lax law pcofidlng tor 
the addition ol cooperallTe locietiea organ- 
lied under tbe "no profile" ayatem to tbe 

Oooporatlon In KsUtod Indiimlei — (1918, 
p. ZT41 Initroctud EiecnllTe Council to "ex- 
tend ite good officca in the eitebllshmeat 

I Ihe end tl. 



t Jointly in si 



a offenalTs 



J shall 
ind dB- 
:ecutiTe 



tTor to comply with 
alleat limit of their 

Ooopsri Feai Detilmantal LoglitatloD — 

(1903, p. 201) Inatructed legiiiatlTe com- 
mittee l« keep Coopcrk' International 
Union iaformed ot detrimental legialatiie 
propoaali. 

OopTTlght — (1899, p. 18T) Inatruct'ad Ei- 
eciitiTe Council to use erery eDnrt to aernre 
thla amendmeirt to tbe copyright law: Vro- 
ilded. that In the case ot a book, photo- 
graph, engraTing, etching, cbromo, or litho- 
graph tbe aame aball be printed from type 
ist within the United Slalea or from plates 



Ooronado Oaal Oompur Ti. 

(1918, p. 931 A, S. Dowd, reeeivei 
roal corporations brought action a| 
United Mln« Workera of America, 



9. Ohaervance ot metboda recoramanded 
by the Intern BltoDBl Oo-aperatin Alliance. 

made the aabjeet of eo-oporation tbe study 
of many ysare, hiTo had parsonal eiperUnee 

aoeietlei and are ecqnainted with co-op«ra- 

Judgment the co-opieratiBe principle and the 
trade anion principle giyg rise to no hurtful 
inlerferance with each other, bnt are mutu- 
ally helptol, and each is In a degne beyond 

political and educational development of tbe 
wage-working maaaes. 

<191B, p. ISa) Executive Oooneil lu- 
IHirtBd the donationa of «1 each from aBll- 



that followed a nonnnion policy by meana 
of atrlkca and atlundanl violence. Tbe ease 
grew out ot a local strike of the Arkanaas 
mincre. The Bache-Danman Coal Company 
alleged tbal they were damaged by reaaon 
of the Blrik« and that (be offioera and mem- 
bers of tbe United Hine Workers of Amer- 
ica conspired to prevent (he operstioa ot 
Ibclr mince and Ibe shipment of Ibi^lr coal 

Buslslaed to ibis complaint by tbe federal 
judge at the diatricl court. An appeal was 
Diado to Ihe Circuit Court of Appeala bnt 
rthat court held tbal tbe complaint w«b 



Bit tbe appointment at i 



0bvGoO<^lc 



-. ENCYCLOPEDIA. RBPERENCe BOOK 



bsaii oot abomt (nrtj-aight boon thej were 
celled before the court and Initmcted b7 the 

''kov. gentlemen el the Jury, ihia ia a 
prettT ■eriona alteation and I weal lo bbt 
■o 7on that (he eoart has no thought at all 
of diacharelnt yoa. Too were «wom upon 

(he opinion of the court ther"ii"'n'a'reaBoa 
OD earth whj reaaouable men with due ru- 
card far Hcht, end each havinE due reapact 
and copsid ere lion for the uther'a opinion. 



<B what brin^ the c 

aay thia to you that yon may unneniai 
the ■erianineBB of your situation. The f»c 
in thia ewe haTe rot to be fonnd by 

porlDUlty of knowing what thene facts a 



expenae of alt tbia trial lor uanshl — make 
it neceesary to go ell over ttn gmnnd again 
witb DO better opportunity en tbe part of 
the Jury In the box when it baa all been 
done, to do tbe right thing than yon bava 



■^l '^tcl. And 



iiibillty and that that reiponai- 
Diiiif IS wiiu yon. that yoa now re lorn to 
ronr Jury rootni and bring in a verdiot." 

The Jury of tbe Federal Dialriel Court at 
Port Smith, Arkaoaaa, ren^red a verdict 
if tZ 00,000 damagea againil the United 
Ulne Workere of America, Under the 



the pro 
law 1thl< 



and return a wrdiet. Now the Federal OC^. Thia req 
Ooorta recogniae the right of thia court the organltada: 
under tbeie eircnnntaacei to aay what Ibii aion by tbe big! 
court balioTas In r^atlon to tbe JacM in (hia riaed by the cc 
eaae. and you are adiiaed that this court 
is of the opinion that the facta in thia 
caae JDallfy you in tbe concluaion, over- 
whelmlngly, that it wag the policy and there- 
lorv tbe agreement for year* of Ihia national 
arganiiatian to preyent mining o( nonunion 
coal for the unlawful pnrpoaea named in 
this eomnlalnt that it might oot come into 
competition with nnion mined coal ; that 
I qnestion in thia 



amonnt waa autDmaticalty trebled. The 
United Mine Workiiin' DfHcera appealed to 
the Federal Oireuit Uanrt of Appeala from 
, CoBTl. The court 



but that tbe atrike 
that tbe itriko wa 



ordered down tbai¥ 







=i.ed 


bj Iha J 




lint, »■ 


nd it 


will be ob 








power and 
















r't^he^pul 








ie ary wil 






.ched 


a yerdict 














Bst'y' 


•ill 






tbe 




obM I 








s; 


undS 


T'tbe'"prMl 









be judge 
bia poal- 
I finding 
aetically 



KiJd^tJ, 



■ tbe purpose of 
I ol these 



ablppinfc of that coat, t 

mines. Why. tbia conrl nai noi ■ tnonKui 
Itaal there would eyer baye been any trou- 
ble there It it had not been for th« preien- 
tlon of the oising of non-union coat. Now. 
that is the Judgment of tbia court and it 
it were my duty to decide it I would decide 
It here. Now you ara not bound by my 
opinion. I haia a right to Eive ;on my 
iudgment. boweTor, yon are the sole and 
eiernsiTe Judges of the facta and it ia fat 
you to determine these lasues of (act inde- 
pendent of my Judgment and thia court be- 
lieTes you ongbt to determine II and under 



t the higher court 
1 award naebed. It 
1 that tbe caae was 
liona of tbe Sherman 
a* modified b; the 
labor prorltiona of Ibe Clayton Anti-Truat 

Thu conTentlon declared (p. 280): 
There ia infolied In Ibli ease, not alone 
the right to atrike — the right of the work- 

cDlleetively with tlnlr labor Dower, and 
by reaaon of the control of labor, demand 
and command a Toice In determining the 
working conditiona which ahould prevail, but 
there ia alao involved in thie case a direct 

trU) hv lury— the fundamental guarantee to 
ind liberties of a free people. II 

ittltDda ~and expreasiona, that Judge Ellloti 



ttlttiAe and exT>re_„ ,.,„„. ..._, ^^^^^ ^,,.»„ 
, find tbe Miners' Union 
guilty, whether right or wrong. Never In 
the biatory of otir land has there been aueh 



If there la any qoeetion about the law or 
the reaponaibillty (or Ihia, retponalbillly of 
tba greater oreaniial^on. that la for thp 
blgber 



.til you 



r'jonV' 



and just 1 
which the 

" I'he'jur 
to them. 
of (reedon 



ntarantee o( our pwiple to a (air 
ial. Tbe Ibrealened attitude by 
coort in this cate required the 
1 the Mlnera- Union in Brror la 
la well on thu ricbl and (reedom 
re to determine isauea eubmltted 

A. *m.Hr.n rttlten. es lOTeT* 

a In duty 



and (ail 



what 1 have, I am going to aay tba) I have 
no tbongbl o( dlBcharainr you, you mm I 
return a verdict in tliii caae. Ton are 
amply qnalifled to do tbe right thing aa yoo 
see <l, and as it ahould be done and the 
thought of the court Ig that no other Jurr 
will ever be better prepared to render ■ 
verdict than you anJ to separate wilhont 
a verdict will be to have rendered alt thU 



. __ .J our (nllBBt .__ 

aebment a( our courts Iipon the right 
(air trial by Jury, onindnencad. much 
coerced in (t» Judgment. We believe 
attack upon this fundamental instllu- 
ii( our governn»nl to protect the righti 
libertiet of a (ree people by .Tudjte El- 
dlsqnaliflea him to be longer vested 

Eiecnllve Council Is authorliad lo 



ovGoo»:^Ic 



191 



FEDERATION OF LABOR 



flDDiidflT It tbs earliest poiiible lime ateps 
lookine to the itnpMiilunent (rom office of 
OEN VDO h»» <a flftnantly dinreffiirded hi a 
oeth of offlcs, to msfntsln InTiolats the eon- 
■IltntLoDal ilghti, DrlTilegea and guaranteai 
at our people. We dlTeet ■Itentlon to Ui« du- 
seroni eiteat tq wtaicb tha prinelples of 
■Cene; hkTe been Imoked in this cue, and 
span the attack made apon the Ttght of tht 



mrken 



rlke. If t 

.OTflmoEl wlir L „ 

. oltimatel)' deBtroyad 



■ualj * 



i the 



, ._ _ , , erl7 and reapon- 

alble trade nnian mOTBmenl, a moTement 
Tiolent in temper and IrreapaDalble in char- 
aeler. The beat Inlareata ol all citlient 
theretoTe damanda that the piinciplea deriaed 
and applied In thla caie muat be repudi- 



induatrlal prablen 



Ooimpt Pi 

194) *i fav.-. ,.- , 

adeqnaCe pnblioity of the aoorcfa of cam- 
palEn fanda and contribntiana. The pres- 
ent lava ate Tel? defectWe. While a ean- 
didate tor Oonjnaa Is compelled to file hla 

Ban he eipeuded to elect or defeat him b; 
ontaide partle* with no publicity required. 
Few waTkingmvn can afford to make a cam- 
paign acalnit candidate* b>cked by hTige 
eampalcn tnnds. Thla preT«nta Labor from 
brinr raprsaonted properlT in the national 
OangToaa. The E. C. la aathorlied to carry 
farward tbia eampaign and also to work for 
a complela and awnsant federal Oormpt 
Fraetlma Aet, the obleet af which will be 
la pnt an end to the frlgblfnl cormptiOD 

af tlio Totors. th( -"- — " "-- *-' 

Ic- ■ ■'-'- ' 



Oonita, to Curb Fower of— (1»1T, p. 104) 
The power now eierclnd by the federal 
'-, both in the matter of ittJnDCtlona 



I tabor and the AmMJcan poopla. 
tw enacted by the OOBgreaa to meet 
iaib centnry reqairementi Is safe nntll 
■ been approTed by a majority of tbs 
members of the Bapreme Conrt. The 






BoTeraignty. 



Bolotlon i) 1 



tloned. Since the risht 
thia haa been establithed 



by Snpreme Court 



■at Snik I 



>nlk of I 



declilona, and ainc . 

eases for the Bnpren<fl •jonn come up on 
appeal. It woald ee?m clear that we fasTe 
here a aimple melhad to avoid many of Ibe 
dangera to which we are row anbioct by tl.e 
Bieretse of these powera by the conrt. The 
entlan Indon 



a that p 



wd' IT* 



Cuban Jlbtrtr — (18S5, p. 81) Indoned 
alrnggle of Onbans for liberty. 

(IBBfl, p. SO) Declared: ''^That the A. V. 
of Ii. tenders its hearty aympatby to all 
men Blrujgling agaluBt oppreaiion, and eape- 
clally In the men of Cuba who for years usie 
sacrificed and lufTerFd lo secnie the rlgbt of 
aelf-Eoyernment. That the eismphi of the 
people of France, In giving reco^itlan and 
aid to the Fathers In their stmgrle lo ae- 
cure the Independence of the coloniaa. ia 
worthy of Imitation, and we hereby caU 
upon tin Preaident and Oongret to recopiiie 
the belligerent rights at the Onban roTOta- 
tionistt. ConTention approTed atatement 

nl it! iire><<l(>nt thai "liberly, troth and 



freedom weir 
the 



. box, which ia e*en yet goluf on In this 



r conrta of this power, 
tion. in short, provides that aince the Sa- 
pieme Ooarl can vierciae appellate jnrlsdic- 
tlon only 'with euch eitenslona and nnder 

make." It la cUarly <vithin the power of 
Congress to order t'lat the conrt tnall hsTo 
no juriadicllon in a aaan where the constl- 
tntionallty of i" -* " " '- 



Cuban 






lan proletariat conld he ori 
ISef, p. 641 Reaffirmed tor 



lalned t 



■niied.' ' 



a the 






duty towards Cuba a 

pie la clear. Amenea a auua luaga^ aiiu 
eaTo their Uvea to win for them their free- 
dom and iadependenee. and we mistake mncb 
th« honor and good faith of onr people If 
they will lend their conntenance to any 
morement that will rob the Cuban patriots 
of that liberty which they priie so highly 
themselTcs. Organiaed labor'a attitude ad- 
mita of no qiHatlDn and ia summed np in 
these words, "Keep faith." We (hare the 
apprehenalon of our Preiid^t regarding the 
propoaed diipoaltlon and coTemment of 
Puerto Rico and the FhUipplne Islanda. 
We see In them a departure from tha time- 
honored traditions of oar nation and a dis- 
regard of the waminn of the fathers of 
this oonntry, who, looking into the future, 
saw and realiied the dangeia to which a 
policy ot Imperialiam. aneh aa that which 
>ropoaed, would bring ii 

rfll _ 
huge standing 

at onra; we prateat against the manifold 
dangera attendant upon European and 
sDtanglMuents. i ~ 

peflt'iSn"! .. 

became, without 
' ens. We (he 



It there the Oaban workmen 
I their condition and would 
lentlon more to their mate- 
ale intereata than th— *•'<* 
would bring them i 



palltlca{ 



material 
moral and 

(IBIS. p. SB) Instructed EiecntWe Conn. 
c!l to glye all aasiatance to Cuban workmen 

(1914. pp. 52. 381-404) Owing to this 
indnstrisl altnation in Onba after the war 
in Europe began the ornniiation campaign 
was poatponed to be taken np aa aeon aa 

Day Labor Byitam — (1B9E, p. S8] Oa«- 
cmment ahoald prOTlda for day work in 
all goTemment shops and faotorlet. (1BB4, 
p. 31) Fetltianed Oongreaa to empower Bu- 
reau ot Labor to InToaligate qneatron of mu- 
nicipalitiea c-ondnrttng public work on tb-J 
day labor eyilem. 



obvGoo<^le 



'. BNCVCLOPBDU. SBPBRSNCB BOOK 



DajUsM Stvlng— (laiT, p. (ST) Szaon- 
re OonocU inititieted to inTutlgat* tho 
vctlubllitT dI InrninB tha nlock forward 
mora dlTllght honn during 



. ing 

tho OTsntiiK Id ths lammar montbi, >nd i) 
tonnil to DiHU) crikter eomfart and HTiDr 
mod halpfnl to the phjiical well being ol 



(191B, whethi 



Daytoti, Alston Q. — (I 



pp. 



( JndES 



Darton: "BenlTad. That ths ^nnmltl__ ... 
tho Judiciary be directed to Inquire and 
iwort whether the action of thla Homo !• 
iiK«iar7 caDFeminr the alleged affldai mia- 
oondnot of Alaton Q. DaTton; whether he 
has nnlawfailj cooiplred with oertaia eor- 
poratlang and indlvidaBlg to bring abont 
the remoTsI from office of the late John J. 
Jackson, Indga of ths District Oourt of ths 
Tlnitsd Stalea for ths Northenl Diatrlct of 
We«t Virginia J whether he ha« ahow 



arked taToridai 



litigation In his 

id snnunon«d on la 

conneeted with certain 



1 loriet In 






■ ihown marked 
of ollee ; whethar 
\rthnr Carton la 
me pTvparaELon oi ma aefenie and trial of 
nomeroBS eaae* against eertalu eorporationa 
for which ths tald Arthur I;anon ii attor- 
nsT. which eaasa wsrs Irisd bston him. the 
asld Alaton Q. TlaTtop. and whether he haa 
ualawfaliy nved hi* high ottee and intnenns 
in behalf of said corporations; whsther he 
hag sbnaed his powai and luflnencs aa JodjCr 
to fnrthfc the IntereatB of hlE ion Arthor 
rafton: whether he baa uvi'd the fondi of 
the United Ktalea for an improper porpose; ■ 
whether h.) has Tioiiited ths acta of Oongreia 
regalatlnic the selection ot jaron; whether 
he has acdrel^ eneaged in pollticg and nasd 
hia high office u fuXge to further the politi- 
cal ambitiona and sipiratloni ol hia fntnda; 
whether he haa lent bl< ai^rvlcea aa Judge 
■ ■■ ■ 'ators of Wsst Vinrlula ij 



haa na«d hi a office as Jndge to disconrags 
and pmrent said miners from eierciaing 
their lawful right to organiie and peacsablr 
aasemble under lb* law* of ■■- "-■ ■ "■ - 



Philippl. Weal Virginia, tor a aite (or a 
federal bnilding; whether be has puhllcl7 
denounced ths Prealdent of the Unitej States 
from the bench and before a Jnrj; whether 
he hag tmlawlall* used the fnndg of the 
United Staloa goTemment for hia own p>i- 
fat* Dae: whether he hag wionrfnllr eol' 
leeted from the govemmant fond* aa oi- 
penaea not dne or allowed to him under 
atatnte; whether lie has wrongtullr kept 
opeD (he hooka of hi a court at Philippl, 
weet Vl»inla; whether he haa. In open 

of awearing talselT In eases then on trial 
before him: whether he haa direeted the 
marahal of hi* dislriet to refnse to pa; ths 



f«s of wltaeaaea whom he haa aeonsed of 
leatlfTlng faltel^; whether be has refused 

to enforce certain lawa of the United States; 
whether ha has openlr denounced and erltl- 
oiaed the Dnited Btstes SnprwiB GoDrt; 
whether he haa dlacharged iuron for rsn- 
'--'-- —"— --■ agreeah' 



a has 



. eilat 1 
whether 



Jnitsd Mine ^ 
Jiur 



t hs wouli 



certain defeB< _._ 

to haTe an interpreter; whether he lias 
stated In open eoiul that the United Mine 

tore; whether he is ao prejudiced a> to unfit 
him lemparamentaUf to hold a Judicial of- 
ind whether he baa heea guUIr of 
- — --r acts of personal and Judicial 
for which he ahoold l» im- 



variona other 



peached." Other I 

times of a aimllar nature nave reaullsd In 
remoTlng onjuat judges— not ably th« Im- 
peschment of Judge Archbald scd the reblg- 
nsllon of Judge Hanford of enll-lree ap^ech 
fame while the congreational innatigalion 
waa in progieaa. The charn-i agalnil 
Judge Archhald ware concerned with cor- 
rupt ion III office. Judge Hanford wsa 
charged with denjing to eitimna aad e*j>e; 
daily to worhera righta which were gnarsn- 
leed to them hy th(.^Bi>« ot the land. There 
are othara who hare dealt unjnally with 
thia tights ot a free people. Theae. too, 
mual ream to nnderateiid and haie regard 
for the righta and welfare of humanity. 
Judgeii haTs great power. They mnnt eitr 
else that power Willi a corHsponding de- 
gree of discernment, discretion and appre- 
ciation of tne human side of the administra- 
tion ot Justice. Pailnrs to conform to llilt 
Ideal uuflta men for the offlew of Judge. 

(1S1B. p. llfl) Three repreaeotatiTsa to 
whom was referred the charge* against 
Judge Dayton made report" to the Judiciary 
Commlltee of the House. Two had reached 



■honid 1 



had ' 



L referentw 1 



datlon that no further proceeding* be had, 
as 11 Is my opinion the evldeDCe takaB by 
the anbeonuniHee, and finding of facts aboTo 
made, warrant further proceedinga looking 



Da7 Walk for Bak*n— (1800, p. 30> 
Pledged aid to (he baketa to change their 
employment from night to day work. 

DecapttT* Pnhlleattona — (IBOl, pp. ITD- 
umher of aouTenlr book* have ' 



puhllahed In whicb the name of the A. T. ot L. 

haa been naod • 

of any kind fro 



'nd from eltlier tne Ame 
F Labor or it* oScera, 



celTed i* our ondal monthly magailne, the 
American Pedwatloaiil ; and we hare alao 
endeaTored to inflnence a more atraigfatfar- 

In tho direction indiealed. In thie par- 
ticular wu hare not been aa mceeaafiir aa 
we ghoul d be ^eaaad to be enabled to 



„Goo<^le 



194 



AMBRICAK PBDBRATION OP LABOR 



tbil oani* at Krievoiu eomiiUliit, we make 
th« tollowin* dHflliritlani : 

First— -Tliat ve ahsll ioilit thM no bodT 
of OTsanlied labor, nor ill nil uiT [Hrsan 
iHBe a MuTenir book elalmlnK Ihit incb 
book or uiT other pabltflation li Isaued foi' 
or on bahiH of ths Americ 
Labor. 

Seeond — Thit mii cltT ohoion by 
vention ol Iho A '— *■— — "— - 



Iitbor UnioD or otbsrwtaa 
- ■ ■ ling t ■ 



J cltr ol 
iean Ted 



book eliimlDE tbst inch bopk is iHnad 1 



:ilT In w 
D tm beld 



in Tlo- 



ommenditlODs tb« Eieentln Conneil miy 
£banf« tba atj in vhlch tba cooTontlon It 
to b« bold to the ona vhiob recolred tbs naxt 
bl^lt nnmbflc of Totei for t)i>t honor. 

Fourth — Tlist tho BxeontlTB Counuil li 
hBrabr direnled to proimute ai.y person or 

tentias \a Lhe courta who ahall in uit wsy 

' pnbllcmllonB is which tha nmme of the Amerl- 
caa Fadeiation of Labor li <i>cd M publiibor, 

J^ifth — That It be inin smphailied that 
the Amaricea FedarBtlanlit is tha offlelal 
monthly mtgaiine oi the Amerioan Fader- 
tioD ol Labor, and It the only pnbUeaf 
In which adrartlieuiBnU, 



lie ute of all Thtrrec and landlogi tree 
from diterlminatlon, and that TiolatioDi thall 

zesi FaTored deep waterway from the'uket 
to the fa\l to give work to tirt unemployed. 
SnggoBtion wae made that conitmctini: deep 
watarwaye wa« not aimply to giTO employ- 

merea and the pablic good. 

Defmie Find — -(1901, pp. 68-210) Tha 
per capita (ax for dlrecLly afBliated looal 
unioai to the A. F. of L. wu 6 centa par 
capita. A leeonunendation of the leere- 
tery that It be madu 10 eentb, 5 centa to 
be net atlda aa t alrlke funj. w» adopied. 

(IBOa, pp. IT1-14B) Ho local ahall be en- 
titUd to klTika buioaii from tha detanir 
land Dohsaa it bai bean In cODtlnuons good 
atondlns tor one ;e«r; and no member 
ehall be entitled tn benefit! from said fund 
nnleti he baa been a member in good itand- 
ing In tbo AnurlCBn Fedaretlon of Labor 

(1603. pp.' 1T-I9i) All paymentt to local 
unioaa tiom the atrike fonrti were ordered 
paid to the bonded offibara iritead of to 
the praaldant nnd aecrctarj. Each uilon 
— - — luired to have the treaanrar give 



^ Ciaos. vv- 16-aOS) it ii a fact 1 

liahONnt of tha defeoae fund and ita 
ability ■ • .... 



irthy 



a onr man in tha defenaa 
if their rigbti ' ' ' 



;y jmb 



Deeiatan, DftMep o 

p. 308 J When attent..- — 

to tbo tact there an two diitinct prDpoal- 
tiona In a anhject, and a delegate raliei 
that qnestlon, it la tba duty of the chairman 
to direct a dlTiaion If tba tents of the 
matter will permit. 



has ^d a wbolseoma lafloence .. 

them, withont the neceeait]' of retort to a 
atrike. Employert bafa learned to beeltate 
to prOTok<a a atrike, conaoioiu ol tha fact 
that their workmen areorganiied and haTe 

oaintainod by the Federation^ 



Innd. Thia fac 



lelf ■ 

anient, loca 



Ohica 



< Federation of Lab 



) Oonncii decided 



and international. 

(1900, p. IB) The laws governing the di 
fenae fand ban been libeially interr'X" 
and administered and aid giyen our dl 



!tly 



ocniied at a con-rantien Dnlsia It bad com- 
plied with the coQitilntion of the A, F. of L. 
coTerln^ tha particular ease.. 

Decision on Anthorltr of A. F. Of Z-— 
(1899, p. 85) Kefnsed to penaliie national. 



been accepted In theii 



Lortl Hi 



DacWon, Bai 

(1904, p. 348) 

baa been eipelled for violating the laws of 
tba A. F. of L., the loyal membere mnat 
not be reor^nlied Into local a and then 
Into an international afllliated with the A. F. 
of L. 

DeoIslDiia, Date for Bnlordng — -{IBOS. p. 
31S) Deemed inadviaable to 6i a apBoifled 
time when all the deaiaiona of conTenliona 
on ]ari a diction dispute a he enforced. 

Deep Waterwayi — (1909, p. 218) We In- 
doras the deep waterway piDjeeta throngh- 

Oongreaa to appropriate money to earr/ on 
tbair conttruetlon. (1910, p. 254) Oongreaa 
ahoold caaas to appropriate money for the 
ImproTement of harbors, riTara or other 
iBtemal waterwaya unleaa the atatee bene- 
<ll«d aball have made piovltion for (he pnb- 



ware engaged. Theae have b<een of subetan- 
tial benefit in aiding tha membara of thaae 
loeala in maintaining tkemaeli^i daring con- 
teats, largely achieTicv the pnrpoie for 
which thaae trade dispvtea ware inaugurated. 
(1907, pp. 19-202^ We have bad meat 

mentt of the local unlont directly affliialad 
by charter to the American Federation ol 
Labor. These local nniona. coming directly 
onder the anperrialon of your Freaid«nt, are 
a conitanl aoorce of salicltude as to their 
■elfare. By p - 



ttantlaV IraproToment in their 
and working condltiona. It la 
that by the timely advioa giie 



themaetn 

iceptlon and nnder- 
afSUsleS local union* that (heir i 



lia ia cited at applyln(t mon> 
.0 the yaart preceding the one jiitt etoeing 
inhere la a Wt ■'- ~' — '-- 



oyGoQt^Ie 



HISTORY, BNCYCLOPHDIA, RBPBRSNCE BOOK 



-will n«IIhsr ba naglKtsil nor frittBrad awar. 
but wilt b« anlflfrnardad br Ihr bail adricn 
■nd dirartion which experianca em itTa; 
that at all tiran. whm Daomwiy. tha Ua- 
tenn TanA vill ba Raneruuil; a( Ibulr dii- 



:iB laws prodde. 

(1911), pp. 34-308) In ranrd 



, „ ._ the atrDf 

glaa uf JOT dlraetlT anilstad local Irada 
nniODs ud fedanl Cabor nuiODa, H la t« b« 
-lid thai they •—' *■ "- -- 



I beeu 

. have ■ 

protracted atrlkin, all of 
<-r-«h,(. Eten tL 

I lome improfi 



eeuhil. A number have b«en angaiied Id 

' ' ' " I. all of thorn bnt on* 

ETon the oi'a [oat atiike 



B aJTiee and moral ■ 



Bl»d locale haTs bean raided aright. 
thoy have nli»d manj adTautasea will 
the Deosaiitj of a alrlke. The fact t 

thete looala have '•- -*-" -■ ' ■ 

port ot OTU Tedi 
t»n. and It r* 

port o( the A. .. , „ .,. 

workers and their emplojrere . . 

potency to compel raipectfnl eoDiidoration 
of Idbor'i naeda and rfihta. 

(lOU, pp. 5T-(Te) No local nnioD vill bo 
entitled to any beneflta of the atiiks fnnd 
DDleaa It raqalraa Ita marabera to pay SO 
canta a month dnoa. rinancial omcera aball 
be bonded. Initiation fees sUbII be not leaa 
than >1 or tpore than tfi. Travelinr earda 
ahall ha aeceptad by all local and fadoial 
wtly aflllatad to tba A. F. of I.. 



tiOD all fnnda and property of any kind 
Torta to Iho A. T. of L. 

Deftnae Tnnd, Bbonld Qm — (1B04, p. 
2ST) Honey appropriated to pay eTpanse of 
forming an international union of directly 
aflllated ornniiationa of directly aniiated 
local! ahoald ba taken from the datsnae not 
the faiKrtI fund. 

DalaiMe BafUMd B—t — {1B9G, p. SO) Re- 
tnied to aeat delente from a onion which 
had refuaed to indom a boycott and had 
done all in Itg power to offaet It. 



Oongreca: all luiloiia nreed i 

their reainetiTe repraaentativea 
propoaed aid to peaoe. piDiperlt]- 



triotiam. 



_. The ri , 

I fataza tor ths people 



<efnl a 



I relief from the 
waicn the workan inf- 
effort waa made. With 



of primary eoDoam— ''Salas popnll an- 

Brema eat lei." The foondora of tha repab- 
n and their Immediate snocaaaora did not 
anticipate aa era of money power, wltli 
giant eotporattona in control ot the prodttclB 
ot tt» earth and of traaiportallon, and in 
DOiaeetlan, tbrongli patenta. of the otiliisd 
forcei of catnre. They did not contemplate 
that It wonld beeoma nsceaiary for Ameri- 
■'■ ^ ' '---- ■- protect 



rallied 



calth— 



imblnes 



army, would be aiaigned to eonatant dnty 
aa {nitmctore of the art of military oom- 
mand In state oollegea and DoiKinltlaa 
where the icioni ot receot patricians are 
educated, while the more fortonate yonni 
plalnlana were belnr prepared for non-com- 
miaiiOTii throogb a bioseil eonns of aloyd, 
manaal training and anbacrrlenay. They did 
not luggeat a "atroBgar" gOTamment than 
they had ealabllahed. They did not dream 
of tbe apballdinc ot elaaaea. They did not 
eoofltenance. In any proTlalDn ot the eOBStt- 
tnlloD. or lawa enacted thareunder, any act 
that wanid emMevlate the prineiplea eDon- 
elated In the Dselaratlon ol Imtopandeaee. 
They apnmed arlatoeraey, daiaea and mlll- 
taiT mle when Indepandenoe waa achtered. 



a 



they leglili 



of den 



. federal 



cabinc 



to dlTlde the Tarlona tradei In a city into 
departmaol coaccili, to be ebartored by the 
A. F. ot L. and tiDd«T the Iniladlctica of 
the central body ot tbe city In which It la 
located, waa re] acted. 

Dapaftment of Labor — Plank 10 at tha 
platform adopted in 1881 declared: "We 

of Labor Statlallci aa created In tha aeTaral 
slBtcs and we urge on oar friendB on OoO' 
greas to enact a law eatabllshlng atich a 
bnroail, and recommend for Iti management 
the appointment ol a proper penon aa Ita 
chbif who la Identified with the wage eanran 

(IBSS, p. e) Paderal Bnrean of Labor 

a the Preaident appointed i 



Dal^tmant of lAboi of V. B. — (ISBS, p. 
18) Kxoeatiwe Oooacll waa Inatrneled to 
formnlata a bill tor tha eatahliahmcnt of a 
Dapartment of Labor to be preaented in 



idlnatmi 
mace so aa to inciaoe a aapanmeni oi laoor. 
which will proTS eilfectiTe In paipetoatlng 
the parpoiee and luMntioDa of the foiudara 
of the American Hepnblio. 

(1B9T, pp. 22-88) A bill creating a De- 
partrasat of Labor with the secretary a 
member of the cabinet waa prewnted In 
Congreas bnt was met with an oppoaitlon 

a foundation ot 
present day the 



Tnduatriaa. 



of oar coantry are ao essenttal to Its well 
being and tlnee they form ao Isrpi and otci^ 

whelming a nnmber of the manhood and cltl- 
—nshlp ot the United Slates, it does aeem 



aa if the intei 

reqnlre a direct represen 
clla ot (he preetdeat. 



iriglnsl position 



!t) 'Kasfflm 



e oppose tha ereatlon ot 
OI Oommerce and Indnatrlea 
imphalleslly our determination 



) We re^et the Ttepar 



„ Google 



AMBRICAN PBDKtATION OP LABOR 



t to lot* Its Talne. 

(1909 pp. 28-BlS} Tliia damuid for k de- 

SMtmenl at Ubar, lailBpendimt of toy othar 
apitTtment undsr tin goTernmanl, vtth ■ 
■ecntarr kt Ita head, hM been tha niiBDlmoiu 

of our eonntrj tlma and ■■>!□. It wna at 
tlw huvant ui>l*t«aee of orsanliad Ubor 
thit th* DapiTtmant of Labor tx It was 
primarilT oonatitstiid waa crsalsd. vhllh wu 
kfterwarda beraft of ita ladiTidaal ' ^'- 



Srabansire a charactar that a department 
evoted sntirel; to the man; gneatlont and 
pTob>anig go InClmatel]' auoflated with it. 
Iha aaeretar; at the head of that depart- 
ment hsTlnE as Intel [igenee of and tjm- 
palhj for tbe dntjai ioTolTed, a lecretarr 
vfaa win be at tba CDuneil table of tha 
Preddent'i Cabinet to gite adTice and cona- 
■•1. and to apeak the light word at the 
Tight tine, la ona of tba Mwinl, Importanl 
necaailtlea oE ODi' (i«at rnduatrlal deTelop- 

(1.910, pp. 40-812] HaOf Memben ot 
Oonrreag aesm to be ta'orahly Inclined 
toward tbe propoted Departmenl of Labor, 
and it la within reaaonabh poadbillties thai 
(he admlnlalrallDa will favor It and 'nrge ita 
oarl; paaiage. Oontlaued daman da, wHb 
preganre from the rankg of oriaaUed labor 
and other broad-minded cillieni In behalf of 
(his meagnre, are anre to meet with faror- 

[1911, pp. 62-289) No organJied oppoai- 
tion had become apparent to the Depart- 
Dient of Labor bill, 

B5E) Reaffirmed demand 



E Labor 



and t 



throogh the intoreeaalon of mediation aa a 
meana of brlnfflnr them tDgelher to find 
gome mntiully taUataetorr baiia of asree- 

(ISlfl, pp. ISaiSS) Etbtt reqneat in the 
Inlereat of IntarnatloDal anlona made on tbe 
Becretarj of Labor hag bean (ranted and 
valuable aerrieo randered la adjnatlng dia- 

(191T, pp. 118-817) EfTorta were made to 
aecare an appropriation of 1750,000 for the 
Departmeat of Labor to permit the Secre- 
tary of Labor to gira gueji aagiatanee in the 
employment of wage earneri Ihronghaat tbe 
U. S. aa may be deemed neeetgarr dotinK 
tbe period ot the war. Thig failed and 
S2B0,O0D waa Monrod throngh an urgent 
deSdency bUl. 

DeportliLC Labor Oflelali — (1910, pp. 26i- 
522.840) Proteit lent goiernor of VloHd* 
Bgglngt the deportation of offieer OifrarmaL- 
Drt' Xnterngtional Union and demand made 
for big proteetion. 

DatMStlTe Agmielei — (188E, p. IS) Oau- 
icresa waa arged to enact !awg decUrinc 
Illegal the armed organliatlon kooim ag the 
I^mkerton PrDtoetiTe Patrol or any body of 
□len formed to act aa apiea and thnga for 

irporate aoaopolioa, 

LFv prlTllere of mo' 
._B ot^er in plying t __ 

Bion to degrading eonditlong of eerrltuda. 

(IBBfl, p. 19) Condemned Plnkerton Fro- 
tpctlTo Patrol, tha Ooal and Iron Police or 

(1888, p. 27> Pledged aid to elly 'and 
slate federatiang to gecnie legiilation pre- 
Tenting unfair employura hiring irregpon- 
aible pergong aneed for the purposo of otbt- 
dHvlng the workmen on strike; alao tor 

Ereventing nndna pollee interference in la- 
or diapntes. (1389, p. ST: 1890. p. 14) 



by the Preildent and a labor represeotatiTe 

for paylni aalai+M. maintaining qurtera or 
ptrforming ilg specISc datiea. A epeslal 
urgency appropriation bill for (42,800 was 
piaied and approied May 1, 1918. which 
did not proTlde ■atScltnt fnndi. The D*' 
partment ot Labor 1> the onl> dapaitmeat 
of the Ooi^mmenl which deals eiclugively 
with problemg of human progresi and the 
relaliong of man to man, Including that 
~ have It this 



of employer and employe. To 
handicapped In its jnltli! wor 

t regress of the grsal hnmanitariaa iiurpoiw 
)r which It was brought Into eiistence. 
We can not too strongly condemn Ihe nig- 

Sardly. picayoi.lsh policy of Ooagrces In 
ealing with the onN department enlrultrd 
with promoting the welfare of the wage- 
workers. 

(1015, pp. 85-171) We call attention to 
the aplendid work of the U. 8, Department 
of Labor la lis efforts to enlighten the peo- 
ple as to the awlul stanghter which ia con. 
tlnaally taking plaoa amoag the workers In 
the Inaugtrles of our nation, (p. 178) We 
. . ,,_,.., „, ((,, valuable 
ediatlon 



by corporntioi 

employed to pry Into the affairs of coany 
organiiations, i'lfonnstiou being giyen to 

the movemant for the formation ot unlona. 
their dltcharge following tieqnenlly, eoding 
in the terrorising of the membera of the or. 
ganliatlon; and personal spleen has largely 
entered into gnch informatloa given to era. 
ploy«rg.^ We hare known, too, (bat the sup- 

?iDifs have'^been (he means by which the de- 

coct'atorll^r'hBTin "no fonndtti'on'in tact'!°tl> 
alarm employer* as to the radical or reToln- 
tionary actiong gnppoaed lo have been taken 
by the organisation, tt requires no gnat 
stretch of tbe imaeinBtlon to understand 
that in the abseaoe ol fsctt npon which snch 
reports to employers are baaed, the imagina- 
tion of the d<atectlTea and tbe agencies la 
freely ejieroised. for. without alarming r^ 



made public by Ur. Jamea 

dent of the Ki"- 

tiring Co., Columbn 
J. K. Turner 



I both IIk emplo; 



Dij.zeawGoOgle 



BISTORV, BNCyCI/>P5DIA, RSFBRBNCB BOOK 



nlih ■ eamplat* raport of tli* "lesnt IM- 
■ioni" of thi Coavaation ol ths Amsrloan 
redBTatlon of Labor now b^ni bald. It I* 
to ths ersillt of Hr. KlIbonrnB that bo hsi 
■l>ea tlia mrreBpondenca to tho pnbUs 
pTMs, and In hii Isltsr tha (allotrlug Un- 
cnsga irhich bs amplora )• worthjr of joia 
noticw. He uid; '"Ftic propoallion it oon- 
talni laamt to ba i" '~' """' ' "''" 



■nlntt tb 



noil defsnielHi 



t to dai... 
(IBOS, p. 228) Renewed oppoaitl' 
amplorment of armed than for (he pi 
Of defeating or^nlied Ut" '" ^■- 



"^Al 



T) BjmcatlTe Oonnell ro- 
1 to lake proper action t« profalbtt 
inned that* being lent Into a 
.jmmonltj to Intimidala tbe em- 
ployee irlio are peaeefnllj eontandlng for 
tbalr rUhta. 

(1912. p. 253) Ooal operatoTa preTenled 
erganlution by Uiing large forcei of 
narda. eonunonlr called "Baldwin Detao- 

.._— ,. _..— ._v J ),„b« "■ 






197 

and robbed throuili ImpoaltlDna upon tbeir 
endQllty bT achaming ageneiee labeled "in- 
formation Inxreana, ' ' * ^aeeret aerrice com- 
paniea," "deteetlTe agandea," "audltora 
and ioapaotlon eompantei," and other oon- 
oama repr«aent!ng thamielTea ai employ- 
ment acenclei. At the thlrtT-fonrtb aumal 
caQTentTon tbe Intamational SaamaD's Qnion 
IntradDCad Reaolntion No. 7; and the Car- 
riage, Wagon and Antomobllo 'WorkBTi' In- 
ternational Union Introdneed Reeolntion No. 
dS. Tbe -potpoae of both tboie reioJntloni 
wai to aaeure tha enactment of atate and na- 
tional laglilatloa, limiting tbe aotiritlea of 
detective agenclea to the tracing of crime 
and erlmlnala and preTentlns tbem troni 
fanlahlng itrlke- break en and armed gnarda 
to employsra doring labor dUpntee. The 
Oommittea on RsBoIattoDi In ita report of- 
fered the following ai a enbBtlttite (or Bea- 

_■_.,_._ >.,_ - ._. .. -v.... dopted; 

of tba 



4 Federation _.. 

eraby, Inatmcted to appoint 
-'-— e dnty It ihall be to pnpi 
- — - " -'— Oonnell a 



mlt to the Bie 



inpare and anb- 



odi tarrariied the dlSeremt eommncltlei. to prevent trade onion oruniiallon, deitroy 

EieeatJTB Ooancll inatmcted to invettlnte it where it aiiite. i( poaelbla, aad larre aa 

whether peonan eiiated in Weat Virginia, mareanarlaa dnrlng indaitrlal dlapntaa, and 

Tlrglnta. Tenneieee, Alabama. Colorado aad that npon rewtipt of thia report the Eiecn- 



other 



t (ederi 



_.. n of arnwd 

thnge under the gnlaa of gnardi or dalso- 
llraa. 

(IfilB, p. 810) Execntlre Oonncil In- 
atmcted to loTeetigate by what lawi armed 
man ar« permitted to operate in UUbdutI, 
and to prepare a bill to protect tbe vorkera 
from the ravagea of Irreepoasibla charae- 
tan, which will cover advertii amenta (or 
men dnrlng itrikea and tha regulation of 
priiate detaetlva Bgecelea. 

(ISll, p. 851) iDatrncted Sieentive 
Oonnell to nuke an Inveetlgatlon of the 
»f private detective agenolea wboae 
re to prevent trade nnlon organ- 
lalroy it where It eilita and larve 
..Ti.. A^ri^g iadntrlal diepotee. 
Ra«olntlon_ ' — '-- "- 

Telegraph Com, — , .„ , 

tained a apy lyatem to defeat ornnllation 
among Ita emplorea wna ordered aent to 
Preaidenl Woodrow Wllaon. (p. 280 > Ea- 
acntWa OonnoU waa initmoted to eoneult 
with federal aDtborlllea wilb a view to in- 
troducing a bill In Oongreae to rid the 
conntry of thi* apy menaee, which la work- 
ing under the gnlwa ol private detective 



mesaore or meaanrea to be Introduced In 
Oongreea and in atate legialatarea, which 
will prevent the grantiog of federal or atate 
licenaei to any private detective agency 
whoae emplcyere can be secured In any ef' 
(oTt to dlarupt or prevent trade union 
growth, or aerve In any capacity aa atrlke- 
breakfng aeenciea." Through the Ameri- 
can FedersUoaiBt, publicity has been givao 
to the machlnatlona o( eeveral detective aa- 
aoclatlona, Iccladlng the close ralatlona of 
the National Mannfacttuera' Aaiociation and 
other employers' organiiatlona with inch 
detective eoncamg. In the Amrrlcan Tedara' 
tionlat for Jannar 
tion "Labor Secret. . 

close alliance hwtweei- — 

■Information BntlMn" of Cleveland. Ohio, 
with the lata preaidenl of the Katlonal Ai- 

Cleave, waa ahown. Thia aame' au'bjec't waa 
continned in tt» Marob, 190B, leane o( the 



and denial of rlghte detervi. 
-— "• The worklni 



cVfther 



77) Fallen 
luBliei 

patien— __. 

pi* o( the United BIl — ... 

orgaTiiud — arer WDuAufully paMent: 
have been blaokllated. Hiled. robbed, 
killed, naienipiilona employ era have 

deriae. The luat for more proSt and pow^ 
ha* ruined mentally, physically, and 



e, rap'tlea 

lation Bu 
.___! being I 
Turner Dutaetii 



of President Van Cleave'a 
vlth the MsnnfaetuTera' 
,n were given. (This « 
- generally known al 
Agency.) During nan 



and othsra 



nately fi 



.lly 






imployen of lab 



of labor 



amplDyera have during 

Sled part of their own lagiiimaio innciions 
other concerns. They have snnenderad 
tba actual management of Ibefr BfTalra to 
ODtalde partial. They bave been deceived 



_._ „i be(ore the House 

Cnmmitteee ou l)ie Jodiflary, the President 
of the A. T. of L. baa several times offered 
aa evidence material which ahowed the char- 
acter of the private detective agenelea (oa* 
t^red and supported by the Nstional Aiao- 
cistlon of Kannfsetureni. the Nat ton a) 
Fonndera' AsBoctstion, tha National Metal 
Trades Aasoctstlon, the National Ereelon' 

of employe're. The president of the Inter. 
uatlongl Uoldari' Union, the editor of the 
Iron Molden' JourDel, and the Freaident 
of the A. F. of L. an Angoat 18, 1912, be- 
fore the Senate Committee on Judiciary, of- 
fered incriminallng evidenOJ, complied (ram 
court recorda, ahowiag the Uwleca method! 
of employera connected with tha Founders' 



0bvGoO<^lc 



AMBKICAN PBDBRATION OP LABOR 



AaiOcifttlDD. On Juiiiu; S ind 10. 19IS, 
Bt ■Dother haulDi tisfore the SeaaM Omn- 
mlttee on Jadlolsir, th* Prealdant of the A. 
T. at L. introdacM olBcikl eridBiicc fnin 
tha United Stitu Departunjit o< Jnatlca, 
thowinE tha cloie alllaaca between Iho 
Borna DetsctlTe Agenej and the umplo^ers. 
KDd inporpor«ted in hit ttatemeut copiai o( 
the original ietten from the Bngotl Detoe- 
tiT« AiencT to railroad oScUig, and the 
periDPMi ec»n-Mpondance which paaaad be- 
tween J. K. Torner. of the Uanatactaren' 
InrormatloQ Bnreaa, Oloveland. Ohio, and 
Hr. Jamea V/. Tan Olaan, late preiident of 
tha. National Aiacratatioa of Hannfaetureri. 
Similar material alio had bean placed in 
the hand! of Senatora and Bapreaentatliea 
for t»e irbaa maklnE epeechei an labor 
meaanre* in which thla material wonid be 
appropriate. On Jannarr 22, 1916. before 
the Hnited BUtei Oammfiaios on InduatHal 
Belationa in Nev York Oity. Preiident Oooi- 

Er* aabmittad detailed tealimony concern- 
I actlTities of the employment and detee- 

eallfld to theB. J. Ooach Becret Serrice 
Compaaj of dereland, Ohio, and many psi- 
aagea were read into the record from an ad- 
Tanea eo^ of tha booklet iaiued bj that 

SM»t-Br,al ' " 

Hahon, 200 « 

Bergoir Brother!, 1451 Broadway, New York 
City; tlia Aaetaer Detective Agency. No. 
1S45 Broadway. New York City; tfae Law- 
rence Beorel Serrice Anney, No. 12B3 
ylhlrd Street. New York City; the 



., ...e Bama Detectire Agency. 

iur> and Obleaco; Plnkertan Detective 
Agvncy. New York and Chlcajto; l>je Stan- 
dard Secret Service Anncy, No. BST Can- 
ton Avanne, Detroit, ifich.; Ihe B. and V 
■Secret Serxice Company, Manager W. J, 
UeUichael, 403 Chamber of Oonumrea 
BsItdinK, Detroit, Ulch.: the National De- 
tect Ito Agenei, No. 54 LapDyelte Bnllding, 
relroft, Mic^.: the Toronto DetMllye 
Anncy, No. €2 UcOraw Bnllding. D«(rall, 
Wch.: the Murphy- McDonnell Secret San. 
lee Oonpany, 820 Free l>reea Bnllding, De- 
troit, Uleh.; 'Weatem Oonitmctlon Company, 
Monadnoek Block, Chicago, HI.; BeigroTe 
OhHitiaaion Company, Ohlcaio, DI,; the In- 
ternational Becret Berylce Oomnany, Firat 
».i:„„.i ...... fvlldlTiK, Chica— " ■ -'- 



toren. At the Norfolk. Ta., Oonventloo oE 
19 07, tbe Pregident of tha A. 7. of L. made 
ft apwial loporl eODoerainf the effort! made 
by the agent a of former Preiident Jamea 
Van Oleare, of (he National AiaociatloD of 
corrupt or deatroy him 



Thiele Dateetl' 


e HerTlc 


e Compi 


in 7, dhloaao. 


III.: Mooney A 


Boiand, 


D. A,. 






re Affei 


cy, Cley 


elandf'Ohio! 


th°a k" J. Omc'i 




r, of Cle 


yeland. Ohio, 


ClTil. 1. aometi 


mea prlr 




■Coate," and 


■ometlmea a> ' 


'Koch") 


'l^The' S 


eerat Berrlce 


Company. Col- 




Building 


, OICTeland. 


Ohio: Ornaolldi 


"led'Mai 




,"?.S-8ffi 




b, Uana 


per" Ole; 



n Datectl-n Agency, . „_, 

Baldwin -Feltl. Indluiapolli, Ind.: Nat 
7onaden> Ataoclatlon, National 1 
Trade* Aitoelatisn, National Erecton' . 
eiktion, National Aaaoclatlon of Uan 



oally. 



o by 



.mitieei 



tatlTH, in igi3. 
Hen hare been »nl by tbeae agenclea to 
watoh BTer; mOTHnent of the Preiident of 
the A. P. of L. at conyenliona. and while at- 
tending to other tpecial datiea of the Ted- 
eration. In the aame way in which they 
hare haraseed the actiyitiei of offlcera and 
other repreeentatWea of afflllated organiaa- 
tlona, Snbtle effort! haia been mads by 
men who have repreeenVed that thy were 
diicharged emplO);et of certain detaetlTa 

ageneise and certain man-'--' ' '" 

tiona, hoping that by »ij „ . .. 

liong of inch organliatlong to be abl« h 
core employment with the A, F. of L. or 
aome of ita aSUIated orguilaatlona. 

Utthedt Smfhytd by Agtndti — Ornniied 
strikebreaking aggregationa are qoita re- 
■aurenfnl. hut mogt ol thura follow (Imllar 
ppeallng 1 altera and erattlly 
'— — -"'-iiied to emploT- 
:a Ig touched In 
an Quart to convince mem that they are be- 
ing cheated and robbed by all thali e 
nloyea. Including oven ti—- -"■■ t™" 
foramen, tuperlntendenta 
Bgera. Theae dctectire agenclei prey npon 



lode. Appe 
The fear i 



machina- 



l truated 






own' ' latent antpicioni, trade 
and peraonal onyj. They en- 
■ pwranade omployera that their 
letactive ajonclee'' can dlicOTer 
iptlneaa— -waste of material — IneM- 
agement — Irregular pergonal con- 
hablta of tmgted employeg. They 
the infalUbllitir of tne eagle-eyed 



rfal poBBibililiva will follow the 
heir employea with the labor or- 
They undertake to ferret ont 
pirita in the ghopt a * ' ' ' 
u indeiwndent - - ' 



and of mind, or 
__!nl. might talk 

j fnetantly gpotlad 



digcl 



a hBTB be<eB crednloni and thonghtleg 
■ .rulog aome of the b" - 



^..^ .BcelTing reports 

im tha ipiea and tpotten placed In their 
labllihmanli by the detective agenclea. Of 
- r few of thete Inilancw of dls- 
'e any opportnnity tor the ont- 
employe to obtain a hearing. It Is 

(or him to appeal. Tha ipotter's 

word la taken for granted r'"-—' " — 



ch^ge la t] 



cnlar 






labor in 



Tllet 



: Ibe 

_. l«B. 

g with' which tbe 
idowed, he would 
im he had in his 
ly change from 

wo a dlapoaltlon 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



HISTORY. BNCYCIX>PBDU, KSSBRBtlCS BOOK 



itly tlwy will boldlj ._ 

u>d Include "none bul tuiioa man need ap- 
ply." Wh»n flpplicanlii aniwar thay ars 
gtvao Ilia addreu ot lu o&c« when they 
ira met, aihered Into a private olltee before 
■ ■upenntandant or ■ cenerel menetar. cha 
queetlom tliim In itrloai Vkyt, aunoit *1- 
iraya to imprMi upon tngh ■pullnuiti the 
Idak ol taking adTantego of tht "ezcep- 
tloaal opportnnitT" to adTince Iheli posi- 
tion 1b ule. or, a great honDi It )■ tor tlnm 
to ba lalef--" — "^ ' — -" --■■- — " ~ 

XDiibla 
ren will »lTe the appliei 
•anal attention. ETarj aatterlng appeal la 

■aaklng the edi'sniad Job. Theie 
a have by tUe maana aecorad thu 
I of many Umoeant men and, not in- 



iDtlatlng a 
In whieb t 
low-vorken 



secnced oontrol over theee poor 
ly made tbeir lIvM mlaarabli by 
pen dally report* from the ibop 

ej ate ten wor ^ anionr 



.. _ liiowins the alert- 

neaa of the now Tlctlm as«nt In hia ability 
to see ermra of manasement. ot eondnel. of 
vorker*, and olber anppoaed "iirerolarl- 
tlea" in the pUoa where he Is employed. 
The memben of nnloni they ancoeed In en- 
EBKlnK are urged to become boliteroos and 
radical In aipivaalon; they urge them to 
hold ofHce In the loeal nnloni, ao ai to be 
able to fel aeceai to the complete xeeordeT 
and the flnanelal leeonnta of the unione, as 
well aa to Ifae flnanoiaa themaelTea. Tbey In- 
BtiU Into them a fanlt-BndinK apirit ao that 
they can haraia and annoy the boneat. aam- 
att worker in the nnlon who la tryi 
make progreaa ttesdlly and ration all j. 

atrikea, Dnr^E encli strikea they play the 
part of asenti prOTOcatetin, that Is, to adTo- 
eate loudly that the neB on atrika nae force 
and roiort to ontawlal luindnct; and eecivtly 
offer to l«>d in any aneh eCorta. The mere 
fact that sBoh ■ conrae hfa bean "talked" 
at itrlkara' meetlnEa, thonsh It t» by the 
dfltectiTC aKSnt aloire, If enongh for b!a ae- 
oret report to the agency and the employaia. 
By anch rasani they open ap another op- 
portunity to haTB ''more detectliea" am- 
pleyqd ai alagxera and cnnmen In caae a 
elrike euanea. II ll, therefore, patent to 
any srdinarr obierTar, that theae mlachlef- 
maklng, atailka-hreakisg aeecclei take the 
neanaot adTantagea of employeia and work- 
•n. Tbey arouae feare and Incite nnnaeet- 
airy tronblei — all for tha pnnKmi nf ohtafn- 
ing iBonay from the employe 
well M to ervata confnai 
bardablp* tor, the workera. 






mODg, and 



dt^-la man* eitUi 
have arfaen (heaw detect I' 
parently madi 



tlafactor 



anaDnments with Biayori. iheriff*, ehie» 
of poTiM, — ' -*•- -" " ■■— •■ — 



and membera that they 



freely carried tbeir weapon* ot aaaanlt 
without let or blndraaee by olty and aoma- 
timAa hv HtkLA Afllnlala ■ wharea** atrlklng 
lympathetle 
id into court 

.. they carried 

*alf-protMtion. This* 
— BTwrybody aeema 



ouployea or u>o< 



latters are well knoi._. _ 
> know that theae conditio] 
' een Imposaibla ' ' 



eipoanra tbroMb the public preai, nohei*, 

a momeni of eilreme provocation defend 
hlmtclf, and then ttra neirspaperi teem with 
appeala for "law and ori»ar.'' which In their 
Todnacnlar mean nothing but brutal anppre*- 
*trlke no matter how lawfully It 



inducted. 
1 han b 



Well 



fen.,"o( 



irithoot 
and ■[uggers may go to citi 
■traogen and are permitted tt 
aimed to the leetb, and wha 
the el tie* in* tat upon tuch men oaing aie- 
armed or arreited the officera oftien refiue 
eTBD to learch such diareputahle characten. 
Rrmtiitt — The time bai arrireil iriien tU* 

gndnied. We muit lecure remediei to 



abate, abolish or regnlale — 

nnlaanc* by effective itate and national ler- 
■ng any propjul- 

that nine itatat 



IT effe . . 

Before ppaieDllng any proi 
•hoald be called to t^e 

the hiring ol 



iiee, WaihingtOD, 





iiT 


«;,-T« 


litory of 


Alaska. 


Tbaae lan^ . 






elmilar in 


charae- 


ter. The tnt itate to' . 


■naet such 


a law 


wa* 111! noli. 




e aeotion 


routing t< 


) armed 


guardi being 


61: 








"Any per 






«* who a 


sas 


thi* or ano 


ther 


(tale, hire, aid. 




ing. 


through 


agynriei 


t otho.^ 


wise, paraoni 




.i^v1.?i. 


th arm. 01 


' deadly 



weapons of any kind other peraont or prop- 
erty In thia atate, or any person or persona 
who aball come (mo this state armed with 
deadly weapon* of any kind for any aueh 

tiurpoie. without a irjrmlt in writing from 
he iDvamoT of thIa state, aball be guilty of 
a felony, and on eonvletion thereof ahall he 
Impriioned In the penitentiary not leaa than 
one year nor raoiv than five yeara: Pro- 
vided. That nothing contained in this act 
staall be conitruad to interfere with the right 
of any peraon, persona or company, eor- 

in gaardlnr or ppotectiug their private prop- 
erty or prTvate Inlereati a> !i now provided 



„ . -t l,Ui 

to apply in eaaei where workmen are 
brought Into thl* *tate or indaeed to go 
from one place to another In thl* atate, by 
any f*l*e pretenvai, (alaa advertising or d»- 
eeptlva rap reaental ions, or brought Into tbl* 

to another In this stste under armi.'" A 
bill to prevent the traneportailon by later- 
state carrier! of certain pertong and articles 
for the alleged proventlon ot so-ealtad tabor 
troubles wss presented In the House. A 
bin making It unlawful tor Indlvldaals, cor- 
porations, or asiooiationi to employ armed 
man or bodice ot amed nran on their prem- 

Senate. During consideration of tie Alaaka 
Oosl Land bill In the United StatM Braat*. 



■„Goo»^Ic 



AMERICAN FBDBRATION OP LABOR 



bodlea ot nMn camraoalr kaown m 'mini 
fOJUfde,' under poniiltT o( (5, Or" -^ ' — 



ftrmi In tbdr lumu, in thg ■atlllmi 
rntM bslwaan smnlDTBn and (hi 
men. Tha probabilitin on that i 



Sinciai and final. Some oF them 
sir oparationa to detactira bnii- 
DMa, other* fmniah patrolmen to protact 

Srivat* pnpaMT during the night while a 
>w ot tham add to that hind at work the 
boalnan ot aapplying armed men on ecfs- 
■iona of itHliet on rallreada, in minei and 
in manuUetnrlng eatabliihrnenta." Datac- 
tiTe Bobart A. Ptnkartsn teatiSed that hli 



"vonld be illegal U eonmon iav to aend 
armed bodies of men through ahv particular 

ot the tendeac; of auch armed bodlei to ter- 
rorlie the eommonltT," Forther, duriog hia 
teatlmon; he cootended that it vai, however, 
mtlrely lejtil uid proper to tend ariDB and 

stead, arm the men at their deitination, pnt 
them in conlivl of the propertr which the; 
are to (ard. aabjeot to the erdera of the 
■mn in command. B; thte method openlr 

admitted by Pinkertoo ' " " ' "" 

agencies bare taken tt 
Oommittea making thii 
that "it beoomei a nice qneetion whethu. 
they (the detectire areDclei) can legallr ao- 
emnpllah hy indlrectfon what th«T ean not 
direotlr do; whether the Iran iportat Ion of 
ftlmi in one car and the men in another la 
teas vioIatlTe at the ipirlt of the law than 
the tnneportation of the man with tba 
arms at their elde." The eommlttea reached 
canelneiona en nine point* npon the geneial 
*Dl)]ect of their ini^itlgation. The cTaolo- 

' "Whether aeenmedly legal or not, the em- 
ployment of armed bodfei of meu lor prliate 
tnrpoaea, either by employers or employe ■, 
I to be deprecated and ahonld not %» re- 

[* an aasamptlon of the ttate'e aothority by 
prlTate eltlzeng. If the state la Incapable 
ot pTolecting Its cltiEens In their rights of 
person and property then anarchy ie tire re- 
mit and the original law ot force should 
neither bo approved, encouraged, nor toler' 
ated until afl known legal processes ham 
tailed. As to the matter ot legislation. The 
atatee hate andonbted authority to legislate 
■gainst the employment of ara»d bodies of 
men tor prlTate purposes, aa aany of them 
•re doing. As to the power ot Congreai to 
legislate, that la not so clear, thongh It 
wonid aeem that Conjtivaa ought not to be 
powerles* to preient the moramant of bodies 
of private eituen* from one state to another 



ot taking part, with 



event aotlon by Oon>res*, 



on August 8, isea, to Investigalia and report 
npon "'what legUlatlon, It any. U necessary 
to prevent turtlisr unlawtul use OT employ- 
ment at aaeh anoed bodies of men or other 
similar armed bodies for prlvetH purposes." 
That committee reported to the Benete on 
"-' "- """■" Among other things, it 



itigatloa 






irt. Nina 



lorted, bsT 



bSU 



the evli 

9d .with the dnai service of deteetli 
clUB. We have uo desire or intent ' 
fere with the legitimate ocoopation i 
itlve agencies, namely, that of seam: 
tor orlminala and detecting ttinn, bti 
Inter and more dlarepotabTe method i 
detective agencies (oi 



king stri 
te InduBl 



'ibas 



Inlerti 



employ 
could ue 
>^glslatioa 



ot tbls 



purpo*! 

ot employer 'and 
The Illinois law 

:ter after s 



,.,, ,.. -1 it to 

suit the present Industrial eondltions. and 
by the addition of suitable amandroants gov- 

datectlva sgancles and all prlTata employ- 
ment offices, with centralised state anthorilT 
to Ne that aucb laws are properly enfaroed. 
Laat, but not least. It la the duty of organ- 
la ed labor to commence * determined and 



paign i 



Dnicipalltles 



nd in 



._ _. ,— , „_„' tried 

and tm trade unloniata to posltlans of aa- 
Ihority, requiring proper lenforoement of 
law and order. We should go further and 
see to It that sherilt* of counties, chiefs of 
police of eltisi and all other omciala ot 
oountiias and mTmlclp alii lea should be eare- 
titlly selected for the prime and righteous 
purpose ot having the lawa rigidly and im- 
partially enfoteed. The wageearoen have 
hoen wronged by the misdeeds ot ■trtko' 
breaking agencies. Tt they nndertaks to 
grspple aenensly with this problem and ita 
attendant evils, msny good cltisans In other 
walks of life will undoubtedly eo-oparate 
with na In behalf of a proper, wholeaome 
regime of law and order, equuly and im- 
partially sdjniniatered and enforced. At- 
tention la eaUed to odb of the necessary 
functions of democratic forms of government 
that la frequently either iKoored or misap- 
plied. Americans with their free and eaay 
golBg way of doing thinga Ihroueh political 
oflciaholderB, have treqnentlv tall en into 
grave errors ol sometimes dividing respon- 
sibility and sometimes permitting politlesi 

them by any legal tenet. Tba A. F. of L. 
hereby declarea a tundamental principle 
should be urged sad established which la ea- 

emment, guponslbillty and power ahoulil 
always go together. Besponslbillty without 
power can never be jq^tly enforced. Power 
without Tesponsibillly can nuver be prop- 
erly controlled. Every public offlcer and 
erery public agent ehould nave clear, definite 
anthorily to do the acts required ot him; a 
clear and dsdnlte limitation shoald alao be 
put upon the extent of his authority, final- 
ly, the people themselves must bold respon- 
slble the highest electi^d ofBcecs tor the work 
of their offlcee and insist that they parform 
their loll duty to the people, ' — •-- 
but their duty. State alllanee 



i,Goo<^Ie 



aiSTOKT, BKCVCLOPBDIA. KBPBRENCB BOOK 



other povar ( 



Dfldsli with itrlka-bTsakbic fnn-tonni de- 
tKllie aimioiH nmit bum, U tbHe Uiiltad 
StfttM WM to be tna In iplrit u wall u Id 
lettsr. If Ihi aboTe line of nmHnins 1b 
coRBct — and »e ballsve It li — It la ImpeTa- 
tlTB that *• anlt the BotlBn to tba word. We 
ballCTB that polio* power ud rHpontiblllly 
for tha BulDCaDanse of p«»CB within the 
boTdoTB of B Btato iluiold ba properlr uid 
nHHlfloBllT (Tftnted to ths lOTaTnor of the 
■tate. He ihonld b* Teatod with aulhoritT 

JTeierra Ufa and propartT. No 
Indnatrial or polltieal) in the 
_ __Tand itf hordan ahonld be per- 
mlltad lo Inlerleiw with his full retponil- 
billtT. He ihonld be elMhed with tnll an- 
thorltj, anawarable onl? to tha iMiilBtnre— 
to the people. The goTarnor mnal ba made 
tn tact Bi wall at ietion the chief peaea 
oSear of tha atata. Wa propoia Iharsfore 
that the following eaallT nndantood law 
he nrgad for anaetment In all atalei h; oar 
membara, fii«ida and lynipBthlien: 

"Ko panon or parBona, eompaay or eor- 
poimtion ahall condnst tamporarilr or other- 
wlae an; emplormant or detaettTe aseaei 
in thla Blata wUhoat proenrlng a licanie 
from Ifaa ■Diarnor who (hall he raated with 
fnll antborlt; to frant aneh lieanaaa daring 
hli term of olBo* nnder aneh mlsa, regnla- 
tioua, foaa and penaltiaa aa may bo pra- 
aerlbed hj (be letl>Uta» to aalenard the 
rlghta and welfare of the people; ProTlded, 
That no llaeoaa ahall ha granted to any per- 
EOa or periona^ ageno7i company or cor- 
poratioa to eaudaot tha hnalnesi of an en- 
plorment offlea or detactlTa agener within 
thla atate nulaaa honda are famiihed in the 
penal BUn of not leea than (lO.tiaO, to he 
approTed hy the gOTamor and ■peelSeall7 
Btipolallng that atlilh bond* ihall be (or^ 
felted to the Btate If inch perion, penonB, 
agency, company or corporation fnrniihee 
acppliea or atlfmpts to fnmiali or anpply 

whaliDoier. It ia farther proiioBD. vnai 
the goTernor la hereby Tmifi with foil 
aMhority and thu duty to ]ndga In tlniai ot 
dlalnrbance, whether armed foreea are re- 






f thla 






r»by r. 



rould wipe 01 



n farored lawa that i 

the nefariona aTatam. 

DlaBond WoTkoTB — (IHVl, i 
aid to diamond worken In th( 
Tent violation of the lawi wb 
ate to their injurr. 

Stok MIUtUT law— (1B14, p. *7Si Oon- 
Tentlou poatpoted action on a reaolatlon 
condemning tha ttick military law and all 
olbera ba*lni- a tandoney lo forthw the 
aplHt of raintarlBm wIlhiD onr land. Ei- 
ecntlTa Oonncil wai Inatmetod to loTeatl- 
gate and in 191G (p. se) thia report wbb 
preaented and endoraed; 

"InTaitlgatlon rrT^ala thai a Tariaty of 
opinloBi eilit in tha pnblla nlvd lelatire 
to the Dish Military Law. Some of theae 
opinlona are gmnnded npon feara and ana- 
pteiena. Soma of oni people ara Impreised 
with the idea that the law in qnoatton waa 
enacted for the main pnrpoae of foatering 



mlUtariim is the United Blataa, wUh all Ita 
hanaM oonaequmcaa. OttMra have atko 
the apaatra of a mlUlary force created by t^a 
n. e., aided and abetted by the aaTeral 
itatea, wholly and aoiely aa a weapon to be 



Sroflt-mahing aehema for manafBBtnren, 
aalera and epecnlatoi* In ordnance and 
ammnnitiou anppliea. It may be poaaible 
that all or more of aneh aDdaairable oonM- 
quevcH Inrk aoDHwhera wfthlu tha puTriew 
ot thla ttatate. The law haa been tn eilat- 
enee ainee Jannary SI, ISOS; it waa amend- 
ed In IfiOS, and again in 1910. Dnrlag that 
time, oOTeiing a period of tweliq yesia. it 

_ .__ «nb]. 

..-.Jigly applied. .., , 

fnl inqnirr, that the eaaotment of tho Diek 
Ullltary Law waa deemed naeaaeary aa a 
retalt ot the experleneei growing onl at tha 
Spaniah War. Vhen the people of the tJ. 
B by praetUally aoanimona rote, demanded 
Intervantion in behalf of liberty and jnatlee 
for the Dppraaaed Oobana, II wag apeedily 

diaeoTered thpt iha miTitB,— i_f^.._ _. 

tha D. a. -wei 

fenmlTH or offensl'. 
laed nitle 



wa poaaeaaed little oi no military akitt. prac- 
tically DO ammanilioo, InadeqnKta equlp- 
n.ent, and the hoipital and commisBBry aerr- 
ic« ot tha IT. S. Army waa inqflcient and 
Ineapahla of performing their tunc Hon a 
Borne meunre of ratonn waa manifeatiy im- 
peratlTe. Onr American tradltione are 
wholeaomely poaitin again at the main- 



thiak it c 

atated that . _ ... 
the American wsonte f; 
of a large alan'flng ani 
that thfg nmall parcel 



■fely 



tage of 



actl]' what the title ol tba act daacribea. 
maly, 'to promote tha eflleiency of the 
1 ihort, the practi- 



intentlon being t 

have alien le adequately and properly 

•QolpPed and Itg pereonnpl ikall be of the 



I pro- Pot tho 



.. all. 
eed of 

loldlgry. democ __ __ _ 
lied and coolrolled, ao aa to prarent ulther 
tha email etsnding army or the larger inn- 
plomente and Its nnlta to be need for or by 
any apeclal priTllefnd claaa. either at home 
OT abroad. The Amerioan labor movement 
ia thoronghly laatiSed In feeling proad of 
Ita etTorta in the paat. la Ita pncIamatioDa 
trolled military foreea. Wa think we'wonrd' 
he ihort-eijrhted did we agree with that part 
of the reaolntlon which recommended the 
repeal ot the Dick Military Law. The aee- 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



AMERICAN FEDSRATIONXOP LABOR 



ond 'whBt»M' ot th( pra»iiiblB ooiitaliu th* 
kamel ot th. whole r«olo(.ion, »nd may ba 
B well marlliid anil jMtiflable warDint. It 
reada: ■Whareiu, (he eiiiMnea of the Dick 
MiUUry Law 1* * ' * » ,'".?''^°,ii'J 



■tat* and aatlon agiiiiat the istareati of the 
vorlNri, There U not oearlr ao iraTs a 
du^ In the IMck UillUtr Law as than li 



tbrouKh (be piiTata deteetlrs aramsiss and 
Ibe prliata anoy ot numieD. We feel, 
therafore. that the Dlok fallllarj Law Tip to 
th« pTMOnt hat not been a manlsr — "-- 



to the pi«senl we 

plaint nor haTo we 
which the militarT ant 
hai mUoaad tb* Disk 



of the govamnient 



worklns poople of onr land. Irtog tafora 
the Dlok Kflilary Law waa enaetad D. S. 
tnmm were na^ ""^^g *!™''''°_''',IT?"" 
danta OleTeland and Heir 



r local snd stale infiaenm to )•( 
■tralan of the law in inch com- 
harouEhlT onderAand that ther 
rook at an; time onwairantabla 
B of tin cltliBD aoldierr In tholi 
iroenre belter a-' 



ithliei 



1 with the o; 
.; and atain i 
1 troublea in tl 



•tri~ke:^pdD in ISt 
atrikera who eympi 



- . irinf 

Ooeor D'Alowa . ^ , 

mine* of Idaho. On all of thoaa o«™'™ 
the oharget were openly made that ma i^- 
8. troops took aidea In favor of "nploTera 
■a acaiDSl the workera. Laat y«ai (in 1B14) 

n. a. *-' 



IMploBLKj Neadad— 



roBUbIa 

1914, p. 488} Baat 
n la not aarrad hf 
nd axtraTaganl lau- 



dlKoiBed, ratl<»ial eipreaalon. 
IMmwib*~<»ii. p. ail) 

glTa eantral bodies tha right ud power 



_« again sent into ra^ni 

w EndMtrial confllola wera under wai. 

Wo refer partieularly to tha altnatloo In 
Colorado. Ve belloTa that on thli oooajon 

the preaenee of the U, B. ■ "- ~ 

eutialed from the Colorado _ 
itmmenEal In atopplns strife 
and eaUbllahing paaee. ^^ 



,„„.»»~e , Wa dt _ 

^BtemODt with any decree of 
.n; wo regret (hat "' ' "" ■- 



, a In the ..._ 

law and order in the ■ 
> Boemingly I 



' the militarr, 
« of Colorado 



beyond the 

Talq anaed forces la tha pay of wealtl^ 
nrlvite corporationi were naed to inbdne the 
Worken and to control indnatry. The sor- 
parstions had practically coerced and In- 
^mldaled the oBoiala ol the state and had 
OTor-rtdden thfl lawi of the atrto. *■ » 
consequence the President waa called to in- 

"Wb", the workers, bare nerer sncceedad 
In obtaining any radreaa frem atate-an- 
trenched wealthy emplMera by asanming a 

■ ■ ■ attilnde. ^' — — "- "" 



I that 



> the 



t dnr! 



g the li 



1 the I 



plined, well H''"''*^ oi 

eeta acemed. " — '"- 

know w bethel 

are willing t< 

for their righl 

the work en ' 

flght la won 



Employ 



1 dght. I 



r.iio" 



lated so a* to a 



le the rights ai 






afBlUted null 
Irary to a majoriti 

IHitnet of Ool , _ — 

(laSl. p. 88) Right of lelt-gOTerament 
taken away from District of Oolumbla 
eiffhtdan years before, and without their 






lod controlled by c 



I in which tbv 

American Pedenilloii of Labor foin^ °"^ 
□neat of orguimd labor of the Diklriet of 
Oolnmbia for a "goTernment of tha people, 
for the people and by the people. 
(ia»T, p. 8TJ EisoutlTa Counoll Instreot- 
ed (0 lnT9stintia why frsncbise was taken 
sway from the cltliena of the District of 
Colnmhia after eierelslng it for a centnry. 
(lasa, p. SS] Conncil reported political 
jugglery had robbed tha ctiaeDi of aalf-gor- 
Bmmenl; (his permitted employers to pay 
low wages and refuse to deal with union 
labor. One-third of the public schools of 
the JuTenila and prlmsry claas hold only 
half-dsT sesalons while tha higher grades 
are offend erery facility for atudying 
n — t n .„j trigonometry. Bieen- 



orkers whoae 



effort 



s doDDcil n 



I plae 



e its e 






ey learn that 
one-balf the 
rnggle 



all otbera in 
I bill snbmit- 
oi me citisana of the 
of the right to vote. 
--- 180S, ■ "- 
"J, 1.. ._. 
1916, 



I54;'lfti7, 1 
iflrmed. 
DlatTlot of OoIunbU. UalmEm Wi 



. 251; 191S, p. 389: 
IB, p. 113; 1916, p. 
7; 1918, p. J16) Be- 



^„.„, . dllions snd higher 

lards of life. Oar organlistlon through- 
the length and breadth of our land 
, realise their respODBlbility for taking 
>re SFtiie interest In public affairs. By 
■ ■ rights we — * 



-(1918 



p. 211) 



Em Wage for 

establishment 



B DIsti 



^ioor worker*. 

IMamsk for Labor A«ltkttoii — (1909, 
2TT) Refused to donate fGOO a< a prlre fi 
tha writing of a "drama or stage prodnctk 
that will fltttn^y sat forth the Tslue BC 
importance of the trade union farm of 
ganliatlou." Subleet retarced to Exeootl' 
Oounell. 

Constant parading by moViiig 'pleCi 



j,Goo<^lc 



mSTORY, BNCYCLOPBDIA, KBPERBNCB BOOK 



faro tha pMtpl* tkB nntnw slurca dnuksn- 
■>•*> ii eommon Mnanc workincnieD ii eou- 
aned, u It !■ onfdr to ths TUt inay of 



, indnitrioiu men wh( 

ru]k# ot lalriiT uiiiozi* of thfl 
Ddm, Hlsb TTnlim— < 1881 
■ecamsiead to aU onioiu t] 
]>cr<ulng their dues to ao i 
mabl* tbem to accamulate a 
4> eopB iQooeufolly with oo 
lal. Alio Id adopt bsuaflcl 



United Btatoi. 



(nnd enflSeleiit 



<18ai, p. IT) Tboie nnlons tbal biTn 
ft Cood flnanglal ayitwn htr» increaaed their 
membarahip. Bejusijona in vaiee haw 
baen preTaaled as3 tba inflaenca, power 
and irotrth at the uniona k«pt eTer onward 
and forward. Tbl* priceiple wae deolared: 
"Trade nnloni ahonTd have beneTolanl and 
proteetiTa laatnrea," 

(1S9S, pp. 12-«2) Dorlnc the indutrlal 
dapraaaion the onioni harlnf a aratam of 
high daea and beaellelal (eatorea DMlatalaed 



their ranka nnbrokea. 



Barond all doobt tba 
ntlnBad membenbij. 
a thla baala waa Ihn 
lemberi are entitled 
ma; th« reanlta are 
■hip it iDSiD- 



ing dnll p 






aalni Intai 



(IBM, pp. 


11-38) 






Praiid 




endota 


i: "Time 


and a 


Bail 




F£l 


and thrasKb other 






b»yT 




to the (ac 


thai 


'tb 


fISi!' 




'w'lh 


a^ecaai, ai 


d par 


len 



t of benedcial ai 



within their powc 



gi.ing the 



I oH«3» from nhfr 



,r;.' 



rit«m of blih dm 
rallr eatabUahed 



rwth in memberablp and 
the ova which bat the 



tlon of tba g 



trade onionlata. The growth ... 
t adapting the ayHteni angnutad 
a flrat be lomewhat Blower, bnt II 
celetated In time and be eontino- 



if) 



r in* 



International 
iDB connected then 

I to auatain membara id a 
kea and loekoala and to aal 



fnnaral, dlaabllltr and oat-of-work banefltg. 
(ISBfl, p. 6S) We recommend to all A, 
F. of L. local and federal onioua to ebaun 
their lawa ao the daea of membara ahall be 
not 1e» than fiO oenta per mouth, and •■ 
'- higher aa may t 



raToksd. 

(1S9T pp. IB-ST) Unloni that have ee- 
tabliilied Ugh dnea hara eiperleneed the 

proTBd wages, deoreaaed honra and obtained 
other concuailona In tho intereita of their 

(ISSB,' pp. 3-147} We urge on all onion* 
the neeeaalljr ot creating a fond in time ol 
Induitrial peace to a Tart the diaaatrona re- 
anlti to their lutBreatg In pariodt of indu- 
Irlai depreaalDo.. There ia no power outaida 
ot ornnjiatioii ao potent to preTBnt redue- 
Clona Id wagea and to obtain improTad con- 
ditlona aa a well organlied nnion with a 
good fnnd at ita dlapoaal. 

(ISDO. Plii. 23-112) Dnrlnc the ppaaent 
Induatrial nra. it ig not ao dilBcalt to organ- 
lie and to extend organiiation ; bnt with Che 
periodlcallr recniring eraa of indoa' ' ' 



f an in- 

__ D direct 

aiitniion co anotbar fact which the labor 
moTemnnl laaehea in connaetlon with the In- 
Irodncllan ot the ayatem of high daea in 
unloni, that the greateat tuceeat altenda the 
effort when Inangnratad during "dnll 









nalDte- 



... igth ahould cauae u- 

concern. Apart from the benefllB referred 
to being of vneh neceiBBr? tbIits to the 

the adTantagee which come with tha pcrma. 
nent memtHnhlp In the organiiation, thara 
baa been no proce%a thna far demonatrated 
which win ao effectnallT preTent the loai of 
memberablp during dnll perloda u the pBT- 
oKot of high dues In the nniona, the build- 



ing u 


J ol 






a to I 


rt.M°brihe 




iiti 


n. the 


maeNa 






the 


proli 




of the 






all "caan' 


Itie. 










Beai 


at, the 






wb 


cb the 






entitled 






them that 


their 


inlere 


ata ars 


for- 




br 


remain 


ng m 


mbor*. 








time 


Ibair 




Bd me 


siberahlS 


BSd 


unity 






an° cl 


eck to 


the tend 




darin 


g an 


b period* to 









"'fon'move 
ir underitoDd. 



tbii 



notbinB 



30 Hi on 



:arl«d labor rau»t leam thai 
B-day world. In which there 
nothing, and that prngrcia la 



ea lojBlly i 

ly high dnee. in iIdk* of peace, to aiiiat 
those who are Buffering on the maroh and to 
nroride the mcani to rarB for the wonnded 
aniih dorinK 






Waring their woui.ded 



incorporating in that wa . ._ 

oa and InwB pro- whether we will rr not, and which act n 
.nfficient monthly thla priseipla. thereby proye their fltnaa' 



DigtizeabyGoOgle 



AMERICAN PBDERATIOK OF LABOR 



eT«uad, benoft a itroueer and 
(IBOl, PS 



eoDdition of the ' 



lOt I 



lUd be UDiuiiig to Dots ttw pecul- 
iar notions which obtnln among goma ol our 
tellow-uaioniBta, pirlicnlarli thois whois 
mambanhip la ol rscont dale, or whoie ei- 
perleneo is brief, u to their demandi for 
flnaacikl aiBlatanee whan thay ara con- 
fronted with, or ensaced in, a aliike. or ara 
locked ont. They an ovidantly tinder the 






B""from whlo 






fld fun 



. jeo. It la Baaaubiai lur 

.. .ontiibnta toward It while Ihey are 

employ ad dnrlng the period i of induatrlal 
tranquillitr. There are no nraana ao potent 
to the permanasey of organiiation, to eoa- 
Blant bettermeDt In the condition of tbe 
worlcara, to (he maintenance of indnttrial 

Eeam, that li, the prereiitloa of itrikea and 
lekonta, ud rat with all the Eradnal 
econonle, loelal, polltloal and mottl im- 

?0 InatUl tbe apirit of fraternilr and aol- 
Idarit; among them, aa to demand tbe pay- 
ment of higher dwa in the — -■— '-* 



1 corollary. Indeed, theP 



.ich they a 



culated'to maintain organliation da: 
ndnatrlal alagnatlona, oriaea, or panloi. 
torviTe avoB defeat In contaat, aa ia 
loaaeaalon of a aabatantlal fsnd raised 
he membarahip prior to the itagnation 
ronOIct. 

(190S, p. IIB) We recommend that 



ailon and hold d 



token of diitreaa, that inf 
tike an abatinat* iin.iEinr i 
oooSdBDca that I 



:t and break the 
In view of these 
led beyond doub 



of fellow-union ists, and 1 
Mfnte''BBcea""y and Sdva 



dues would not only admit the payment oi 
benelltl of aevera! kinda lo the merabera. 
but would be the crealeitl preTeutive of the 
deterloratloD of the eondlllDn of labor, 
would be tbe eaaleat and most practical 
method of obtaining Improvementa In the 



and aeeamplial 



theae benefleial Teanlt* wit^nt the neceaaity 

of atrlkra or loekouta. 

(IBOS, pp. 18-20.6) Uueb progreaa has 
been inade in the eatahliahmenl of general 
benefleial faaturea, the accumulation of 
funda and the reqnlrenraut tor higher duaa, 
but the adrance la not aaCijifselory. It ia 
not general. It Is the duty of all to make 



and thna inan 



of it a 01 
fellow »i 
to all mi 

(leoe, 

baaed on a 



the 
uity of our movameot, 
iDcreailng adrantaga ti 



)p. 6B-17B) A well-fllUd treasury 
turer guarantee of genuine tmloD' 
- 'ifty deelaration of principles 



week had beat be sent to Ibe junk heap. 
(IBOT, pp. 22-208) The imporlanee of 

atrlkes cannot be OTereitimated or neglected 
without aerious dftnger to tbe life of the 
labor moTemont. (leofi, pp. BT-SllJ The 
prealige and. power of tbe A. T. ol L. la 
growing each year. It ia reoognlied by all 
membara of aociety aa roicing the taopea and 
aepirationa of the organiied workera of 
America, yiu, the organiied and nnorgan- 
ired worken of tbe world. Twelve jt^ft 
ago hut B^ international nnloDa. 10 state 
hodlea and 62 city central bodiea were af- 
filiated, wltli an annual Income of 121,- 
808.27; today there are afflllated lie Inter- 
national itnlona. 80 atale bodiaa. RSS oity 



(Building ' 



depan 
Metal Tradai Eailv 



and Label Tradea), wjth an in- 
come at f2S2.3TT.a4 for the fiacal year. 
Nearly nvery intemational organ iiatlon haa 
greater power today to protect Ita member- 
ahip than 12 years ago, That atill greater 
anccaa* baa not been acbieved by a number 
of inturnatioaal oniona Is daa in a great 
meainre to the fact thai they were organ- 
iied and cDntinned on the basla of a aheap 
ier capita tax, a form of DTganiaatioc which 
alls to provide fands necirBsar]' for organ- 
iaing woric to hold and Inereaaa membf-nlip. 

the A. P. o! L. have formed^aiilons''Df 'arl- 



perlod than ealcolatBd _,-_ -, - — — ,--, 
en. But the presence of a good fund 
would have tbe effect of moderating the em- . 
ployera' attitude and jieranadlng them to a 



Nearly a. _ 

cuned In the IntematiODal nnloos having 
low per capita tai. Oontinned auecesa of an 
Intern at! on a! organ iiation can only be 
achieved by a per capita tax that will en- 
able it to protect its raembera, and tboae do- 
Sendeut upon them, in all eiigencles. High 
nee. weakly strike heneflts, out of work 
beneflts, aick heneflts, and old ago penaioni 
will hold membera In good ataudfng no mat- 
ter how distressing may be their eoadlllon. 
Intamational orgonliations without fond* 
have no reaourcea other than apaamodle ef- 
forts by strike to secure Improved condi- 
tions, and for saccess. even then, must de- 
pend on voluntary eontrlbutions of other or- 
ganlsationa to anslaln tbeir oemban. 

87) Nearly all >e- 
I occurred In Inter- 
low per capita tax. 
lOOS. pp. 



Dues. Jmr—CmoO, ] 



oyGoot^Ic 



HISTORY. BNCVCXOPBDU. SSPBKBNCE S 



with ths Amsilua FsdentlOD at Iiibor. 
Fmn tlH lund eontrlbated by oar othar dl- 
Mctlr sffllUted lockl nniona vi mads dona- 
tioai to tb» loesl nnlau ssd tlig caotral 
bodT of 8m PranclMo, u well u to tin or- 
taaliationa In Santa Bcia and 6an Jo«e 
vhieh snllend lois b/ tbe earthqnilie. ol an 
amomt pr^portlionalo to tbu mrrmbBrihSD 
upon vbleb they had paid per capita tuc to 
the A. P. at Ii. We ariio uppropniitod » aiil- 
flelent inni from the E«nari[ (uikI ol the A. 
T. at L. to pJaCB theaa oicanliationa in 
cvod Blandinf np to'AD(nit lit, asd, wher- 
arer It was naeeaaary, tarnlsbed 10 them 
trw of coal oew cbartsra and anppliH. The 
fortitude witb wbleh the paople there eon- 
fanned tbemselTM to the awful auROUnd- 
iugi oceaaloned br the calunitr, tba brnv- 
ery with which they endued pnTiliona, the 



in "uit.' dMl™ 'in the "MtiiUnee'S'ffch "ao 
T laoTemont by all foreee which 



iable right to enloy the 



and enoin and entarpTiaa with wMi 

bailding r — " - — 

.niLiQi ciiy by the 
attribnlei 9/ the 



Qolden OtM, toftolteat 



_.j little credit ia primarily i 

r the Older maintained during that gn 

■ ■ Pboeniilike re— ,. .. __. . 

nttituting the woU belt form of (Ofe 

1 iBDur muTBinoiit Mid lO the chief ' "~- -"' — 

I of the Btrlckec city of Ban Vran- 

C opinioQ aceordf to hav«d been the 



ectl^ and in- 

10 mOHt practical, safe 
Del through which' the 
imen of Korth America 
only to mA redrei* 
■ ■ Hch they can 

>a<tlon until it 
Klon ol its in- 
.__. that aloce Ihw 
ant Inouiry into the 
t haa been ita guid- 



., and the lilinola mem- 
ben ol OoDKToaa urrlng tbam to Inaitt npon 
the nleetlon of an Impartial commlaiion to 
eonduet inTsatlgatloD Into the Raatland dii- 
aater, and to oppoae creation of an alleged 
inTeatigatlng boij having In Iti member- 
(hip liny oMclal of tha Inapaolion depart- 



on the other band, are aa equally 

. — . ^rejndleea. ■ 

clualoni, m would b« unfaithful t 
duty we owe to mankind to do othet 
strongly reeomtoeDd a onutinoanea ( 
metbodx, the Inenicatlon ol which raea: 



— (19H, p. 475) We 

want, prlTatloD, miaery, aiiB'erlDg and death, 
fall moot heaiily upon tbe workers, and that 
In thli pretenC European war aa well aa in 
any which may lollow. we hope for apeedy 
peaea— peace with honor and lustice. While 
on expreaaion of dvsp aympalhy ia extended 
to onr fellow trade nnlonlata embroiled in 
the preaent war with ill awlnl eamaga, lor 
the making of wbleh thoy are not reapan- 
-"-'- *"• — --% forget that aordld grsed 

low' wage*. 



the beet intereata of the wark- 
^anomlc Arid of andaaTor and 
■nbordlnatad, ne^cted 
ataod lor honorable pea 

Bald, but »• demand Juat... 

the (nndamental eondltion tor all prograsa. 
If danled we hold onTsalvaa In readlineaa 
ts light for Jutlea. When Juatloe le eatab- 
liahed, peace will follow. 

Die Platfoim — (IBO6, p. 3S8, lOOT. 

Tin alma, deelrea and aapbationa 

t-unionlata eompriae all that la aecaa- 

' poialbla to the well-balDg of the 



:n 


a eompriae 






and 


higbei 


umao actl- 






rrom 


Kme ' 


will 


be enhant 


■.od 


'and ■£ 










demanda 




latisfy 


?^ 


a and daail 








-?J!". 



and 



He achoola. fre* text booka and con 
laducalton. 

rnlnntin? protest against the iaai 
of Injanetlan procaaa I 






'orkday of not mora than eight 

the twanty-fouT hour day. 

-let recognition of not over eight 

day OD all federal, atata or 

wort and at not leaa than the 

irevaiiing per diem wage rata of the elasa 

if cTnploymenl in the Ticinlly where the 

irork ta perfomiBd. 

S. Release from employment one day In 

T. The abolition of the contract eyatem 

in public work. 

8. The municipal ownership of pnbUo 
Ltilitlaa. 

B- The abolition of tba awest ahop aya- 

10. Sanitary inapaction of factory, wort- 



obvGoOi^lc 



AMBItlCAN FBDBRATION OF LABOR 



la. ThB luiiianaUistlQD of talacraph i 

IB. The p>t 

in itatoB vtaer. . , ... 

defenca ol them vbsr* tfaa)' Iist* baen « 
■Med Into Uw. 

Id. Womin. inffrace co-aqual with mao 

IG. SoiEabla and ptmtlfol ptay groimda 

16. The iaItlillTe and raterandam asd liie 
imperatiTe mandit* and right of raoall. 

17. Oontlaned asllation for the publle 
bath ijatam In all olttua. 

IS. QnaUfleation* in p«mit> to bnlld of 
■11 citiea and lowna. that thers thall be 
bathroODig and batliroom atlachDieiili id all 
houaea oi sompartmsDta used for habita- 
tion. 

19. We faroi a ayatem of finance vherabT 
moDD; iball be lasUF^ exeloalvelT bf the 
BDTemnient, with such Tagnlationa and !•• 
atrlcliona aa will pntaet It from manlpn- 
lation br the baokinr Interaita for tholr own 
priTdte (kin. 

SO. We fsTor a >Talern of United Btatea 
Oaianinnnt Postal BaTloga Bnnkt. 

(1918) SeTural of tbete demftada hare 
b«aii aosompliabed. 

BDoamnle Fowar of lAbor — (190S, p. SSI 

Bgrmd that the aienlie bT lal>or of Ita 
MDDOmlo power la, after all, certalnlj the 
KToateat po^er which oan be wl sided. It 

aclonaneaH of llB pDBaeflBlon and the wladom, 
care and nponilbllltjr In Itl eierciie, that 
have made the trade nnlon moTement ae un- 
derstood and eipresied by the Amerloan 
FederalioD of Labor (lie tower of ttreniih 
it li, eamlaE and deaarrins aa 11 doei ibe 
confidence, r^Apeet and well wlabea, not onl:r 
of the wago-worbera, bat of so Urge a part 
of onr people. Thinking men now reallia 
that which we haTa alwBTa contended, that 
Isbor'g Hoonomla. oorreeATS and eanitrue- 
tlTe poUej makM for the npllft of all the 



win nndonbtedl; do more In the Inlei^t of 
mant:lnd to hnmanlie the ham an family 
than all other aeenclea oDmblned. DeTotlng 
primarily onr effortg to the membership of 
onr organ it atloni. yet tbere ii 

can take for their protection t 
Tincement but whleb will hi' 
■pOQdingly beneflcDnt i 

organised workera and uuuu iub uioodi. .j. 
the paoplo. Beaiatance to wape redncHon 
by nnlon workera la llM check apon itill far. 

To aecnre an advance either fn wagea or lo 
prevent a redaction In boon of labor by 
nplon workera, le Co eorraapondingly bring 
theae advantagei to the nnorganiied toilerB. 

Wo can not obtain legHUtlv- —— •" 

protect the rights and iBlereal 
lied bat IJiat ic muat equally^ 






'-^r**?. 



eheck 



the 



and tyrannv on the 

„ !, 11 la the leaven foi 

npllft for «!1. It ■ ■■ 



e hand; on the other. It la the 
that the econorale power and Inflnence of the 



beooming poUtleally par 

national itato^ and mnnlelpal. 
the rank! of labor; man who are earneat. 
hooeat, IntdllMnt, and dneerely devoted to 
the oanae of the loUera and the people gen 
erilty. In whatever form or ahnpa the msa 
of labor may eiarelna their enor^ea uid 
aetivlllea. In Inception and raanlt, the elfort 
la for the eommon uplift of all, thongh oor 
political aetiTlIlea mutt of neceaiity now be 
primarily devoted. Co acquire for onr eeo- 

nral development. Our movem'^"^ *•■■ *"^ 
laked and will not aek at the h 



tbalr 



>mle po. 



all, I 



__. — _,_, , j---.„. .^hlch they can 

wield. The poaaeaalon of great economlo 
power doea not Impiv 111 abuae, but rather 
ita right uae. Conaelonineaa and poueaaloa 
ol leconomle power bring with them rtapon- 
albillly. wladoro, and care In Iia eiereise. 
Theae have made the labor movement i*f onr 
gngth iniplrlng the 



onflden 



t of tl 



of ilndenta, thinkers, and ^1 llbertT-"lo?lng 
people. The labor union movement aa on- 
darttood and eipraiind by the A. T. of L, Is 
the hiatorlo atrug^e of the toilen; it has 
brought light and hope into the factory, the 



- of onr 

le the brunt of bat He 
.ble Bcara of paat bat- 



llea. It ambodiea Labi , 

tiona for a bWghCer and • better i 
only for the (nture, but for today. 



powera in the economic field. Tbia truth bi>- 
cornea clear to onr minda when we conalder 
it aa applied to the individual poea easing 
those rights and powers. Let a man haw 
the right to decide when he It to work or ia 
not to work, and let that decision be backed 
by hia power lo keep himself from balng ob- 
liged by immediate necessity to offer bis la- 



wo povrei 
ad- beat 



Co an employer, luid the conaequenca 
: ba thai ha will not sell hla labor. 



that the industry c 
may freely decldia a 
hive in their hands 
dnstry a ahara restricted only by Ind 

















political 


itmggle. It la 




d. In ord 




itself 


fres. La 


hor is bo. 


nd by the fetters 


of nn 


ust laws. 


It U Lab 


or>s task 


to break 


thoK 




e by one. 


The Drat 


obe re- 


move 


are nac 


■aarily th 


ae which 





^v oalnful, binding. •—, ■^^•..^^v.,, u. 
Labor's rights snd powfTi. There mnst In 
justice bo no law, *ormul»Ced by Judge or 



DigtizeabyGoOgle 



EHCYCLOPBDIA, RBPERBNCB BOOK 



1 wid "the concapti dI tlbertj 
fnndkiDsntal pHooiptM of OUT 

Than mut be no Uw which can 

dapriie tb« laborar ot hi* i ' ' ' 
po*«r to imiehMS 



own Ubor pover vhleh « 
the OoBitltnllan ud t^' - 
tntpUad Id Uh fnndaiDt 



lh» c--- 



lishl OTBT 

nL from v 



uiitj. Tbers 



t be Jt 



i(ht _-, 

olnM •* vhl«h tt-a 

y« ontiined" ^^i? defwiiiB'oirVi'ihU, 



ths DB(SBib1» doetrlna Ihat ■ rlghl pertain 
lac to *n IndlTldiul ainEly beoomai > wroni 
vhen Bisrsiaed by him in combination vith 
Dtbar IndlTidDBla leftUy anjOTlDE Iha aama 
riiht ainglr. Thaia exam pin IlloArata 

Klinti at whkh tla labor movennjnt come* 
to BODlact wltji politic*. >i£ce onlf by 

■bronlad 

art* ho on 

lunlfeitly Tiryliit In thalr aBopa 

^•a ol paaea or war, ii tho laddmalB do. 
main at toTammanl, ao (be defeaie of Iboia 
Tichtt wAoh pBOtillarl* bsnr npon tha wace- 
workar la InarlUblr th* capaeial eODcsn of 
the tabor movenant. Wa #re Impraaied 
with tha oraivletlaB, howerar, that with lh« 
frM eierclta of the riihta whieh will leai* 
nnttBauneled tka T«Knlar and reeog^ilved 
fsnetiona of laad* tuloDlam. the workera ol 
tbta country win bot* forward by ' ■" 



bonnda to a fmori 

■ - "tx^ With „ 

ba pOMtued of the ooono 



plad 

ihar 

■raater ioooiMior"io"]iiatio^~Seedom"and 
betlar humanity, the coal of Labor' ■ aapii 
tlDca. Trade nnionlUB ia aalf-balp. Tho 
poaalbllltlea of Mlf-halp by lU mciini have 
aerer yot haen reaahed nor witb certainly 
foraaacn by any aattLOrlty howerar preielent. 
The diTldanda ttao* far declarod In Id hla- 
tory by trade nnionl^pi hara been Immeai- 
u-e^ly the hlchaat aTer known to anr more 
niant of the naprlTileced and deprlied 
elaaaaa. BTery trade or eallinc la eech ^eai 
■inaa tho formation of onr federation bai 
mOTod ita mambart npward from the atate 
in which they proTloiialT llred. In anry 
walk of llfa the man of thli continent roe 
ocniia tha bonaflta worked IhranKh trade 
unlonlam. By far the greateat of Ita baat- 
flta h>*a come thronch the eiarciaa of Iti 
Monomie power. Let that laaaon ba lakoii 
to the hearti of all worklngman. I«t thai 
thoncht be kept nppennoit with any of than 
when In dancv of bclnc Inrad away from 
union work by any poUlleal party, whatever 
it) name or 111 prataniM or Iti promiaei. 



are In fay _. _„-. 

tat Ira anactmenta ■> will enforce, by eom- 
pulalon. the edncation of children; that if 
the alato hai> tha right to enact certain com' 
plianee with lla demands then It li alio tbe 
ilcht of ilw ataCe to edocalo Iti people to 
tbe proper nndentandlnc r' — "■ * '- 



■ V-,"} 



'■We 



coeniie, 



cation 



Rlan of aoeial reform dapenda. Therefore wc 
iTOr lecielatoraa enact inn_lBWi eompelling 



paren 



(1804, I 



i fDndamenlal principle 

- every propoaed 

i. Therefore _wc 

»nd~lhoir"Bbil5p9n t 



1 ehonld I 



the 



4, p. ,-, -- . .. 

^tBhwiTd of tha labor moveniBnt In ordai 
that the maaaea mar fol'T roaliaa the im- 
portance of tuilty of aotion recardteai nl 
color, oTBed or oonnlry. (p. Bl) Compnt 
aory sdnealion lawa ahoBld be atrietly en 
forced in nary alato In tha union, an- 



108, pp. 1S4-31S) 

e oo idunttion. (pp. 2B-aSB) Esecn 

Oounoll dlFBctad to lecnre the Iniro 



> to tha Berries that the laborer r 
BOclaly and that will not taaeb 1 
doctrine that the wace-wrok< 
lie content with tbalr lot. becanaB 
ortonily that may be afTorted a f 



appreciate the (and en., 

iomo edncalional Inatltatlona _ „. _ 

atluntlan to the atndy of Iha tnde 






iTCmanl and tha eolleetlnc of lileralnre; 
It collecea ihonld ba enBonraied in civing 
tnrea on tha nibject of trade nniona bt 



which .., 

to preaent thalr rli 
~ -"— required - 



that Jnitice' reqitlrad 

the TBlna of thai 
■I tratnlnc ■: 



ahonld ho < 



il(U are invite 1 
I. Political laBuence 
__ --,— — JChool taachara to re- 
tain their poaitiona ihoold be riimlnated. 
W» alio belloTe tba labor movement wonid 
(flted b_y tha orcaaiiallon of the 
'nitice reqnlrad teachers 
— itod oomnvanaorate with 
r dutlea. The inbleot of 
id tBBhnieal edncation to ba 

-, ^lona ia of anch a general 

Iter that thli OonTentlAi conld not 
vvry well reeommand any plan or policy that 
wonId apply aqaally to all nnloni on aoconnl 
of tha dfvanity of condition and difference 
in iklU raqnired. Wa tharafore rwsonmend 
tbat tho mpaotlva nniona alllllalad BOnaidar 
the qoaation of initmetinc itf meubera in 
tbe higher brancliu of tha respective tradea 
and the promotion of the vBleienoy of ita 
memban and tha adoption of an apprBntico- 
Bkip syttem that will give the yontti of the 
eonntrj the opportunity of loaming trades 
tor which tbey are beet Btted. 

(IBll pp. 180-Seo) The lime baa ar- 
rived when compulsory education most be 
had. Tha different atates ahould provide 
by proper legislation that all children ba- 
twoan the ages of aii and lixleon years 
ahmild hf) nmvided with at loast a common 
and given at least tha ordl* 



the duties 0. .. 

tram eicperlBneo that exiatlnr ec< 
"'■ - ■» it Impoailble fir a 



ditions make it Id 
bar of famlliaa * 



chlldre 



duty 






the edncatlan they ibouM 

ind which thay wonld like to glre 
nd alao tbat a tmail number of our 
aulllclently alive to par- 
te their children and, on 

physicl ftTorti ' o™th5r 
support rathar than 



children foi _ 

edncate these childi 
good in after life. ~ 



Thla 1 



the 



equitable economic ronaiiione; 
appreciation of parentnl obligiitiL_,, __, 
wmnneratlon received by said parenti 
child labor. Wo raeommend that free 
in pablle achoola ba andonad and lb" 
lalnrea of tha country be end they a 



novation 
Itl, lack of 
3d, lack of 



I public 
children 



lo of tha atatea. We ..... 

ichoola for chlldroo over IS. 
SS3) Amorican Fadaratlon «t 



ovGoQt^Ie 



AMERICAN FBDSRATION OF J,ABOR 



tdtbar d>m*Dd* 1: 



■Bhool tAufaSTJ be smployod to |iTe ■ nai- 
onablB dsirta of pamnat atMntion to aaoh 
of tha chfldnn IntTDited to the eara et tlie 
knlhorlUai, therobj %ti|bliBg i leachsri lo 
qnalify a« a raal taacbing feres and ai 
coiuerTatori el ths graateil irtalth of onr 

(19IS, p. S21) aeaaral ndaBatloDal atudlH 
aod Teoalremanla et ichnol chlldnn ara at 
more tmponanou th»n to ths fntnrs welfaro 
of the -worken than lodnitrial sduMtlon. 
(lip. IGB-SSl-set) Endorasd tbeae ncom- 
msDdatloiu of Unltad Statei Indiulrial Oe- 
latloni Oommiiilon; "1. Ooupuliory daj- 
tlme oontlnaatioa lehoola for all shildrsn in 
indutrr batweon tha an* of 14 and IS 
Tean, tor not laaa than Ati honra prr wsak 
at the eipsnie of th^ employan. 2. Kight 
Bchoola tor all pennna ortr 18 Tsara of an 
dflsirooa of fnrthsr ednoatlonal epponnnl- 
tle> either snltoral or TOoatiosal. S. 
Standard! o( sfttcieney (or teachera." A 
compariaou of tbs Tarioiu countries of to- 
day ahowa that ths ootmtry that has ths 
crcataal powsr Is the conotry that has the 
belt confrol OTe» ill material and natural 
I, and whoaa citlieni have the dssi>- 
fnlleit aarth-knowlsdw. 
pp. 101-*1») Ws " 
ilia reqalrea iDorean 



"(1817, pp""l01-"*18) Ws oolleTS (he na- 
Jonsl eriiia reqalrea Iporeaisd^ ^^^haiia on 



ITOrliloni ahonld not be 
ina also lo higher edu- 
catfon ars not psaaaoriog. Thoie en the 
point ot gndnatlon. the oonnlrr may per- 
haps uaa now. Bnt it In reported that in 
■cms eoltegea BO per dsdI ot the itndsDta 
have been pcrmlltrd to snliet. This entho- 
alaim Is admirable but 1b many Unee ot 
work an additional two Tsara of training 
wonid dot" 
tha natlou, o.ou » 
point of rlaw. Maj ., _ — _.,- 
ihortaigbted waite of hamai) ability will 
be chnked! Againit thli mlinidsd diTsr- 
aion of our boyi and girls and yonng man 
and woman from the ichoola and coUegea 
to (he isdnatrial and military field, the 
Preaitont of ths H. 8,, ths Secrstftry of 
War, and OommiailoBer ot Hdacation bave 
Tiroronily protested. Bnt in many aeclionl 
a naadalroog pnblic opinion hai oTcrriddon 
their protseti and appeal!. Ws declare tor 
tbla priHeiple: "GdDoatad manhood and 
womanhood la the nation'i greatest asiet in 
both peace and war. And we must not sac- 
riSce BTSa to an emergency, tlis increased 
national efflcisncy which can be attoioed 
jnly thrc ■ ' ' -■----'—-' '--'- 



ing.' 



ay Its 



Ttdi c 



entiy call a 



1 bodisi, to work actively (i 
enlallon ot orgeniaed lal 
a ot Education. The trsa 
I ihonld bs eibanded to sac 
not adopted It. " *■ — 



There ahonld In 

" ia tlmely'to Insist 
loyally to oar rcnn- 
In onr pnblic ichool 
pnblic mnal carefnly 
ot-disloyalty ' — 



iltionl dnrio) 

_iimlBBSlB wit 

And, la thii 



tempt to sesnra rataUation tor a iolt-Teapect- 
Ing lack of anbaerTisnay en the part of 
tsaehen under them. Throngh the OoBLmJl- 



mediate incrsaiss in tsafihera' aalariea. We 
nrge on aU aniiatsd bodiaa aetiTe eo-Ofen- 
tlon. One of the most fiagrant injnaticea 
and moat dangerona weaknsiiai in oar na- 
tlonst life la ths oonlinned negleet of these 
Talnable pnblic senanls. We ars alarmed 
by ths lack of democracy in the conduet of 
onr tehooli. Oar American school ayateiD is 
adminlatered autocratically, tbe tsachars m- 
tually on the Job in the claaa roomi haTlna 
a nsfiigibls Tolce in ths determination and 
carrying ooi of poile*a». aelf-governiug 
school and diilrlcl conncllt ot tsaohers 
ahoald bs satabUahsd for the porpoae ot 
utiiiiiug ths eiperlenes and inltiatlrs of 
ths teaching body in ths oondnoC of the 
achooli and the racommeDdationa of anoh 
oouncili ahonld be made a matter ot olBeial 
record. Whan oonalderatlon i* givon ths 
eDectivw part played by ths Finisran achool 
lyatsm in the dsTslopment of the habit of 
Initloclite, Dotbinking obsdienee on ths part 
of (he maiaes ot the mopls, ths Tllal im- 

K. nance to American fnitltDlloDa of break- 
g away from Fruisian mstbodt in onr 
acbool lyitam ia drivon home. We bellsTe 
tha moM etrectiie gnarantes ot damocncy 
'- --- ichooii is ths afillatioi 



ers of the country with ths ereat dentoeralli: 
force of orgaaiiad labor. Tlie A. r. at L. 
urgea all afflllated bedlei to gl*a arery np- 
port to the American Fsderatfon of Tsaobera 



lu the work ot o 



of ddolt II _., „ „. „. 

Declared; "Organlied labor alwayi baa been 
tha avowed enemy ot ilUtsraey whether 



1 ayitsm 

ereatsd beeanae 

pioneer 

of last 

la became eomnlelely'eaiahllabsd" and thor- 
. igbly IngralDed in the hearti and braina 
of our people, it hu bosn with the grealeat 
prids that our mombersbip in every local 
community ot our country aaaumea it to 
bs H paramonnt duly to protect and advance 
the interest of education throngh ths pnb- 
lic school a and to do whatever ii permiaaibie 
sad possible to protect and advance (he in- 

Sustiy claitoi aootherr ei<edlt. Oompuisory 
edocatioDBl lawa have been enacted 'in all 
of the statea ot ths union but one— Miealn. 
SiPPj .^!.'°' A^" °°'? Isggaird. ^(pp. B7-_820l 

__ __ __. .,, J.' Labor , 

Bportanl part in securing the eatabliahmi 
of our free public achooli but from tha bo- 
Kinning they hate been designed especially 
tor the few who could go on to high school 
and college. They must eontinoe to olfar 
preparation lor high school and eollegs^' and 
labor heartily approves, and helped to se- 
curs the tremeodoua expanaion ot Ugh sehoel 
and college taellitlea during the last fifteen 
ysara. We espeeiklly endorss tire tendsney 



> i alia tent dsmanda ot ■ 

I public BC^OOl 



(abltahment of lunior 



(ibyGoOt^Ie 



HISTORY. BNCYCUIPBDU. ItBPSRSNCB BOOK 



, uitut o( 

addlUonal tnimtoi. (p. sai) W« fBTor: 
Til* nrorirfaB Ol Bdaqnata bidliU« lor the 
tMeliLif of *»!*'■*■ t» noB-KaclUh ipcftklDf 
iwopl^ ud tb* atnUatkm tot tUi Jporpo** 



1 adneatiai 



ehlldre 






■nd • 

>tsd It. Thfl 

■cbool > ~ 



r thB p 



to the^coramnnll] 
tcacban' larTicu. 
rsorganinitlaii »ai 

liftBli upon which 
our lehiwli alODK 
Truce, with th*lr 



DSllon of the 

r.1, un^tTidi-me 

of ichint nve- 

. _. J^ « th< onlT 

lenro I ho nipiiiiioa of 

■ ][noi. EngliDd >nd 

euareea ■trained by the 

id (aoing unprecedoDtad 

— - -iking hnfo Iti- 



«re«fcj'_a 
thai 



immodtate domuida, 

treum in the kppropTUtioni ___ 
■ehooli. SnrriT tho peotito who ni 
world eoneeption of frar, daraocrBlfo 
tioa niiia( not lonpir loiter behind. 



S0-84T] The 



ml Kin 

""idtoMl 



■Ion bill boci 

Indsatrlal ail ,._ 

■nd inpinrted br tba A. F. of L, I 
et icTiealtDral and niban Ubor. ' 

oredit of tha orfsniRd worker) in Indnatry 

Bdneattaa, Boardi of— (IDIH, pp. fiB-S20) 
Wa horewilh otTer ■ daalrable aeetion to be 
iDclnded In ■ itate law id aa to inime a 
wall balanced pepreaantattTa itata board. Wa 
■rsa that Immodials alopa b« taken br ani 
State Federatlona to lanus thii nee«iaT> 
ud etaentlal laiialatlon. 

I. Propoiad amendman 



a edncallon 



"That a State Board ol Xdacalion ia 
inbr eraalad, to eooalat of Ats mmbara 
■Ijpointad ^ fron the. (tate at larts: 



I appoint* 
naaben t 



-J to be repreaen.--^ . ^ ,_ 

, — -J be a repraaentatiTa of tba man- 

ntactnring and oonunenial intemta, one a 
repreaeutatiTo of the acrienltnral intaivata, 
and ona a repreaentatiTe of labor. The Goi- 
emor ihill appoint ihe m ember* of tha 
board for a term of Ato Ttara. In tha fint 
inatanee, one member ahall '^ ~ 



rf ampia pl^fcviuid 

e poblio Mhool an- 

lal and dental in- 

e aalioola. Tha oriaa- 

^Idnn who ai* ■ubnormiX either mantallr 
or pbraieallr; aad alao apedal elaiana for 
Chidran who an fonnd eapabe at maUaf 
~ >TS rudd PTBfraii than li poMlbla In ■ 
uidard ■ohoel. _ Bettor enloreamant of 

-„. — -- , ~ the eatabliah- 

.. complete aTatema of modem pbTil- 

eal education. Tha satabUihment of a fed- 
eral department of edncation, headed by a 
Cabinet oOcer. The wider oae of tba achool 
elaot, aecotlnt Inereaead retnraa to the 
imnollj Ihrongh additional ciTle. locial, 



tbiM year*, 



■ fonr 



■errieea to both adulta and 
pitbook 



. . pnrpoa* of ntiliiiqi the eimri- 
ud inltlatlT* of the leaching body in 
tne condoet of (he acboola, tha reeommenda- 
tlona of neb conaolla to be made a matter 
o( olBcial PBblle record. The leenrlng tor 
teachera of tenure of poiition dnrlnf; pffi 
titBicj. There Arald be no dlamiiiali with- 
OBt toll and lair hearing*. A thor-i^h-eolnE 
reriaion upward of teaehnra' aaiarr lehed- 
t the Inoreaaed coat of liTlnic. 



Balartai and dutiaa of Board member* t 
preacrlbsd aa local condllioni warrant. 
"l. LaflBlatiDa to reqiilre local Boarde o 



Lffi* admlBiitaring approred foeational 
Khooli and departmenta for inda)lr7, acri- 
Eullure, or domutie tcieace edncatloa iball, 
under a ichema to ha apptoYed br the State 
Edneallan. appoint a 
.- -impoaed of membei. 
tradea, indaatrie*, and 
sccnpationa. 

■'It ahall be the dntT of the Adrlaorr 
CJammlttae to cotuual with and adVlie tb* 
board and other aebool oBlclala haTini: tha 
EnanagemanI and euperrlaion of aueh achoola 

Bdncmtton, Indutrial — (IBOT, pp. 4S- 
SIB) We taTor the beat opporlnnltlea for 
the moit eomplata induitrial and teehnteal 
Bdncatinn obtainable far proapaetlT* appti- 
Eanta for adnlaaton into the akllled cratta 
sf thia eonnlrr, parttenlarly aa regarda tba 
fall poeaibilillM of ancb eraftt. to tha end 
Ihat anch applicanta be fitted nnt ""i- f-» 
all ninal reqnirementa, but all 



deep conaideriiloE 
and pmpoaad Indt 

may be in ■ poalli 



and pi 
that Tt 



and the EieentiTe Ootmoil 
- -^•- -■ ■ - aarlT a: 
jalabUah 



ion to fnfo 



D<T<(abt* 
L people. 1 



inlitie ende, now advo 



edncatlon In the DbIi __ ,. 

inpa i* largely compoied of tha 
. . .... -,„n^ ^j,o ^. 

a apecial prlrl- 
'eata the Ma- 



ranee indsjtrial edni 
lege nnder condition 



nnian tympatblei 



I akilled f 






(cab labor and atrlke-breaktng p 
naine the ehlldran of lbs workera again* 
the intereata of their ori^aniied father* — 
brother* In the T«riona eratls. T" " 

alao faTora the training of the b „. 

apprentice for ikill In only one induatrial 
proceaa. thna making the iradnnte a ikilled 

rendering him entirely belplew if lack of 
amplflyment comea in hia atngia anbdiTlaion 
-. - — I. m._ other group la composed 



1 craft. 



— jtber group 

. I ednoator*. enllgbtBned .., 

of organiied labor and partona 



obvGoOi^lc 



AMERICAN PBDEKATION OF LABOK 



cased In KoniilDe loei*! ■artlos, irha >dTD 
ealB Isdutiial edowtioa u ■ omnmoa lighl 
to ba op«n to all flhlldran od sqnal tarmi 
to ba proTlded bT gaoaral Uxatloo and kapt 
osduT tha aODtral of (be vbols p»opls wltb 
a malbod or lyalam al adncatlon tbat vill 
maba the appiantlee or sradnata a iklUwt 
crafCaman, In all tha braoobaa of bia lrad& 
Ornnliad labor baa (ba larcaat panosal In 
tvreat In tha anbjeot o( Indnatrial edueatton. 



bahalf o 



ih* fiDen- 

icil diTeetod U> appotot 

at leaat flltean BOmhen '- - 
cation of tba — "■-»- 
trial •adncatioQ 



■leata of tba 



cation of tba matbodi and mcani ol indua 
"^al •adncatioQ In thfi conatrr. 

(IfiOS.'piRG) Ths aBbjeet of odncatioB, la- 
dnalriallr, oonearna not onlj tha Tafa-aamon, 
bnt ararr Inhabitant ol the nation. It la, thero' 
■ --" imlnoBtlT proper thai 



the pnbllfl walfare. Al 

ready nforanea hu bean mada to the falie 
poaltlon In wUch lama alementa of emjiT'- 
ora wonld plaee our moTament apon this 
inbleet. Alf ws aak of fair-minded men it 

nml>'^l™onr own. "we'contand that adu 
calioa Id America moat bs free, democrati;? 
eondnctad b}, of. and for tha people, and 
that It man newr ba oonalfned to, or per- 
mitted to ramala In, the power of priialF 
intereata where there la anre to be the dan- 
gnr of exploitation for prl»ste proflt and 
wllfnl rapaclly. Under the pretence of in- 



<w and ipeelalEied training 

if the pnplll. the workeri, 

id people ganerally. (pp. lBa-275) Tbo 
eommltlaa apolDted br direction of tbo 190a 
(p. 284} CODTention made a report and the 
eODTentlon deelarad: The demand for anp- 

{>eraantBl teebnlcal Inatnictlon In oieaenred 
T the naoaaaltr tor tralnlnc In partlcnlar 
tradea and Indnatrlea. The chief aim of 
anch Inatmotlon ibonld be to preaent tboae 
prinelplea of arta and aeiencei which bear 
upon the tradea and Indnatrlea, either di- 
rectly or Indirectly. The economic need and 
Taloe of teobnleal training la not to be dla- 
recarded, and eocnlianee ahonld be taken 
of tha fact that Ibrooffhor- "- -'-•"-■• 
Inf and pi^ '"~ 

-lir twenty 

who attenda (he otbe. .,,_ — - 

echoola. There abotild be eatabliihed, at 
pablle eipenae, technical irhoola for the 
pnrpoae of civlnc aupplemental education to 
thoae who baTa entered tfa« tradea aa 
apprentlcaa. We (stot the oonllnnatice of 

SroareaalTe deTalopment of aoppleiiNntit 
rade adncatiOD, ai In aocn rated by trade 
nniana, and call special allentlaii to the 
work nndertaken by the Intwmational Ttpo- 
araphlcal Union In the eatabllahmcDt of a 
■ebool for the higher adueatton of Ita nem- 
ben. It la a practical applloitlon to a trade 
nnion of a necaailtT that eilata, and admit- 
ted. It It admlnfatared by Printpr-tntori 
who never baTo been allleted with peda- 
COileal eramp. and never eipect (o he; It 
wllbln the reaeh of enry man wllbin the 
IndoitlT, and haa ancceaded In dereloplnc 
tba latent talenta and of wideninc the 
aphere of uefnlmaa amnnc It* atndenti, and 
ouibt to appeal to every amhltloni printer. 



J that •dnoatora, aa well aa othen. 

of wide aipgrlanee, baiiaTe that, for Iba 

adaptation to an end, thia achool baa na 
eqnal. It alfo narkt a new era In ednca- 
tlon, and one of lU chief aaaeta, other than 
the edncallon of Ita atndanta la that pnblia 
and private latereiU are emulatinc ila ai- 
ample. Theaie nnlona have taken an eilcn- 
aion of education for their membera : Inter- 
national Typograpbica! Union, Electrotypera 
and Bleraotypen, International Photo-Sn- 
cravara oi North America, Prlnllnc Fieaa- 
inen and Aaalalanta' Union, IntamatlonaL 
Granite Onttera, International Horaeahoera' 
Union. Patlem Hakara' Leacna of .North 
America, and tha Oarpentara of Cblcago and 
Cook Ckinnly. We favor (he eatabllabmaiit 
of teboola In eonnaetlon with the poblio 
acbool ayitem, at which pnplla between (ba 
area of 1« and 16 may be (ancht the prin- 
clplA ot thB tiadea, not neceiaarUs in 
aeparate bnildlnca, bnt in aeparate achoola 
adapted to tbi* particular education, and by 
comnelent and trained teacbera. The coorsa 
of rsatmction In anch a achool abonld ba 
Engllab, mathemalics. pbyilci, chemiilry, ele- 
mentary mecbanlcB, and drawlnr. The abop 
iuatractioa tor pBrtleular tradea, and for 
each trade repraaented. the drawing, matho' 
matiea, mechanical, phyaloal and biolocieel 
aclence appllcabta to the trade, tba hlalory 
of that trade, and ■ aonnd eyatem at eeonom- 
iea, Includlnr and emphaalalnc tba philoaopby 
of eolteelive barnlnlng. Thl^ vin >erve lo 
prepare Iba pnpllfor mora advanced inblwctB 
and In addition (o dlacloae hii capacity for 
a apecifle vocaUon, In order (o keep aneb 
ecbooli in oloae tonoh with the tradea, (here 
ibonid be local advisory boarda, Inelndlng 
T*fpraaenta(ivsa of the Indnatrioa, employ era 
and o»aniE«d labor. Any (eehnlcal ednca- 
(lon of tha workera la trade and indnatry 
liclns a pDblie aecaaaity. It ahonld not be 
a pnrate bnt a pnbtle fnnctlon, oonduotod 
by the pnblic and tba aipanaa Involved at 
public coat. 

(IBIO, pp, aa-2T3) Ooniervatlon la one of 
the topica uppemoat in (ha mind of the 
American pnhllc today, bnt there ia one 
haae of conservatiou which ia not receiving 
the attention which It deearvea; T refer to 
(be conaervadon of (be brain and brawn of 
our Amerloan youth. Our achool syatema 
are i^tIsc only a one-aldad edocatlon ; the 
boy may go (o aeboo) and prepare hiraaelf 
for pnfeaaloaal or commercial lite, or he 
ma* drop out o( achool and enter a trade 
with no partleular preparation and becomp 
a mediocre workman. Trslnlne of brain and 
mnacle must »o together for the complete 
preparation of men. While the public 
achoola and colleEei aim only at (aachinc 

edncallon all I, la iVa Improvement of indna- 
trial intelligence and worhiag efficiency in 
(he American yonth. We need an »dnea- 
(ional nnlitt for the Tork of (he boy who 
will vork with hii hands, and we not only 

manahlp, bnt the lebool naedi the hulp of 
---'- - ind bia better v — "- '- -'- 



throncbout the V, B. 
of trade and vocational 

3771 Special committee 

(1011. pp. 188-270) Favored appointment 



obvGoo<^le 



msTORV. BNCVCUAFBDIA, REPBRBNCB BOOE 



tl iHlllknoD. Sacli IsEia- 
Ution ihonld «mph«Aw tlu nscMiltj for 
MiDtinnktioil K^oolt, hath of the p4it tima 
d>; tTpa for tha rooncai boyi md cirli, 
ud or tha «TBninK tTP* tor mora maturg 
worketB and ^or tha ill-daj trade prspvi- 
toTj lohoe] for hoji ud giZlt batmen 11 
and IS Tsara of aga. 

(iei3, pp. 137-3SD) Baafllrmad dedara- 
tiona ol leOB (pp. 188-276) coBTentlon and 
■■ ■- "--.rdlSi the Bctlpo of the 1910 



(p. ai 



I tor B federal InTeatisa- 
— .- ___-,jter Inlerail b the e' " 
' the as;000,0<}0 ehlldren of ■ 





in with Iba 1 


ub^ 


fact Dt 'industrial edveation 
Saininit, w« rahmit Ihat tl« 




■nal 


federal trove 










to tht> mattar frioEhC vtth 


HO ninch t< 




to the woi-karii. to tha peop!« 


1 BBnerally, J 


■ nd 




mtry. In 




iSd^ant^'Ji;™ can bV no"' 


tban"l.?e',T 




tlon of tha TTntted Blatea i 




nfldentandin(! and effec-KTs 


*ork In ind 






n-^T e>lablls 


had 



the ayatem of edoeatinf; the men and iromen 
enrciwred (n arricnllnre md horticnlture, and 
■ffordine the bent opportnnily for the «nn. 
and dangbten of the fanni-n of onr coiinlT'- 
•0 that they may beroma more intellieenl 



It will apply to the mMhanIc, arti- 
san and laborerg of the United Btltea I* 
the opportnnity of wladam. toreaight, econ- 
omy and broad-mindad lalf-Intareal and bat- 
tamnnt to extend the federal plan of opera- 
tion to indnatrlal ednsatlou, TOcational train- 
Inc, elTle rlghta, dntle* uid reepoaatbllltiei. 
(p. 821) A aarefnl raylaw of onr indnatrlai 
Gondllloni will fOTthar aildance that there 
are many indnatrlea which fonDSrly offered 
the workera opportunltlee far more than a 
anatananee or phyaloal ailatanoe, which have 
divided and lObdiTidad until tba voea- 



hool by lh» end of the liilh 

riada at appro ilmately H years of age. 
Bot only are we lonJronled by thii atata of 
afTain. but of the GO par cent who remain 
in Bchool only one child in three Oniihea 
tha eighth grade; only one In fire entera the 
high echool, and only one in thirty Sniahea 
the high achool cotiraea. Some lde» of the 
Client of this vaat problem can be gleaned 
wben it li raaliaad that the eoat of malnls- 
nanca of tbe common schoola of the CDnntry 
la »500,000.l}00 * year. In addition to thia 
nun there ha* been expended for the equip- 
nent In theaa aclujol planti (1,000.000,000 
and the benflti of thli enormona eipendl- 
(nre are enjoyad by only 60 par oent of Ihe 
ehildren of achool age. The paasage of a 
Tocatlonal education bill by Oongreas had 
bwen hindered by the activities of certaia 
Banator* who are in favor of another bill 
much narrower In icope and relating only 
to collegea and experiment atatloni, 

(IBia, pp. 58309) Exaentivo Council 
commended tor Iti efrorta for legialatlon for 
indnatrlal training and Instructed to con- 
tlnne tha work. (p. B13) DBpraeated the 
practice of eonntry high school Inalructon 
who ere arranging ao-c«lled short conraes 
In meehvile arta and eratta, to be taken by 
On atndent in connection with the cultural 
training that Is provided br the high school 
conrae, tharaby deprivinir the 'student of the 
benefit pDaaible to be obtained tbrongh the 

Kplfcallon of full time ia th» cultnrid 
idiea and giving him worse than nothing 
In return for the tima expended in taking 
tha ao-ealled abort eourae in manaal IrainlnK. 
(1914. pp. 90-847) Betolation paaaed Con. 
Kreai and signed by ttn president pro viiJ_ 

and report ■ plan for federal aid to voca- 
tional education and trade and vocstlonal 
training: This commission mads Its report 
to the Senata and Honna of Benresanlatlves 
as flirectod on June 1, 1914- The report ia 
■ valuable comprehensive ^ofnnn.nt >ind has 
been widely diatribated a 



tlon Itaelf. j 



Tha 



• Int 



..J. ia boci 
ir- increasing specli 



trial praetieus. which liml 

but one form ot sutomatic . 

them to a highly speclaliied br&nc 
is a vary aeriooa evil confronting 



tl^"^Ml 



mine a 
liiatlon 






„- . .-_«y. Aa speclaliaation In- 

creaaaa, this evil will logtcaily and propor- 
tionately increaaa nnleas stringent niesaoie* 
are adapted to prevent the evlla of monoto- 
nous and antomatic work. What good will 
come in Imparting Induetrlal education In 
our public schools, if onr children are per- 
mitted to be faatened to a maehinn, requiring 
but the repetition of a tew mnaenlar mo- 
liOQst Vocstionst edueatioa la not enough: 
Bitreme speQlallaatlon must be abDllBhed. 
The fntore industrial Ufa of onr children 

spent in a propur physical lad mental np- 
bnildlog. Then, loo, indnatrial edneaUon 
should not be allowed to co-ordinate Itself 
with any arrangement which will bring 
trained snd exparieneed workers Into any 
tradu without regard to the demand tor 
Ubor Id that pariicnlar trado or calling. \ 

E roper apporllDnment of the anpply of Is- 
or to the demand tar labor must be main- 
tsined. What good wiU Industrial education 
serve; what benaflt can be derirad, It by 

number of trained and akflled workws than 
is required or la poaslbls to be emploved 
respei^tlve trsdaa or catlings? Tndaa- 



trial 



;Xe; 

requli 
thoae 



• listing « 
ra. Indna 



mdilion 
ial Bdnca 



aenti I 



of I 



oploy 



the 



the nesda and 
and of the laduatrv. 



_ labliahmL , 

gcfaool system, there baa been a constant 
and persistent stterapt hy targe commercial 
Intereata to control our public aystsm of edu- 
cation, and to da it far their own seiaeh 
purpose. These Interests bave tried tlma 
and again to control tha courses of prepa- 
ration and of training onr children solely 
far the purpose of aaing them in turning out 
a maximum amount of artiolea of exchange 

to thiamaelvea. In substantiation of theae 

afTort mads a few years ago In C^veland. 
Ohio, and more lecentlv In Chicago, Illinois, 
where the commercial Inlereats succeeded in 
Inanenoing tha respestive Board a of Ednca- 
(ion to adopt mlai which denied our publls 
achool teachers the freedom of eiTireeaion 
and the right ot asoclatlon. To that de- 
gree at leaat, the leaching force ot our pub- 
lic achocls has haen rendered Bubmiisive to 
Ihe will ot theae oommereisl inlereats. 



(ibyGoot^Ie 



FEDERATION < 



LABOR 



to domiaita our pablis lehaoli' affikln. Im- 
pel yoor eomniittea to nttsr % word of 
siution and to tuUj mdyiis roa ttut ths 
future ot mar publla icbooli uid the chane- 
ter of t«i«biiig our boTi aud fftrii, de- 
pend larnly npou tba attitude aud exerclifl 
of the torcea of labor. It ll tor UbDC to 
Bay wbethor their children ifaail raeeWe a 
real education In out pnbUo ichooli, or 
whether they aiB to be tnraBd out h ma- 
chine-made product! Stted only to worli and 
to become part and parcel of a machine in- 
■tead of human beinsa vilb a life ot tbeir 
own, and a rigbt to IWe that life nnder 
rightful llTlog conditloDi. Parhapa ' 
vicioua eiemenl -— i-- .- i. 



ot indua 



nine to 
educat 



itlOQ 



Sublic achoola from onr -- 
emocracy Id ednoation, U the continuous 
effort made by the oommariial interaitB to 
place Induatrlal education nnder tbe direc- 
tion of a dlatlQctlrv board of manaeemenl, 
aeparata dom the board of adminiitratlon 

STornlnc the leneral education of I' 
en. A dlTleron sad separation of 



It Ignored the daily eipsrlencel ot the gir' 

that small percentage of people who desired 
truths (gr (heir own sake, to wbom only the 
esoteric sppetla. The ideals for the sehoDls 
of the futnre, the moTcment for tbd new 
edncation, inslndeB eien more than Toaa- 
tionsl and Induatrial edacatiou — it begin* 
with the Tery tDndsmentaU ot mental train- 
ing. Thia ladscatioD barlra with those Ihinn 
irhich apeal to the child and arouaa Ua 
osity iD the daily life, the aclusl mate- 
"--— -Kith which be coroBB in oontiot. 
> the aebools of the future are 
» uipiatn to the child in oidt.r that ha 
may have full and complete aodeiataDding af 
hii dally life and thereby he inaater of 
himself snd his environment because hs 
knows how to coordinstB his own iwiwDm 
Flowers, tmlta, animals, pieces i 



sb a diviai 
minds ot lbs 



Indlea 



I, will 






itrid edacatlo 
stead d( proving anpnlemenlary to om 
eral educstlon, will be loiAed upon ■ 
msln and most Importsr' 

education. Vocational sc 

at all times be undt^r miidanca 
control of ichool anthoritias hsving cuuhz-uk 
of the general education ot the children. 
The unit >yilem of admlolatration U best 
adapted to edncsting our cbildreo properly 
for their future goidsnee as cltlieai and 



Ing 



■ todies and reqnlremi 
dren. The A. F. of I 



est loo a) 



the workera than the former la struct Ion a. 
3. That Indnatrial education shall Inelndc 
the leaching of (he •clsDaes underlying the 
various Industrlsa and industrial puranits 

■oeial beartoia. 8. That all conraes in in- 
duitrial edncallon shall be sdnilnliteTBd by 
the asms Board of Edncation or TmetesB 
admin isterlnr tin (eneral education; that no 
federal leglalstlon on thi* iubiect aball ri^- 
eelve the spprovsl of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor which doea not reonlrq a unit 
system of control over all pabllo acbool 
atndiea. general sad Indvstrlaf. (pp. 1S9- 
821) Vocational training and industrial edn- 



longer dominate by political or relli^ons coti- 
trofi. bnt becsuse ot their superior ability 
to coordinate phyaleat foTDes and material 
reeonrees. Fow<ar, whether BBtioDal or In- 
dividual, Ii sommenanrate with tbs extent 
and the Intensity of_BeoBoinlo_ control ■"-- 



adence in himself and ma; vsi 
:he best sdvanlsn. Tbs prev 
a1 methods which havB not by 
1 replaced by the newer it 
nsrlly with ibatraetlona. 1 
L dealt altogether with the 



lure, are all m 


arvelons 


'and wonderful ob- 


juct. to tbe c 






curiosity; they 


stir 'him 


Ihey sre real. 


These ■ 


ihorid^'bo ''the''"!^ 


things with whi. 


ch educat 


tion deals: abstrsc 


lions should b. 


) introduced In connection 


with realities. Arithmeti 


0, raadlDg. apclUng 


■ nd knowledge < 




rces that have cie- 


ated the earth 


and Its 


present geoloitical 


slagvi can all be 


reached by nelng material. 


and the SDrrDundlnga of 






As the 


child giowa older 


there obJMt?'o*f 


.tndy n. 


stDTHlly lead up (e 


productive sctivfty and 


the nsit .tsga is 



r the 1 

fdevefop lija" hlKheat\bility o't which 
^^■= iddividual Is cspsble and will enable 
Mm- to approeeh a reallietion ot that ideal 
self thai always nrgei the IndMdnsi on to 

S ester progress. We IbBrefore favor: 1. 
intinuan;:e of the effort to secure (he high- 
eel and best form of education — arademlc, 
ir.duitrisl and vocational. Z. That edncetion 



right ot teaohera to have the tnlfeat oppor. 
Innity tor self-deTelopmBut and mutual aid. 
5. The riitht of teacheia to self-expiesaion 
by BSBoclBllon for their Individual and eol- 
hcctlve protection and welfare. 

(leiA, pp. 103-843) The Senate passed a 
bin provldtng for a federal board (or vDca- 
tlona! education, conalstlng ot the Poa(ma,s- 
ter General, Secretary ot the Interior. Sjcre- 
(sry of Agriculture, Secretary of Commerce 
and Secretary ot Labor, It la speclOed that 
the Gommlasloner of Education shall bo the 

la Instrncted to work in cooperation with 
thu Depsrtment ot Agricullare on studies 
concemfnK agriculture and agricultural odu- 

Indnst'rlcB. trade and indnttrlal , education, 

partmsnl of Labor. On subjects concernln? 



ma*™ 








to work in cooperation with the 


Bureau of 


hirabifi" 


Kdncatlon on conrfea ot atndy . 
llona in vocstfonsl anblects. The 




ous ednos- 






also specifles that: "There shall 


be aelected 


"la, °d™ll 


by (he Board, amoni other aaslst 








be 'genera! 


'liaationaU 




educational 



jyGooi^lc 



', BNCYCLOPBDIA, RBPBRBNCB . BOOK 



work, Bt ■ ultry of (T.600 yu jeu; m 
■pcdaliit in Kfrieullwal edoentioD. ■! ■ nal- 
azy of ST.OOO par jan; a i^aolalUl iD edn 
cation in tradaa and iadnatnai, at a aalar; 
of tT,DO0 par rMUi ■ apecialiit in sdnca- 



lu addition. 



I fol' 

_ 3oard 

— adTliorj board to 

t» compoied of aaTOn man, ona from tha 

and thru bom the field of (antTst k.ducpti<ij:. 
The said adTiiarjr board nay t" — h-j .- 



QaU I 



imea. for omplorara to conform to 
[airemenl for wbich our orgialiatii 
palnlj raaponilblt. II. theretors, I 



1 le eonld follow a 



loagsr parlod. Who: 

mlttad to be employed in ~laTraitata~o»:iipa- 
tlOQi, tha achoori and Ibe anplOfera might 
adjnit their procrami ao that children eoold 
alturnatnlv attsnd achool or follow Iheir em- 
flithar weak b; weak, bl-weeklv 
IblT. an'thp hunt nnri ninut nr.r. 



t tbelr sntira (ea 
. than , 



daya In one r>ar. Tbar ihall nceiva nc 
eompecutloa, but ahall ba paid their t»<- 
allnc aipenaoa and ihall be allovod (10 per 
dii7 tor anbaiateoaek UN aipaneca of Iba ad 
TiiDrr board to be paid ont of the appro- 
priation proTided loi in thia aeetlon." 

nan, pp. Iie-*1B) Tho federal Voea- 
tional Trade Traljilng bill beosme a law. 
The conTontion deelaivd: We orge; 1. All 
affiliated bodiee to aee their reipecH'e itai.v 
qDallfy nndar tha aot to raoalT* the federal 
appTopriatlon for vocational ednsalion, but 
enlj nadar ufanuda thai will adeqnalply 
Caaraotae thU lodanl mone; ehalt ben ell i 
ganniDiBlr demoeratio ednoalion and not be 
need to reinlarea anj inlereBta which may 
attempt to parrert mdnitrlal edncatlon to 
the poRHMM of exploitation. The chief lafe- 

Gard la the equal lapreientation of orna- 
•d label and •ntploren on all boardB wHich 
eontToI the ezpendilnre of inch fnnda. 2. 
Inercaaad faeUlUea la public normal ichoolg 
IDt men and women in the Iradeo who de- 
aiie to prepare IhemaelMa for teachine in- 
dustrial and TOUtloBil inhjeeti. S. Toea- 

clTen ahall be for adneatlonal pnrpoaei only, 
and nndfir no idrciun>lini»a shall it he 
eommeiciallied throngh the manufacture of 
pivdncti for Bala. «. We Inilit that in all 
eoune* or'alndT, and particularly In, indua- 

and Dbligationii of intelligent cftiienBhlp 
must be Ungbt more yigoroualy and eflec- 
tlyaly than hsi boon done In (he traditions] 
elTies. And wa further loiiti that at leail 
in all Toeatlonal and IndoatrUl conraaa, an 
nuemaaculated Industrial hlatory muat be 
tautbt. which will Include an aeeuiate ac- 
count of tbe oTganliatlon of the workgra and 
of tha naalta thereof, and will also include 
a lUmmsrr of all legislation, both State 
and Federal, sffectlnf lbs Indnstriea tanght. 
(1018, pp. *"■ " '-' '" — 



iloyera and, whsravar poi- 

larj ' Toltzntary (yatams and methoda may be 
adopted and put into practice pending ao- 
Ihoriied statQtory legialation by the slate 
hgislstarei. Wa call attention to this need 
because of another situation which confrDniB 
us. Tha Tederal Child Labor Law Tery 
wlaely prohibits the tranaportalion of Eoods 
la lateritala eommene if children betwmn 
the agaa of 14 and IB are employed loncer 
than alght houri par day. II la not always 
poaalhle. wpeolally during tha pratent war 



hich we tmphaslie here ia to spread 
mntatlve idea of Bchaol control In 



will feel a mora Intimate to 
act i titles of the trade nnlos 






Ihcii 



. . and merehanta. 

gently we preaa this method, the better dIT 
every community -wiU be. and tlB better 
nndanlan dings will be reached by all the 
active elements of society In the study and 
solution of weighty social and economic 

Frob>ems that will 
iture. The Faderi 
Education vrill. 



unqoBllaod Bocceas and geDaral pgputsril' 
of thia crest law has loaplred others to 
draft legialation, specifying federal sld on 
what ia known aa Iba iTfty-afty flnancisl 
bssla and jstUng for a aeparate, independent 
Federal Sosrd far ad mini at rat ion of such 
lawi CsQllon should be aierciaad on all 
new educational pTopaiala. Two defltiiti. 

Sropoaals are now under eon a i deration. The 
rat Is to anthorlia or enable public school 
authorities to brtnc about a butter type of 
physical ednsallDn and batter phyaical care 
of children of achool age whife such chil- 
dren sre Bltending school. Anolhei- ema- 
natea from the National Child Labor (;om 
raittcH, the proposal being to eitand federal 
aid to elementary achool education both in 



the act nnder which the federal govemmapl 
(urtberB vocational edncstlon are: It con- 
tains a ptaciical aeheme of cooperation in 
behalf of^ practical education by the fedcra' 

each stste free to accept or reject 'the fed- 
eral flnanela! sld. and at the ssme time, 
leaving the atates, which accept tha law. 



The aecond conaplenous feature and which- 
la preeminently original -with na in the 
United States is the fonn of adminiatrstion 
of this great pubUo educational truat. Tbu 
Tedarsl Board for VocallDual Education is 
site board of all the active alarattita 



-ilaly. , 



e of aerionltnTe. of edn- 



:b,Goot^Ic 



AMERICAN FBDBRATION OP LABOR 



^mbsri of th« ^^Midsnt _ 

rspmentlac (hs ipedflc etemuiU In MOltty 
of tti^enltar*, Iimt, BomnsTce ind ntnaa- 
tlon ve *1>o dHlxutsd ■> memlnn of tbe 
Fadinl Bomrd. TEii Ihlrd laBtars, (harstora. 
links ap rapr«iaolitl*« clrtUuu with rap- 
T«wnt»tlTa esblnat adnlDlttTaton. Wa an 

tTond and Jnatlj ao, of the part ire played 
1 oooperitlaa vlth proiretalTa cttlmni In 
othar valki of lifa to leeura tbli l«(laUtlon 
ot 10 much potontial Talva to tha joath ol 
onr nfttion. Wa an glad to toport that 
within all mootha aftar tin appolntmant of 
the Boatd, •Tary ona of the fort)'- light 
•tatoa had acsaptad tha pniTialona of the 
Tocational Edneation U», eithar by 1st of 



teachlnB indnitrial and TOeational anb}esta: 
and tha expaaalon of both alata and fedaral 
•doeational fadlltiet. to that wa will b« de- 
SFaaalngir dopondant on prlTate andownonta 
in ths sdnBafional fleld. In tMa connaBtlon 



9 l«Blilatnre or b; pninlMiTa 

, _ tnia, "fl 
laTinoad tu aU that tba t 



tho lUta laflilatnn. 



. ind that the paoph __ „ . 

I esgerly valtins for Iti •nastmanl. 
.SIS, pp. 07-320) Tooational and Indua- 
Eduoation haa been ^a rabjeet of blttar 



TTCOiKtmotlon it will 1 



naeeaaarr to add that laboc inclndea tha 
teachart, mnat not permit moiv. dramatlo 
phHis* of the war BitDation to blind thatn 
to (ha Impoitance of tha kind of treinlnf 
the childMn at the people leciaive. This 
coPTantlon approved the three model lave 
proTlding well-balBDoed repraientatlTe Blate 
Boards of Edaeatloa and AdTlaorr Local 
Committaea, and a Part-time Oompnlsory 
School Attandanca Law. All Stata and local 
central bodiea ara nrnd to mske eTerr 
effort to lecnre the anaetment of similar 
leCisUtion. These model laws ara carefallj 
drafted to aTold dnplicatlon of sdmlDlstra- 
lifq machlnerr, and to seoare nnlty in onr 

any attempt to modify the leKisUtion to sf- 
tord an opening (or a dnal system. Onr 

a nnlt if we sre to be a nnlfled pwple. 
The nppar yaan ot the elementsry schopi 
shoDld be reoreaniied to afford dfveraiffad 
trainlDg, BO that boys and fdrU who rnn" 
fm on to hlrher schODls, will recelTe trsln- 
fns apecifirslly detigned for their needs, and 

for a role t^y will neier play. Thane dl- 
variifled eonrsea sbonid be to flexible that 
a pnpil would be ibia to transfer from one 
to another whanayer ehanfces in bis desires 
or ecoaomlo sllnation made is possible to 
continue In school for a longer period (ban 
he had antlclpstod. We mnst not eompel 
a child to pay the penalty (hroughonl lite 
tor 1 mistaken decliiou made during chlld- 



iied 1 



shonld i 



I be1ia>e 



help < 



etpanalon and diieraiflcatlon of both 

l™eiooffratlc eqnsllly of opportunity for 
oreparation for tha CBllinga of their choice 
may be offered the ehildnn of our people. 
ta sdditiontl points in labor's induatrrsl edn- 
salional prarTam we declare for; The de- 
relopment of rocatlonal gnidsncs and indns- 
iriaf edneation In both urfa 

jmoeracy. The 

women In the 



telllfent and affective loadOTiklp In the 
bar moTement. The indatenoe thut Id all 
nrses of itndT, and parttenlarly la Indna- 
lal and TOeatlonal eonriaa, the prlrlleni 
id obli gallons of intelllKant eltlaaBsElp 
net be taucht Ticoronily and effaotlTelT: 
id that It leaat Gi all Tooational and b- 



, imascnlatsd indni- 

I' hiatory mut be taoght. which shall 
ndtt an aecnrate aeeonnt of the orKanl- 
. ot tha workers and of the nanlta 

it, and ahall also include a snmmaiT 

of all legiilatlon, both iMta and fedaral, 
sffeotlng the tndtutrlai tasfht. 



thereof, . 



JdBcatloii, I 

(I90B, p. r») < 

dlacnia mora practical and sclantitlo 

ods of arricDltnre, and Incidentally tha nti- 

natlon or laborers, was repo--' - - 

President of A. P. ot L. 

from KinE of Italy thanking him 
snce giTeo in launching project. 

BdDcaUoii of Worken, B 



s Toported ■ laeceu. 



Xipafestibfi 

he fo'nuT'find* 
himself up 
aa well as i 
SducaUon, Fait 



to hJB lite 
linms where 
a and build 

PP. ai- 



— eonotrr itaoda badly in need i. 

Judicious. pracEissl part tlDie edneation and 
part time employment state le^ilatlon, and 
the organliad labor mOTOment mut take 
the Initial and original itep In this dir*)- 
tiDQ. Borne of onr statu, auch aa Pennajrl- 
vanla, New York, Indiana, and WIseoDeIn, 
hare sireadf upon their statute books some 
form of legislation intended or expected to 
help or control children who have reached 

who contemplata undertaking aome employ- 
ment. It li onr belief (hat a model state 
nart-tiirm law should ha prepared and urged 
■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ B leglsti- 



this >Bgls1i 



•.-..Xi 



i^edge. 
4 of It 

ir pnhlio schoo 
lachen the safer 
a tol lowing Is si 



.__. __ children lesTlng 
, _- deprived of »1! their op- 
portunities lo improTB their edneation and 
secure more ,_ now e ft. «j,^"^^ Mntart 
Ind our public 
cirlliiallon will 
iwing Is suggested as a modal 
. _ licatren Law lor Btate use: 
"Any city; town, or district establishing 
Tocational. trade and Indattrlal Bchools, de- 

t hereof part-time daises for the edacsiion 
of minors oyer foarteen years of age who 
are engaged In mgnlar employment; and 
Iha Board of Zducatton or trosteaa or other 

school ihsll reqnlra all minora between the 
ages of fonrhsen and sixteen yean onipioTed 
i^lhln such city, town, or dUtrict, or mlnort 
betwBen the ages of tOuTtean and aliteen 



„Goo<^le 



HISTORY, BNCVCLOPBDU, RBPSRSNCE BOOK 



run mldlss within neh ci(r, town, or 
dlitriet u)d emplayed alvawtigTB, wlio btc not 
othvrwlie r««lTiDr initmotlon apprDTBd hy 
thB atata Board tor Toeallonkl fcduoatlDa. 
to alCond itioh patt-tliaa alauo* not lu* 
than (out hoon per w*«]e, batwaon tha honn 
dI slEht A. M. and fire F. M dnrinf Ihs 
■cbooT term. Ths tlma Ipsnt bj any nsb 
fflinoT In » Toealianal ichool or clau aa 
pioTided herein ihall be raakosed as a part 
b( the time or unmber o( ham (hat minora 
■re parmilted b; Uw to work. An^ mlocr 
attandlnc ■ laaatlonal aabool or elaai in the 
eilT, town, or dtetriot of hit raaldence in 
prenroBM to attandinr anob lobool or olaia 
in tho el^, town, or diatriit of hie tm-pioy- 
mant aball (lie, or »sia to be llJftd rstolorlTi 
at leatt ono* a nonth, with tha anparin' 
tendant of the cltT. town, or diatiict at 
whith each minor la emploi«d * raport of 
attendance, cartldad br tha mporlntandast 
of tho oitj, town, or diatriet in which anch 
minor ia attandin^ achool. 

"Tba omplojar of uijf nlnsr betiraaii fow^ 
toon and iixtoan jau^ of an who ia com- 
pelted, bT tba prorliloBa of thla act to al- 

forthwitb to amploT any minor wh«i notiflsd, 
in writing, by tSa 
Jnriadietlon o*ar mu 

■ehool In accordaaM with the proTiBioDi i>' 
thii act. An; •■rplojn' vlio 'alia to eom- 
pl7 with tha proTldaiia ol thia aaotlon aball 
upon oonvlctiou, bo pnnlahad bj a dne of 
not laaa than ten dollari nor mora than one 
hundred doUari for aach oCenae."'' 

Blaht-How Ow— 
Oar bannert wai 

Bnt OTor man ___. 

Tha wealth we maka la onr'i to take. 



Each n 



1 eqiul ihara. 



n ibipjarl, ilup and mill, 

El|^t honr* for work, aliht honra tor reat 

ElKbt honia for what w« will. 

Agitation for the eight hour daT began ii 
the Unt eoDTantlon llSSl, p. 14). whlel 
declared: "Qraap one Idea, Vii., leaa honn 
and batter pa;." 

(ISSS, p. 14) "The eight honr da; 
fornlah more work at tncivaaed wagei. 
dselaro It will permit tha (loaaeaalDn 






will 






r the 



Thia meana atl nnlona rafuaad tba ahortar 
workday ihoold atrike. 

(1S8G, p. 0) K. of L. had boan reqoaatad 
to oooparata with the A. F. of Ii, in the 
algbt honr atrike bnt no anawar waa re- 
caiTed. (pp. 11-13-14) Workmen who, in 
(heir endaaxor to nform the praTaillng eco- 
nomie oonditioni mnit reW on tbemaalTea 
and their own power aielnalTelr, hare 
fonud an asho in (he hearts of all organ- 
i»d man a( (he eonntr/ who are fighting for 
a principle and are willing to maka laori- 
Aoea to aacnre improTementa for thftraieWai 
ind their (allow ' 



nnder Joriadlctioi 






° X"*"' 



(adoration 



I (hey 



. Uarcl 



t taken 



called B 

what a. 

tha elgbt honr dar 

having determiaeil 

woikdraT are reqnailad to aailst tnoae 

have with all the power at their comm. 

proTided. that, togolhar with Ibe redoi 

a( the honn of labor, thai do 



1S80, 
o intntdnco 

(he ahortar 



I inc 



tha 



s of 



iODlng of 



rodnetion in t 



■nparlntandent baring 



iDdnatriea and aome of tha I „ 

in oarlain loealitiaa) we naTerlhelao claim 
tha eight honr agitation waa (ha meana of 
reducing (tn dallv working time of no let) 
than 200.000 worker! in i^dnitriea working 
^ten honra or more a dar (o twelre, ten and 

tagei obtalDed are plainly apptrant. Uncb 
faoatUity baa bean mat from auployara. al- 
though the reduction in houra waa accora 
panlad bj a correipondlng raduolion in 
wagea. Bnt nKcient baa bean gained for 
an InrontlTo to renewed afforta, and wa rec- 
ommend atlll further radnotng of the work 
ing time." {p. ») Urged all aOUaled 
oniona to (ako action that will bo binding on 
erary member ao that harmonloua and join) 
action may be aanurad, (he "primary object 
to be the recognition of the eight honr aya- 
(em, and (hat (he qnoMlon «f w>fa> la lor 
tha time being c( ioeonduT ImponiBoa." 

(18BT, pp. S-2S) Oalhd attention to tha 
rapidly laereaelng number of nnanployed 
bseanaa o( tba fntroduetloa of mHthlnery 
!■ i( not time aomathing be done to recUln 
fnim miaary the many thouaanda of good 






only (i 



lit ia they 



r thnnr out of order tha praaont wage aye- 
am o( labor. It la a maaanre that will par- 



ally . 



eelrii 



. ... itb ready and iritling 

lopply their wtnta, but — " — 
ring (ha ateraotyped rep] 



create tho wealth of all wage 
And it will after a few yeara 
marge tha wage ayatem Into * a 
indnatriai eoopantion in which w. 



..., „ . r to eiffht 

{p. 16) Declared the "qneadon of thertan- 
inr tha honra of tabor fa paramount (o all 



„ jteraotyped reply in 

t_helr aP^Mla for_wqrk; ''No 



.,... „ mot hy r 

duoing the honra o( labor and thia aoawi 
'- auggaated (o be gtven all opponen(! o( (I 

— '-■ij: ''That to long ai (here 

n it tha -"^ ' ™P?'"" ^ ?""' 






) It ii 



■ of 



IBSe wai not 
object tho ImproTO- 



Dnd atbnnpt. It li alway 
am (o aehlare any tmprOTtiuiiiijL, um [dt 
benellti we gained tn ISSfl and lince then 
by reaaon of the qight honr mOTomont are 

tore again. Wa ahonld nat loa* ^ght of Ik* 



(ibyGoOt^Ic 



FBDESATION OF tABOR 



tact thit u a mnlt of thg siOTsaMDt In 
isee ■ nnmbsr of Indai liaTa radaead thaii 
hooTB from ten uid twelTB to elgbt; otbsri 
tron twelT<a and fonrtMn ts tan and nioe, 

that tlma vorkud' fourteen to etghtaon houri 
a day ha*a bad their bonra of labor ra- 
dnowl to tmWe. Ubt 1, ISfiO, vaa aalaelad 
Bi (he data for another (enaral demand bj 
all tradea for the airht honr in. The 
profraa for a^tatlon adopted proTldad for 
maa> mBatlnga Wsihinrton a Birthday, Vonrth 
of July and Labor Dar br all labor orianl- 
latlona to acitata for tba aborter vorlidaf. 
The ExsentlVe Oatmcil va> Initmeted to 
■ather ttatUtlu or the bonrs worked hj the 
Tarioiu tradea and to aend circulara to all 
emptorera reqnsatine (bem to nnet rvpre- 
aaatatlTea of labor ao tbe rednetloD of honri 
coDld be brought about br Mendlr airanga- 

(I'SBB, pp. 11-lG-lO) Tba eight honr move 
ment bad raaobed tremeadona proportion a 
In the whole hlftory of the labor moTsmanl 
tbiare bad not been any qneation npon 
whieb the tbonEhti of tbe ciHJlied world 
bad been as tbDrongbl; centered. In ISaS 
the combined force* and Inflneneea of the 
employing and apwtnlatlTa elaasea ao (bor- 
ooghlT bald tba maater band over Ubor, theT 
bad bscoma ao orerbeariDc. bad ao thor 
onghly awed the working people Into anb- 
miMlon that anur maat&lK nlEht of labor 
oTganiiatlona wai but the repetition of tb« 
Tariona notice* of a radnetion in wagaa. the 
impoalllon of obnoiloDI mlea, tbe preaaota' 
tlon of IroDclad obligationa to algn awar 
tbe right (s orgaDlia for nlf-protectlon, 



Hope WH ina tilled into 



ebange i 
to tba 



tanncb In their manhood. ,Tha tidt 
banged. Thja refntea tbe ld>a talk ol 



and t< 



been (ranght with good reanlU. To further 
organiiatlos and the agitation for the eUbl 
bonr day 60.000 coplea of pamphleta writ- 
ten b7 the beat economic IhlBker) were 
dUtribnted. They were: "Tba KIrtt Honr 
Primer," by George E. McNeil; "The Eco- 
somlfl and Social iTpportance of tbe Elicht 



or more Iradee to make the atroMle lor tba 
thorter workday. (pp. ae-80> An aaseas- 
Ita a member per week waa 
rt the trade* thai woold en- 

^ .■ workday itmggle. To all 

who lOTo liberty end are loTal to tbe prln- 
elplea of free BOTerBmBat; to all who look 
forward to an incraand wealth mora widely 
dlatrlbnted; to all lorara of the hnman race 

So^Tnler'tba banner"™ o?nnliad*l«bDr, 
we appeal in tbe name of Jnatlee and hu- 
manity, of Increaaad wealth and dimlniahed 
poTarly, to concentrate their eneririea upon 
tba aingrla laane of rednetlon of lira honra 
of labor. Tha atltatlon for tbe ahorter 
workday apraad to EoTOpe. Tbe Intern ■ 
tlonal Labor OongreN at Iti t "~ ■ 



1 aympathy with tbe laboi 
" ■■ Toled to hold llmnl- 



itloM ( .__ . _ ._, 

Ing iDdutTT. The eatabliabmei 
tight honr day will not be the < 
sffort* of the working people foi 
and loelal iBprOTemeali and refi 
Lhe great good a tmbatanr 



im pOTBrty and degradation. 

(0 aee the wronga and injnailce practiced 
on thtm In anblle arid ingeniona ways, (p, 
42) To all who haie ald«d in the trinmph 
of orgBEiied labor the X. V. at h. tender* 
Ita moat hearty tbanka and aummona them 
BQBir to gfaoder flelda of action. Kifht 
honra ia the Toiced inatincl of tba hnman 
nca. It ineani tba aeiantlUa, economio. 
peacetal aolutino of the labor problfan along 
tbB Una of Indnatriat dCTelopment. It mean* 
more wealth today and more tomorrow, tha 
added wealth keeping pao* with the io- 
craaaed raloa of each honr of toll. Th< 
mioera wure cboien to make the next flght 
for the ahprler workday May 1, ■"" ' 



flght 

honr 

aid the 
il Mai 1, 

__ ._. __. r. oil L. 

ratponed. Tha Inter- 
. _ Onion had prerionely 

itponed a aborter workday atrike bwianaa 



... An eight L.._ 

(IRSl, pp. 12-4fl) Agitatli 
minara' atruggle wa* contlnmi 
1891. when they Dotlltad tbi 






.The tide had 
' ■ ■■ - fall- 



lasi. when they 
omclala It had bai 
national Typoi 

Soatponed a a ... 
la minora had 

Gouneil reqnaatBd to aelect another trad« 
to make tbe eight honr oampalgn May 1, 

isez. 

(laOE, pp. 13-20) Declared It 
bIto movament for the eight honr aa 
agitation had etirred np the country, 
a defanalTB atanri thu Uhnr TnoTami 

1 tba 



1 •«L»f 



improved 



r. 



aggreaaiTs, which had hronght 
indltlana. Afflllated organSa- 
i to aet aalds a portion of their 
tai to be ready for action. There 
«meal or demand In the lntere*t 
__ ._, ...lera which tba afforta of all can 
be ao tboronghly nnltad aad concentrated 
or on which there ta ancb unanimity of 
thonght. 

(1S98, p. 11) BlDCfl Augnat of tbi* year 
we biTB bmn In the graateit indoBtrial de- 

Srsaalon this country hat BTar experienced. 
L Is no exaggaration to aay that mora than 
tollara throaghont 

time named 



I coQDtry I 



Thi* 

1 ttrih- 

tha 

tb* 



lamentable Indnatrii. . 

ntfld by many to rarlaua cauiea. 

tlma Indnatry began to emerge i 

panic of IBTS-Ta